The identification of tick autophagy-related genes in Ixodes scapularis responding to amino acid starvation
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Xin-Ru Wang, Timothy J. Kurtti, Jonathan D. Oliver, Ulrike G. MunderlohAbstractTicks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and must tolerate starvation during off‐host periods. Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a well-conserved self-eating mechanism of cell survival and is essential for recycling cellular contents during periods of starvation, stress, and injury in organisms. Although the genome sequence of Ixodes scapularis (Say) is available, the characteristics and functions of autophagy-related gene families remain...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 7, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Detection of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in whole blood specimens using a duplex real-time PCR assay on the ARIES instrument
We report here the validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay using whole blood specimens on the Luminex ARIES® instrument, combining DNA extraction, amplification and detection into a one-step process. This method allows for rapid and sensitive detection of acute infections with Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using whole blood specimens. We included A. phagocytophilum to monitor emergence of this pathogen in Kentucky, since surrounding states have reported many more cases than Kentucky. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 7, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Bacterial community profiling highlights complex diversity and novel organisms in wildlife ticks
This study highlights the diversity of bacterial genera harboured within wildlife ticks, which may prove to be of medical and/or veterinary importance in the future.Graphical abstract (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 7, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Ticks on the Channel Islands and implications for public health
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Emma L. Gillingham, Kayleigh M. Hansford, Scott Meadows, Julia Henney, Filip Wieckowski, Luis M. Hernández-Triana, Ivan Muscat, Joseph Muscat, Clara Beckert, Nadya I. Nikolova, Ben Cull, Jolyon M. MedlockAbstractThe Channel Islands are British Crown dependencies located in the English Channel to the west of the Normandy coast in northern France. Whilst there have been studies investigating tick occurrence and distribution in different habitats on the mainland of the UK and in France, the Channel Islands have been relati...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 5, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

The distribution limit of the common tick, Ixodes ricinus, and some associated pathogens in north-western Europe
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): D. Hvidsten, K. Frafjord, J.S. Gray, A.J. Henningsson, A. Jenkins, B.E. Kristiansen, M. Lager, B. Rognerud, A.M. Slåtsve, F. Stordal, S. Stuen, P. WilhelmssonAbstractIn north-western Europe, the common tick, Ixodes ricinus, is widely established, its distribution appears to be increasing and the spread of tick-borne diseases is of increasing concern. The project ‘Flått i Nord’ (Ticks in northern Norway) commenced in spring 2009 with the intention of studying the tick’s distribution and that of its...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 4, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Borrelia burgdorferi hijacks cellular metabolism of immune cells: consequences for host defense
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Mariska Kerstholt, Mihai G. Netea, Leo A.B. JoostenAbstractChanges in cellular metabolism have proven to be important factors in driving cell behavior. It has been shown that cellular metabolism of immune cells changes when exposed to or infected by several pathogens: while this is often an adaptation of the host cells to the infection, sometimes it represents a mechanism through which the pathogens evade immune activation. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a pathogen that highly depe...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 4, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

“Detection of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in whole blood specimens using a duplex real-time PCR assay on the ARIES instrument”
We report here the validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay using whole blood specimens on the Luminex ARIES® instrument, combining DNA extraction, amplification and detection into a one-step process. This method allows for rapid and sensitive detection of acute infections with Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using whole blood specimens. We included A. phagocytophilum to monitor emergence of this pathogen in Kentucky, since surrounding states have reported many more cases than Kentucky. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 2, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

The identification of tick autophagy related genes in Ixodes scapularis responding to amino acid starvation
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Xin-Ru Wang, Timothy J. Kurtti, Jonathan D. Oliver, Ulrike G. MunderlohAbstractTicks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and must tolerate starvation during off‐host periods. Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a well-conserved self-eating mechanism of cell survival and is essential for recycling cellular contents during periods of starvation, stress, and injury in organisms. Although the genome sequence of Ixodes scapularis (Say) is available, the characteristics and functions of autophagy-related gene families remain...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 1, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. in non-hematophagous bats in Brazil
This study aimed at detecting Hepatozoon, in addition to ectoparasites, in non-hematophagous bats sampled in central-western Brazil using blood smears, hematoxylin-eosin (HE)-staining liver/spleen preparations and molecular and phylogenetic techniques. A total of 135 spleen, 127 liver, and 133 blood samples were collected from 135 non-hematophagous bats from 12 different species in two different sites in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, in the Brazilian Cerrado region. Spleen and blood DNA samples were submitted to two conventional PCR protocols for Hepatozoon spp. based on 18S rRNA. No Hepatozoon spp. gamonts or me...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

