Advanced MRI analysis to detect white matter brain injury in growth restricted newborn lambs

We examined whether advanced MRI analysis techniques have the capacity to detect brain injury (particularly white matter injury) caused by chronic hypoxia-induced fetal growth restriction in newborn preterm lambs.MethodsSurgery was undertaken in twin bearing pregnant ewes at 88–90 days gestation (term = 150 days) to induce FGR in one fetus. At 127 days gestation (~32 weeks human brain development), FGR and control (appropriate for gestational age, AGA) lambs were delivered by caesarean section, intubated and ventilated. Conventional and advanced brain imaging was conducted within the first two hours of life using a 3T MRI scanner. T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) structural imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data were acquired. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) modelling and analysis of dMRI data included the following regions of interest (ROIs): subcortical white matter, periventricular white matter, cerebellum, hippocampus, corpus callosum and thalamus. Fixel-based analysis of 3-tissue constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) of the dMRI data was performed and compared between FGR and AGA lambs. Lambs were euthanised immediately after the scans and brain histology performed in the regions of interest to correlate with imaging.ResultsFGR and AGA lamb (body weight, mean (SD): 2.2(0.5) vs. 3.3(0.3) kg, p = .002) MRI brain scans were analysed. There were no statistically significant differences observed between th...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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Source: The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
ConclusionEclampsia secondary to a pregnancy-induced hypertension seems to be secondary to a hypertensive encephalopathy with vascular origin cerebral edema in the majority of the cases; however, the association with a vasospasm can exist.
Source: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: MRI has excellent inter-observer variability in detecting the presence and depth of placental invasion, while the agreement in describing the topography of invasion is less. The findings from this study highlight the need for a standardized MRI staging system of PAS disorders, in order to facilitate objective correlation between prenatal imaging, pregnancy outcomes and surgical management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31237043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Ultrasound Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
sanne R. de Rooij Antenatal depression is associated with an increased risk of offspring neuro-developmental disorders, potentially as a consequence of an altered brain development in utero. We hypothesized that reducing maternal depression by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) during pregnancy may ameliorate the offspring’s brain (micro)structural outcomes. 54 pregnant women with a diagnosed clinical depression were randomly allocated to CBT or Treatment as Usual (TAU), showing moderate to large depression symptom improvements after CBT. In 16 of their children (69% boys, N(TAU) = 8, N(CBT) = 8, mean age = 5...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion: Patients with isolated thalamic atrophy were at a higher risk for not reaching 2-year NEDA-3 and for EDSS increase than patients with no identified brain atrophy. The groups were clinically indistinguishable. A single measurement of thalamic and whole brain atrophy could help identify patients needing most effective therapies from early on. Introduction The quantification of brain atrophy by MRI has become an increasingly important part of evaluating neurodegeneration in MS (1, 2). Atrophy measures can reflect the damage on the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the pathological processes of the dis...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Einar A. Høgestøl1*, Tobias Kaufmann2, Gro O. Nygaard3, Mona K. Beyer1,4, Piotr Sowa4, Jan E. Nordvik5, Knut Kolskår2,6,7, Geneviève Richard2,6,7, Ole A. Andreassen2, Hanne F. Harbo1,3 and Lars T. Westlye2,7 1Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway 2NORMENT, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital &Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway 3Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway 4Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway 5Catosenteret Rehabilit...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIsolated talipes detected on prenatal ultrasound carries a generally good prognosis. The incidence of additional abnormalities detected on fetal MRI, aneuploidy, or neurodevelopmental disability is relatively low. However, longitudinal ultrasound assessment during pregnancy and a thorough postnatal evaluation is recommended to rule out associated anomalies which may significantly impact short ‐ and long‐term prognosis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Systematic review Source Type: research
[Contrast media - Guidelines for practical use]. Radiologe. 2019 Apr 25;: Authors: Krestan C Abstract Contrast agents have become an indispensable part of everyday life in diagnostic radiology. In multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), they provide essential diagnostic information, especially for vascular, inflammatory or oncologic diseases, which otherwise could not be answered. The two most important groups are iodine- and gadolinium-containing contrast agents. Rare side effects include PC-AKI (post-contrast acute kidney injury); more common are allergic ...
Source: Der Radiologe - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study provides support for the notion that non-judgmental attention to the present moment facilitates the integration of regions in neural networks that are related to cognition, attention, and sensation. Introduction Originating in Buddhist traditions, mindfulness training has made its way into Western culture as a method to reduce stress, enhance emotional regulation, and reduce symptoms in a variety of mental health disorders (Teasdale et al., 1995; Farb et al., 2012; Cavanagh et al., 2013; Tabak et al., 2015). Indeed, mindfulness has been shown to reduce symptoms of depression (Chiesa et al., 2015), bipol...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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