Ghrelin in Alzheimer's disease: pathologic roles and therapeutic implications.

Ghrelin in Alzheimer's disease: pathologic roles and therapeutic implications. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Aug 18;:100945 Authors: Jeon SG, Hong SB, Nam Y, Tae J, Yoo A, Ji Song E, Kim KI, Lee D, Park J, Lee SM, Kim JI, Moon M Abstract Ghrelin, which has many important physiological roles, such as stimulating food intake, regulating energy homeostasis, and releasing insulin, has recently been studied for its roles in a diverse range of neurological disorders. Despite the several functions of ghrelin in the central nervous system, whether it works as a therapeutic agent for neurological dysfunction has been unclear. Altered levels and various roles of ghrelin have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the accumulation of misfolded proteins resulting in synaptic loss and cognitive decline. Interestingly, treatment with ghrelin or with the agonist of ghrelin receptor showed attenuation in several cases of AD-related pathology. These findings suggest the potential therapeutic implications of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of AD. In the present review, we summarized the roles of ghrelin in AD pathogenesis, amyloid beta (Aβ) homeostasis, tau hyperphosphorylation, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial deficit, synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Additionally, we addressed the roles of ghrelin in the behavioral/psychological symptoms and metabolic syndrome accompanying AD. The findings from this review suggest that ghrelin has a n...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

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Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
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The degree to which Alzheimer's disease is a lifestyle condition is an interesting question. A good deal of research points to insulin resistance in the brain as important in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, to the point at which one group declared Alzheimer's to be a type 3 diabetes, a condition that should be thought of as primarily metabolic in origin. That idea gained enough traction that when a definitively new type of diabetes was discovered, it had to be named type 4 diabetes to avoid confusion. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are a consequence of being overweight in the vast majority of patient...
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In conclusion, it remains unclear if brain-specific regional and temporal changes occur in the expression of the different APP variants during AD progression. Since APP is also found in blood cells, assessing the changes in APP mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells from AD patients has been considering an alternative. However, again the quantification of APP mRNA in peripheral blood cells has generated controversial results. Brain APP protein has been analyzed in only a few studies, probably as it is difficult to interpret the complex pattern of APP variants and fragments. We previously characterized the soluabl...
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I recently collaborated on a review paper covering the history of clinical work on upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as an approach to therapy. This is of interest to the aging research community because NAD is important to mitochondrial function. NAD levels diminish with age, alongside a loss of mitochondrial function that is known to contribute to the onset and progression of many age-related conditions. Animal studies and a few clinical trials have indicated that increased NAD levels may improve, for example, cardiovascular function in older individuals, as a result of improved mitochondrial functi...
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Abstract Various inflammatory stimuli are able to modify or even "re-program" the mitochondrial metabolism that results in generation of reactive oxygen species. In noncommunicable chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular pathologies, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, these modifications become systemic and are characterized by chronic inflammation and, in particular, "neuroinflammation" in the central nervous system. The processes associated with chronic inflammation are frequently grouped into "vicious circles" which are able to stimulate each other co...
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Neural Regen Res Source Type: research
In this study, we sought to elucidate the role of VRK-1 in regulation of adult life span in C. elegans. We found that overexpression of VRK-1::GFP (green fluorescent protein), which was detected in the nuclei of cells in multiple somatic tissues, including the intestine, increased life span. Conversely, genetic inhibition of vrk-1 decreased life span. We further showed that vrk-1 was essential for the increased life span of mitochondrial respiratory mutants. We demonstrated that VRK-1 was responsible for increasing the level of active and phosphorylated form of AMPK, thus promoting longevity. A Fisetin Variant, C...
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In this study, we examined the effects of oxytocin on the Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity in mice. To investigate the effect of oxytocin on synaptic plasticity, we prepared acute hippocampal slices for extracellular recording and assessed long-term potentiation (LTP) with perfusion of the Aβ active fragment (Aβ25-35) in the absence and presence of oxytocin. We found that oxytocin reversed the impairment of LTP induced by Aβ25-35 perfusion in the mouse hippocampus. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. Furthermore, the tr...
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In this study, we applied a well studied prediction model developed on data from five CpG sites, to increase the practicability of these tests. We have determined the biological age of the heart, specifically of the right atrium (RA) and left atrium (LA), and of peripheral blood leucocytes, by measuring the mitotic telomere length (TL) and the non-mitotic epigenetic age (DNAmAge). We found that DNAmAge, of both atrial tissues (RA and LA), was younger in respect to the chronological age (-12 years). Furthermore, no significant difference existed between RA and LA, suggesting that, although anatomically diverse and ex...
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This study was the first to demonstrate a causal relationship between glial senescence and neurodegeneration. In this study, accumulations of senescent astrocytes and microglia were found in tau-associated neurodegenerative disease model mice. Elimination of these senescent cells via a genetic approach can reduce tau deposition and prevent the degeneration of cortical and hippocampal neurons. Most recently, it was shown that clearance of senescent oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in AD model mice with senolytic agents could lessen the Aβ plaque load, reduce neuroinflammation, and ameliorate cognitive deficits. ...
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This study provides direct evidence for the contribution of gut microbiota to the cognitive decline during normal aging and suggests that restoring microbiota homeostasis in the elderly may improve cognitive function. On Nutraceutical Senolytics https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/05/on-nutraceutical-senolytics/ Nutraceuticals are compounds derived from foods, usually plants. In principle one can find useful therapies in the natural world, taking the approach of identifying interesting molecules and refining them to a greater potency than naturally occurs in order to produce a usefully large therape...
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