First records of adult Hyalomma marginatum and H. rufipes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Sweden
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Giulio Grandi, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, Phimphanit Choklikitumnuey, Christina Strube, Andrea Springer, Ann Albihn, Thomas G.T. Jaenson, Anna OmazicAbstractFrom July 2018 to January 2019 we recorded 41 specimens of adult Hyalomma ticks, which had been found on horses, cattle or humans in 14 Swedish provinces. In 20 cases we received tick specimens, which were identified morphologically as adults of H. marginatum (n = 11) or H. rufipes (n = 9). These are the first documented records in Sweden of adults ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Voltage-gated sodium channel gene mutations and pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Rinesh Kumar, Guilherme M. Klafke, Robert J. MillerAbstractPyrethroid pesticides are extensively used to manage animal and human disease vectors including the southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini). The indiscriminate and incorrect use of pyrethroids has led to the almost ubiquitous development of resistance to this pesticide class for this tick species. Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na-channels) are the primary target-site of pyrethroids and several studies on the involvement of mutations in the coding gen...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Molecular survey of tick-borne pathogens reveals a high prevalence and low genetic variability of Hepatozoon canis in free-ranging grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Germany
This study represents the first one reporting H. canis in a grey wolf population worldwide, and it provides highly relevant information, which may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of TBPs and the pathogen transmission dynamics among the reintroduced population of grey wolves and other carnivores. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being evaluated for Lyme neuroborreliosis
ConclusionA discriminant analysis was shown to be useful to distinguish the independently most important cytokines/chemokines (CXCL1, GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-10) in CSF, in order to discriminate LNBtot patients from Non-LNB patients. An IL-10/CXCL1 ratio was shown to have a promising diagnostic profile with a better performance than the chemokine CXCL13 in CSF. However, further evaluation is required to address future possible usefulness of these cytokines and chemokines in laboratory diagnostics in LNB, including control groups with neuro-inflammation. No significant associations were found between CSF immune mediator levels ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Stress conditions do not affect Theileria equi parasitemia levels in sub-clinically infected horses
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Yuval Gottlieb, Amir SteinmanAbstractStress has been suggested as a risk factor for Theileria equi peracute disease and may lead to relapse in clinical signs in chronically infected horses. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of stress on T. equi parasitemia in sub-clinically infected horses in two settings: horses hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital and horses from an endurance farm. Blood samples were collected from the hospitalized horses (n = 32) upon admission (T0) a...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Development of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay that differentiates between Kyasanur Forest disease virus and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Sudheesh N, Roger Hewson, Babak Afrough, Kevin Bewley, Govindakarnavar ArunkumarAbstractKyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) are enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses of clinical importance with complex enzootic life cycles involving hematophagous ticks which feed on small and large mammals. Humans and monkeys are dead-end hosts for these viruses. Recent trends in epidemiological data suggest both virus incidences are steadily increasing and their geographical distribution expandi...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 26, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

