Neural crest related gene transcript regulation by valproic acid analogues in the cardiac embryonic stem cell test

Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Reproductive ToxicologyAuthor(s): R.H. (Gina) Mennen, J.L.A. (Jeroen) Pennings, A.H. (Aldert) PiersmaAbstractIn vivo, neural crest (NC) cells contribute critically to heart formation. The embryonic stem cells in the cardiac Embryonic Stem cell Test (ESTc) differentiate into a heterogeneous cell population including non-cardiomyocyte cells. The use of molecular biomarkers from different mechanistic pathways can refine quantitative embryotoxicity assessment. Gene expression levels representing different signalling pathways that could relate to beating cardiomyocyte formation were analysed at different time-points. Immunocytochemistry showed NC cells were present in the ESTc and RT-qPCR showed upregulation of NC related gene expression levels in a time-dependent manner. NC related genes were sensitive to VPA and its analogues 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA) and 2-ethylhexanol (EHOL) and indicated VPA as the most potent one. STITCH (‘search tool for interactions of chemicals’) analysis showed relationships between the examined signalling pathways and suggested additional candidate marker genes. Biomarkers from dedicated mechanistic pathways, e.g. NC differentiation, provide promising tools for monitoring specific effects in ESTc.
Source: Reproductive Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Lu Liu, Jiajun Qiu, Xuanyong LiuAbstractGraphene oxide (GO) has been widely investigated in biomedical fields due to its excellent biocompatibility. In the present study, GO films were fabricated on titanium surface by cathode electrophoretic deposition with the help of Mg2+ and Al3+. Responses of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to GO films with different alkali treatment, including urea hydrothermal treatment and sodium hydroxide hydrothermal treatment, were investigated. The results indicated that GO ...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of MutagenesisAuthor(s): Rebekah J. Hutcherson, Michael G. KempAbstractThe ATR protein kinase is known to protect cells from DNA damage induced during the replicative phase of the cell cycle. Small molecule ATR kinase inhibitors have therefore been developed to improve the effectiveness of DNA damage-based chemotherapy regimens aimed at killing rapidly proliferating tumor cells. However, whether ATR functions in a similar manner in non-replicating cells has not been examined and is important considering the fa...
Source: Mutation Research Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: 17 September 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 28, Issue 12Author(s): Banushree Kumar, Simon J. ElsässerSummaryTo understand the epigenomic foundation of naive pluripotency, we implement a quantitative multiplexed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) method comparing mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) grown in 2i versus 2i/serum and serum conditions. MINUTE-ChIP has a large linear dynamic range for accurately quantifying relative differences in genome-wide histone modification patterns across multiple pooled samples. We find compelling evidence for a broad H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
We report a high-content screen for small-molecule regulators of the axonal transport of mitochondria. Six compounds enhanced mitochondrial transport in the sub-micromolar range, acting via three cellular targets: F-actin, Tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1), or Aurora Kinase B (AurKB). Pharmacological inhibition or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of each target promotes mitochondrial axonal transport in rat hippocampal neurons and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human cortical neurons and enhances mitochondrial transport in iPSC-derived motor neurons from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient bearing ...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe conclude that AATG is a promising and safe modality for the treatment of the painful scar. There is an abundance of low-level evidence to support its use as an alternative treatment but there is a lack of high-level evidence at present to support its standard use. Future long-term randomized controlled trials with analgesic scores as the primary outcome measures are required to assess long-term efficacy.
Source: Cytotherapy - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the current study provides evidence for a neuroprotective effect of LER and/or BM-MSCs in 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Interestingly, combined LER/BM-MSC therapy was superior to cell therapy alone in inhibiting 3-NP-induced neurological insults via modulation of the Ca2+/CaN/NFATc4 and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways. LER/BM-MSC combined therapy may represent a feasible approach for improving the beneficial effects of stem cell therapy in HD.
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Genes &DiseasesAuthor(s): Elam Coalson, Elliot Bishop, Wei Liu, Yixiao Feng, Mia Spezia, Bo Liu, Yi Shen, Di Wu, Scott Du, Alex Li, Zhenyu Ye, Ling Zhao, Daigui Cao, Alissa Li, Ofir Hagag, Alison Deng, Winny Liu, Mingyang Li, Rex C. Haydon, Lewis ShiAbstractWith the significant financial burden of chronic cutaneous wounds on the healthcare system, not to the personal burden mention on those individuals afflicted, it has become increasingly essential to improve our clinical treatments. This requires the translation of the most recent benchtop approaches to clin...
Source: Genes and Diseases - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conditions:   Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery;   Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery;   Cerebral Infarction;   Stroke, Ischemic;   Acute Stroke Interventions:   Biological: human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells;   Biological: Placebo;   Other: standardized treatment Sponsor:   Shanghai East Hospital Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
ACS NanoDOI: 10.1021/acsnano.9b03937
Source: ACS Nano - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Source Type: research
ACS NanoDOI: 10.1021/acsnano.9b04109
Source: ACS Nano - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Source Type: research
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