Hard ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Mongolia—A review

Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Jiří Černý, Buyantogtokh Buyannemekh, Tersia Needham, Gantulga Gankhuyag, Dashzeveg OyuntsetsegAbstractTicks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) pose a considerable threat to human and animal health in Mongolia; a large and sparsely inhabited country whose economy is largely dependent on animal production. Intensive contact between herdsmen and their livestock, together with the use of pastures without fencing, allows contact between wildlife, domestic animals and humans, thus creating ideal conditions for epizoonoses and zoonoses. Consequently, ticks and TBPs cause significant medical, veterinary, and economical concern. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about this zoonotic problem in Mongolia, focusing on tick species from the genera Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Rhipicephalus, which are associated with particular vegetation zones of the country. The most important tick species of medical and veterinary concern are Ixodes persulcatus and Dermacentor nuttalli, which are found in northern boreal forests and central steppes, respectively. These tick species transmit a wide variety of TBPs, including tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia bacteria, and Babesia parasites infecting rodents, wild ungulates, livestock, and humans. Despite basic characteristics of the biology of ticks and TBPs in Mongolia bei...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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ConclusionCollectively our data suggest that the bioactive chemical pool which is responsible for the therapeutic effects of EW can be extracted in petroleum ether, and fractionated to a relatively small multiple components. Such components include known anti-inflammatory chemicals, which may contribute to the possible microglia polarization in brain lesion during the recovery of ischemic stroke.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug ResistanceAuthor(s): Paul McCusker, John D. ChanAbstractSubversion of parasite neuromuscular function is a key strategy for anthelmintic drug development. Schistosome Ca2+ signaling has been an area of particular interest for decades, with a specific focus on L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cavs). However, the study of these channels has been technically challenging. One barrier is the lack of pharmacological probes that are active on flatworms, since the dihydropyridine (DHP) based ligands typically used ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Howard S. Ginsberg, Eric L. Rulison, Jasmine L. Miller, Genevieve Pang, Isis M. Arsnoe, Graham J. Hickling, Nicholas H. Ogden, Roger A. LeBrun, Jean I. TsaoAbstractIxodes scapularis is the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in eastern and central North America, and local densities of this tick can affect human disease risk. We sampled larvae and nymphs from sites in Massachusetts and Wisconsin, USA, using flag/drag devices and by collecting ticks from hosts, and measured environmental variables to evaluate the enviro...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Plant ScienceAuthor(s): Yanfeng Hu, Jia You, Chunjie Li, Fengjuan Pan, Congli WangAbstractSoybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a sedentary root endoparasite that causes serious yield losses on soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. H. glycines secrets effector proteins into host cells to facilitate the success of parasitism. Nowadays, a large number of candidate effectors were identified from the genome sequence of H. glycines. However, the precise functions of these effectors in the nematode-host plant interaction are unknown. Here, an effector gene ...
Source: Plant Science - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): R.E.B. Hanna, D. Moffett, M.W. Robinson, W.G.Z.O. Jura, G.P. Brennan, I. Fairweather, L.T. ThreadgoldAbstractCytochemical staining techniques were carried out en bloc with in vitro excysted and gut-penetrated Fasciola gigantica larvae in order to visualise the glycocalyx of the tegument, a structure which comprises the parasite component of the host-parasite interface, yet is incompletely preserved by conventional fixation and preparation techniques for electron microscopy. Positive reactivity with ruthenium red and periodic acid-...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Although Ethiopia has an overall lower prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among countries in Africa, the emergence of drug resistance could seriously hinder elimination efforts. Using samples collected from five therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in 2007-11, we evaluated the prevalence of putative drug resistance mutations in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, and kelch13 genes at the time of those studies, as well as the ama1 gene for genetic relatedness using a pooled amplicon deep sequencing approach. Among all sites, the kelch13 gene showed no mutations, whereas the pfcrt CVIET genotype was fixed in all populati...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Strongyloidiasis, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis infection, is an important neglected tropical disease that causes significant public health problems in the tropics and subtropics. The disease can persist in hosts for decades and may be life-threatening because of hyperinfection and dissemination. Ivermectin (mostly) and albendazole are the most common anthelmintics used for treatment. Albendazole is suboptimal for this parasite, and although ivermectin is quite effective in immunocompromised patients, a multiple-course regimen is required. Furthermore, reliance on a single drug class for treating in...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a severe tick-borne infection endemic to the Americas. Oral doxycycline is effective, but during severe life-threatening disease, intravenous therapy is recommended. Unfortunately, intravenous formulations of doxycycline are not always available. Therefore, we aimed to determine the susceptibility of R. rickettsii to an alternative parenteral agent, tigecycline, in vitro and in vivo. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline, R. rickettsii-inoculated Vero cells were incubated with medium containing tigecycline....
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Authors: Senerovic L, Opsenica D, Moric I, Aleksic I, Spasić M, Vasiljevic B Abstract Infective diseases have become health threat of a global proportion due to appearance and spread of microorganisms resistant to majority of therapeutics currently used for their treatment. Therefore, there is a constant need for development of new antimicrobial agents, as well as novel therapeutic strategies. Quinolines and quinolones, isolated from plants, animals, and microorganisms, have demonstrated numerous biological activities such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and antitumor. For more tha...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate a single-dose anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (GonaCon, USDA/NWRC, Fort Collins, CO, USA) as a non-lethal alternative for population control in free-ranging, synanthropic male capybara. In addition to infertility efficacy of this treatment, potential effects on the alpha male's secondary sexual characteristics and agonist behavior need to be assessed because any alterations in these factors could lead to population management failure. The treatment group (n = 3) received 1 mL of the anti-GnRH vaccine, intramuscularly, and the control group (n = 2) a 1 mL s...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
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