First record of the sea snake tick Amblyomma nitidum Hirst and Hirst, 1910 (Acari: Ixodidae) from Taiwan
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Mackenzie L. Kwak, Chi-Chien Kuo, Ho-Tsung ChuAbstractThe sea snake tick (Amblyomma nitidum) is a host specialist of snakes in the genus Laticauda and is one of the few ticks which could be regarded as semi-marine. Yet despite the attention this species has received due to its bizarre ecology, its distribution remains poorly known as geographic records of its occurrence through the Asia-Pacific are highly fragmentary. For the first time this species is recorded from Taiwan based on specimens collected from the yellow-lipped se...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 26, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Description of a new soft tick species (Acari: Argasidae: Ornithodoros) parasite of Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in northern Chile
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, José M. Venzal, Santiago Nava, Arlei Marcili, Daniel González-Acuña, Thiago F. Martins, Marcelo B. LabrunaAbstractA new argasid (Argasidae) tick is herein described based on morphology and molecular data obtained from larvae parasitizing Octodon degus and from ticks collected inside burrows in northern Chile. Unfed laboratory-reared larvae were mounted in slides for morphometrical and morphological analyses. Larvae of Ornithodoros octodontus n. sp. share morphological tr...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 26, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Borrelia prevalence and species distribution in ticks removed from humans in Germany, 2013–2017
This study investigated Borrelia prevalence and species distribution in ticks removed from humans and sent as diagnostic material to the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, in 2013-2017. A probe-based real-time PCR was carried out and Borrelia-positive samples were subjected to species determination by reverse line blot (RLB), including a B. miyamotoi-specific probe. The overall Borrelia-infection rate as determined by real-time PCR was 20.02 % (510/2547, 95 % CI: 18.48–21.63 %), with annual prevalences ranging from 17.17 % (90/524, 95 % CI: 14.04–20.68 %) in 2014 to 24.12 % ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 25, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Ehrlichia canis TRP36 diversity in naturally infected-dogs from an urban area of Colombia
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Esteban Arroyave, Juan D. Rodas-González, Xiaofeng Zhang, Marcelo B. Labruna, María S. González, Jorge A. Fernández-Silva, Jere W. McBrideAbstractEhrlichia canis is the etiologic agent of a highly prevalent tick-borne disease, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Four defined E. canis genotypes based on the trp36 gene sequences have been reported, three of them identified in North or South America. The diversity of E. canis has been investigated using genetic and serologic approaches based on distinc...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 25, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Molecular discrimination of Hyalomma tick species serving as reservoirs and vectors for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in sub-Saharan Africa
In this study, six different Hyalomma species were tested, all of which were all clearly distinguishable by mass spectrometric analyses. Moreover, MALDI TOF- MS was able to confirm morphologic findings where sequencing provided ambiguous results. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the CO1 gene amplification of ticks has been developed for the unequivocal species identification by amplicon sequencing and specific restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis. RFLP proved to be a feasible auxiliary discrimination tool for selected Hyalomma species when access to sequencing methods is not available, ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 25, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Two novel Rickettsia species of soft ticks in North Africa: ‘Candidatus Rickettsia africaseptentrionalis’ and ‘Candidatus Rickettsia mauretanica’
In this study, we detected in Northern Africa two putatively novel Rickettsia species in soft tick species of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex: Ornithodoros occidentalis from Morocco, Ornithodoros erraticus from Algeria and Ornithodoros normandi from Tunisia. We characterized these two novel Rickettsia species on the basis of comparative DNA sequence analyses and phylogenetics of four genes (gltA, 16S rRNA, coxA and ompB). These Rickettsia, provisionally named ‘Candidatus Rickettsia africaseptentrionalis’ and ‘Candidatus Rickettsia mauretanica’, differed in nucleotide sequence from those of other ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale in Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Tito Ramiro Muñoz Guarnizo, Dasiel Obregón Alvarez, Adrian Alberto Díaz-Sánchez, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Loidy Zamora Gutiérrez, Siomara Martínez Marrero, Belkis Corona-GonzálezAbstractBovine anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, is a hemolytic disease that constitutes a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions including Ecuador. However, the epidemiological situation of this hemoparasitosis in Ecuador is poorly cha...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 23, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Rhipicephalus microplus cystatin as a potential cross-protective tick vaccine against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Luís Fernando Parizi, Carolina Konrdörfer Rangel, Gabriela Alves Sabadin, Bianca Fagundes Saggin, Irene Kiio, Marina Amaral Xavier, Renata da Silva Matos, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias, Adriana Seixas, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi, Naftaly Wang'ombe Githaka, Itabajara da Silva VazAbstractRhipicephalus appendiculatus, the brown ear tick, is an important disease vector of livestock in eastern, central and southern Africa. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus acaricide resistance requires the search for alternative methods f...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

