Activity of methylgerambullin from Glycosmis species (Rutaceae) against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis in vitro

Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug ResistanceAuthor(s): Mirjana Drinić, Adriane Raninger, Andrea Zraunig, Florian Astelbauer, David Leitsch, Andreas Obwaller, Julia Walochnik, Harald Greger, Michael DuchêneAbstractEntamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis are widespread intestinal protozoan parasites which both spread via cysts that have to be ingested to infect a new host. Their environment, the small intestine for G. duodenalis and the colon for E. histolytica, contains only very limited amounts of oxygen, so both parasites generate energy by fermentation and substrate level phosphorylation rather than by oxidative phosphorylation. They both contain reducing agents able to reduce and activate nitroimidazole drugs such as metronidazole which is the gold standard drug to treat Entamoeba or Giardia infections. Although metronidazole works well in the majority of cases, it has a number of drawbacks. In animal models, the drug has carcinogenic activity, and concerns about a possible teratogenic activity remain. In addition, the treatment of G. duodenalis infections is hampered by emerging metronidazole resistance. Plant-derived drugs play a dominant role in human medicine, therefore we tested the activity of 14 isolated plant compounds belonging to seven different classes in vitro against both parasites. The tests were performed in a new setting in microtiter plates under anaerobic conditions....
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: TrAC Trends in Analytical ChemistryAuthor(s): Sona Jain, Thyago Gois Costa Melo, Silvio Santana Dolabella, Juewen LiuAbstractWater-borne protozoan parasites like Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Entamoeba and Toxoplasma are responsible for 1.7 billion cases of diarrhea globally, representing the second most frequent reason for mortality among children under five. They show an environmentally resistant cyst/oocyst stage. Despite their importance, the standard analytical methods for their detection still rely on immunostaining followed by microscopic analysis. In recent year...
Source: TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
AbstractGiardia intestinalis andBlastocystis spp. are two common zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for the majority of diarrheic cases, especially in children. The study was planned to determine the impact role of bothGiardia andBlastocystis co-infection in children up to 12  years old with acute diarrhea in Beni-Suef, Egypt. Also, to estimate the general prevalence rates and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Stool samples collected from 125 children, within a period of 7 months, were examined using direct wet mount and trichrome stain in c omparison to in vitro culture on Jone...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: 5 January 2020Source: Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1199Author(s): Gurjaspreet Singh, Pinky Satija, Baljinder Singh, Shweta Sinha, Rakesh Sehgal, Subash Chandra SahooAbstractThis work explores the facile synthesis of a series of antipyrine acetylinic framework (3a-3h). The newly synthesized compounds are recognized by IR, NMR (1H, 13C), X-ray diffraction. This collection played indispensable role in the development of biologically active agents. Our goal is to enable adoption of green chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry for the benefit of society, industry and the environment. This work ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
We describe the follow-up of a patient with recurrent giardiasis refractory to nitroimidazoles. Despite the different therapies received, the symptomatology and parasitic forms of G. lamblia persisted in the patient. There is no standard treatment regimen for giardiasis refractory to nitroimidazoles. When treatment failure is confirmed, it is necessary to switch to second-line regimens. PMID: 31545780 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: High rate of intestinal parasites particularly, S. stercoralis compared to the most recent studies of general population. Therefore, regular screening and tracking the positive cases, disinfection of the living environment, training and financing of the staff, increasing the number of the workers, recruiting of professionals and trained personnel in these centers are suggested. PMID: 31543921 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Iran J Parasitol Source Type: research
N, Pumarola T, Espasa M, Sulleiro E Abstract Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major problem worldwide. In addition, the spectrum of STIs is now expanding, including parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections. The study retrospectively describes the presence of enteric pathogens among 73 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms of enteritis and proctocolitis attending to an STI unit in Barcelona, Spain, between 2015 and 2016. Only patients investigated for intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Different diagnostic procedures were established for the detection of parasites, bacterial...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
, Quílez J Abstract Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent human intestinal parasite, with children living in developing countries being particularly at risk of infection. The occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis was investigated in stools specimens from 307 individuals aged one to nineteen years in Colombia. Samples were collected in three educational establishments (n: 163) and two hospital laboratories (n: 144) from urban and rural areas. Feces were concentrated using a biphasic sedimentation method and wet mounts of the sediment were examined by light microscopy. G. duodenalis as...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
ConclusionOur finding suggests that Giardia ssp. via enhancement or reduction of mast cell protease activity may modulate mast cell-driven intestinal immune responses. ESP-mediated modulation of the mast cell specific proteases may also increase degradation of tight junctions, which may be beneficial for Giardia ssp. during infection.
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Although the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in humans has been increasingly reported in recent years, data on possible differences in pathogen transmission between age groups and virulence between g...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
This study provides the first insight into Giardia infection in slaughtered livestock in Iran. Although the prevalence of infection with Giardia in this hot-arid area of Iran was low, educating people about direct contact with livestock such as farmers and abattoirs workers about this zoonotic infection is important. PMID: 31494270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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