First records and molecular-phylogenetic analyses of three tick species (Ixodes kaiseri, Hyalomma lusitanicum and Ornithodoros coniceps) from Malta
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Sándor Hornok, Andrea Grima, Nóra Takács, Sándor Szekeres, JenŐ KontschánAbstractThe Maltese islands are situated south of mainland Europe and north of Africa, therefore are expected to share tick species and tick-borne pathogens with both continents. This situation highlights the importance of studying ticks in this country. Nevertheless, the tick fauna of Malta appears to be a seldom investigated issue, with hitherto only five tick species reported in the country. Here, as part of a tick c...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Transgenic functional complementation with a transmission -associated protein restores spirochete infectivity by tick bite
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Tom G. Schwan, Sandra J. Raffel, James M. BattistiAbstractThe relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii and the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto each produces an abundant, orthologous, outer membrane protein, Vtp and OspC, respectively, when transmitted by tick bite. Gene inactivation studies have shown that both proteins are essential for spirochete infectivity when transmitted by their respective tick vectors. Therefore, we transformed a vtp-minus mutant of B. hermsii with ospC from B. burgdorferi...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 20, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate, Germany
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Dana Zubriková, Maria Wittmann, Václav Hönig, Pavel Švec, Bronislava Víchová, Sandra Essbauer, Gerhard Dobler, Libor Grubhoffer, Kurt PfisterAbstractLyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are the most common tick-borne diseases in Germany. We collected Ixodes ricinus ticks from 16 high-risk and four low-risk sites distributed in Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate based on the number of human TBE cases recorded at the Robert Koch Institute from 2001 to 2009. A total of 8805 qu...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 17, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Turkey tick news: A molecular investigation into the presence of tick-borne pathogens in host-seeking ticks in Anatolia; initial evidence of putative vectors and pathogens, and footsteps of a secretly rising vector tick, Haemaphysalis parva
This study also revealed the presence of the close ecological and evolutionary relationships between two important vector ticks, Hyalomma marginatum and Hy. aegyptium and determined genetic variations (distinct phylogenetic divergences inside the main clades) in some pathogenic SFG rickettsiae that are found in these ticks. Additionally, the presence of two Babesia species described very recently in hares with unknown vectors, namely Babesia sp. tavsan1 and Babesia sp. tavsan2, were detected for the first time in ticks. Finally, two unnamed Hepatozoon spp. were detected in Haemaphysalis ticks and their phylogenetic positio...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

A novel type 1 cystatin involved in the regulation of Rhipicephalus microplus midgut cysteine proteases
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Stephen Lu, Leticia A. da Rocha, Ricardo J.S. Torquato, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Monica Florin-Christensen, Aparecida S. TanakaAbstractRhipicephalus microplus is a cattle ectoparasite found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world with great impact on livestock production. R. microplus can also harbor pathogens, such as Babesia sp. and Anaplasma sp. which further compromise cattle production. Blood meal acquisition and digestion are key steps for tick development. In ticks, digestion takes place inside midgut...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 14, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

New record of Rickettsia vini in Ixodes lividus ticks from Lithuania
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Vesta Matulaityte, Algimantas Paulauskas, Maksim Bratchikov, Jana RadzijevskajaAbstractIxodes lividus Koch, 1844 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks are parasites specific to the sand martin (Riparia riparia). The distribution range of I. lividus covers Europe and Asia and they are found wherever sand martins nest. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia vini have recently been detected in I. lividus ticks in Central Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiale...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 10, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is widespread in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic
According to this study, Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis is another tick-borne pathogen widespread in I. ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 10, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Simultaneous differential detection of canine blood parasites: Multiplex high-resolution melting analysis (mHRM)
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Kittisak Buddhachat, Tirawit Meerod, Waranee Pradit, Puntita Siengdee, Siriwadee Chomdej, Korakot NganvongpanitAbstractRecently, the incidence of canine infection by the tick-borne parasites Babesia spp., Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys has been increasing globally. We have developed a multiplex high-resolution melting analysis (mHRM) technique to reduce the time demands and costs associated with detecting haemoparasites in canine blood, while increasing the degree of reliability of this method of analysi...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 8, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Ehrlichia canis TRP36 diversity in naturally infected-dogs from an urban area of ​​Colombia
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Esteban Arroyave, Juan D. Rodas-González, Xiaofeng Zhang, Marcelo B. Labruna, María S. González, Jorge A. Fernández-Silva, Jere W. McBrideAbstractEhrlichia canis is the etiologic agent of a highly prevalent tick-borne disease, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Four defined E. canis genotypes based on the trp36 gene sequences have been reported, three of them identified in North or South America. The diversity of E. canis has been investigated using genetic and serologic approaches based on distinc...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 8, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

A simultaneous differential detection of canine blood parasites: multiplex high-resolution melting analysis (mHRM)
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Kittisak Buddhachat, Tirawit Meerod, Waranee Pradit, Puntita Siengdee, Siriwadee Chomdej, Korakot NganvongpanitAbstractRecently, the incidence of canine infection by the tick-borne parasites Babesia spp., Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys has been increasing globally. We have developed a multiplex high-resolution melting analysis (mHRM) technique to reduce the time demands and costs associated with detecting haemoparasites in canine blood, while increasing the degree of reliability of this method of analysi...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 5, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Ixodes scapularis saliva components that elicit responses associated with acquired tick-resistance
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Sukanya Narasimhan, Cheyne Kurokawa, Husrev Diktas, Norma Olivares Strank, Jiří Černý, Kristen Murfin, Yongguo Cao, Geoff Lynn, Jos Trentleman, Ming-Jie Wu, Kathy DePonte, Fred Kantor, Juan Anguita, Joppe Hovius, Erol FikrigAbstractTicks and tick-borne diseases are on the rise world-wide and vaccines to prevent transmission of tick-borne diseases is an urgent public health need. Tick transmission of pathogens to the mammalian host occurs during tick feeding. Therefore, it is reasoned that vaccine targeting of ti...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - January 5, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

RNA virome analysis of questing ticks from Hokuriku District, Japan, and the evolutionary dynamics of tick-borne phleboviruses
In this study, a cost-efficient small benchtop next-generation sequencer, the Illumina MiniSeq, was used for the RNA virome analysis of questing ticks collected from Hokuriku District, Japan, and assessed for their potential utility in a tick-borne virus surveillance system. We detected two phleboviruses [Kabuto Mountain virus (KAMV) and Okutama tick virus (OKTV)], a coltivirus [Tarumizu tick virus (TarTV)], and a novel iflavirus [Hamaphysalis flava iflavirus (HfIFV)] from tick homogenates and/or cell culture supernatants after virus isolation processes. The number of sequence reads from KAMV and TarTV markedly increased w...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 29, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Theileria annulata transformation altered cell surface molecules expression and endocytic function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Junlong Liu, Muhammad Rashid, Jinming Wang, Aihong Liu, Guiquan Guan, YouQuan Li, Lan He, Hong Yin, Jianxun LuoAbstractTheileria annulata is a protozoan parasite transmitted by ticks to cattle. The most important processes of T. annulata are the infection and transformation of host monocytes, which promote cells division and generate a neoplastic phenotype. Dendritic cells play an important role in the development of adaptive immune responses against parasites and are traditionally classified into four types. One type of dend...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 27, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Partial characterization of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene and molecular detection of permethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus annulatus (Say, 1821)
This study reports the first case of pyrethroid resistance in R. annulatus collected in the United States. Also, we provide new genomic data for this species of tick that allows for the development of a new method to screen for mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 26, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Experimental infection of Monodelphis domestica with Rickettsia parkeri
This study aimed to evaluate the infection of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (the gray short-tailed opossum) by Rickettsia parkeri and its role as an amplifier of the bacterium for Amblyomma ticks. Ten M. domestica males were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 106 Vero cells infected with R. parkeri. In seven animals, inoculation was intramuscular, and in three intraperitoneal. One male (control) received 1 ml of the same vehicle used for inoculation intraperitoneally. The three animals inoculated intraperitoneally were infested with uninfected A. sculptum larvae and nymphs between the 2nd and ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 26, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Comparative survival of the engorged stages of Amblyomma dubitatum and Amblyomma sculptum in the laboratory: implications for Brazilian spotted fever epidemiology
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Hermes R. Luz, Alejandro Ramírez-Hernández, Hector R. Benatti, Diego G. Ramirez, Matias P.J. Szabó, Marcelo B. LabrunaABSTRACTBrazilian spotted fever (BSF), caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans mainly by the tick Amblyomma sculptum in southeastern Brazil. In most BSF-endemic areas A. sculptum populations are sustained chiefly by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), which are also the host of another tick species, Amblyomma dubitatum, not implicated in R. rickettsii tra...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 25, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Rapid identification of Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) in canine blood samples using a customized portable real-time PCR analyzer and TaqMan-based assay
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Chun-Yen Kuo, Chihyu Zhao, TsunLi Cheng, Chih-Cheng Tsou, Yi-Chen Li, Yong Zhang, Ming-Che Hsieh, Song-Bin Haung, Wen-Ying ChenAbstractCanine babesiosis is a serious infectious disease in subtropical and tropical regions. Typically, clinical detection of canine babesiosis is performed by blood smear observation or the traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Herein, we developed a new TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay combined with a customized portable real-time PCR platform for a rapid and accurate detection of canine ba...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 25, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Borrelia prevalence and species distribution in ticks removed from humans in Germany, 2013-2017
This study investigated Borrelia prevalence and species distribution in ticks removed from humans and sent as diagnostic material to the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, in 2013-2017. A probe-based real-time PCRwas carried out and Borrelia-positive samples were subjected to species determination by reverse line blot (RLB), including a B. miyamotoi-specific probe. The overall Borrelia-infection rate as determined by real-time PCR was 20.02% (510/2547, 95% CI: 18.48-21.63%), with annual prevalences ranging from 17.17% (90/524, 95% CI: 14.04-20.68%) in 2014 to 24.12% (96/398, 95% CI: 19....
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 25, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Woodchip borders at the forest ecotone as an environmental control measure to reduce questing tick density along recreational trails in Ottawa, Canada
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Roman McKay, Benoit Talbot, Andreea Statculescu, Alexander Stone, Manisha A. KulkarniAbstractRecent studies have highlighted the occurrence and distribution of Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) around the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and the need for strategies to mitigate the risk of human exposure and infection. We conducted a field study from July to October 2018 to examine the effectiveness of ecotonal woodchip borders as an environmental control method to suppress the den...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 22, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Molecular genotyping and epidemiology of equine piroplasmids in South Africa
In this study, we report on the development of genotype-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays capable of detecting and distinguishing between each parasite genotype. Alignment of complete 18S rRNA sequences available on GenBank allowed for the design of a single primer pair and five TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB™) probes specific for each genotype (A-E). The assays, evaluated as qPCR simplex and two qPCR multiplex formats (Multiplex EP-ABC and Multiplex EP-DE), were shown to be both efficient and specific in the detection of T. equi genotypes. The developed qPCR assays were used to study (i) the intra-specific...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 17, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Development and application of a multiplex TaqMan® real-time qPCR assay for the simultaneous detection of anaplasma marginale and theileria annulata and molecular characterization of anaplasma marginale from cattle in Western Cuba."/>
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Adrian Alberto Díaz-Sánchez, Marina L. Meli, Dasiel Obregón Álvarez, Osvaldo Fonseca-Rodríguez, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Belkis Corona-GonzálezAbstractAnaplasmosis and theileriosis are considered the most important tick-borne diseases for livestock production worldwide, causing significant economic losses in tropical and subtropical regions. The present study was aimed to develop a multiplex TaqMan® qPCR assay to simultaneously detect Anaplasma marginale and...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 17, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Bacterial communities in Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor and Amblyomma ticks collected from wild boar of an Orang Asli Community in Malaysia
This study provides baseline knowledge of the microbiome of H. hystricis, D. atrosignatus, D. compactus, D. steini and A. testudinarium parasitizing wild boar in this region. The information gained in this study provides the basis to target our efforts in H. hystricis, D. compactus and D. steini for the future investigation of vector competence and the zoonotic potential for the Coxiella, Rickettsia and Francisella detected here, as well as their implications for the risks of tick-borne diseases among the Orang Asli communities. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 16, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Vector competence studies with hard ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes: a review
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Eisen LarsAbstractUse of emerging technology allowing for identification of genetic material from pathogens and endosymbionts in ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, wildlife, or the environment has resulted in an avalanche of new data on tick-microorganism associations. This rapidly growing stream of new information is a tremendous resource but also presents challenges, including how detection of pathogen genetic material in ticks should best be interpreted. There is a tendency in the more recent published literatu...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 16, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

A soft tick Ornithodoros moubata salivary protein OmCI is a potent inhibitor to prevent avian complement activation
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Amber M. Frye, Thomas M. Hart, Danielle M. Tufts, Sanjay Ram, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Peter Kraiczy, Anna M. Blom, Yi-Pin LinAbstractComplement is a key first line innate host defense system in the blood of vertebrates. Upon activation, this powerful defense mechanism can elicit inflammatory responses, lyse non-self-cells, or mark them for opsonophagocytic removal. Blood-feeding arthropods thus require the ability to block host complement activation in the bloodmeal to prevent undesired cell or tissue damage during feeding. The ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 8, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Effects of cattle grazing on Ixodes ricinus-borne disease risk in forest areas of the Netherlands
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Hein Sprong, Sander Moonen, Sipke E. van Wieren, Tim R. HofmeesterAbstractCattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 8, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of canine tick-borne pathogens from Korea
This study assessed the prevalence, risk factors, and co-infectivity of CTBP such as piroplasms, rickettsiae, Coxiella burnetii, hepatozoa, hemotropic mycoplasmas, and Borrelia spp., using PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Of the 510 dogs tested, three CTBP, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum 16S rRNA (13; 2.6%), Hepatozoon canis 18S rRNA (2; 0.4%), and Mycoplasma haemocanis 16S rRNA (1; 0.2%) were detected. PCR adapted to amplify A. phagocytophilum msp2 and groEL genes generated amplicons thereof in two out of 13 positive dogs. One shelter dog was co-infected with A. phagocytophilum and M. haemocanis. However, Ehrlichia spp...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - December 8, 2019 Category: Zoology Source Type: research