Maternal alcohol use and children's emotional and cognitive outcomes in rural South Africa.

CONCLUSIONS: While HD rates were low, maternal/caregiver alcohol use negatively impacted on parenting and children's behavioural/cognitive outcomes. International evidence suggests that integrated approaches engaging parents and families may be more effective for parent-child outcomes than individual psychiatric or medical care for the parent on their own. PMID: 31266581 [PubMed - in process]
Source: South African Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research

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rno R Abstract While evidence-based interventions can help the substantial number of veterans diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and depression, an emerging literature has identified sleep disturbances as predictors of treatment nonresponse. More specifically, predicting effects of residual insomnia and nightmares on postintervention PTSD and depressive symptoms among veterans with comorbid PTSD and depression has remained unclear. The present study used data from a clinical trial of Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure (BA-TE), a combined approach to address comorbid PTSD and depression, administered to veter...
Source: Behavior Therapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research
This study investigates the extent to which achieving goals during behavioral activation (BA) treatment predicts depressive symptom improvement, and whether goal-related cognitions predict goal achievement or treatment response. Patients (n = 110, mean age 37.6, 54% female) received low-intensity cognitive behavioral therapy for depression, which included setting up to three behavioral goals in each of three BA-focused sessions (i.e., 9 goals per patient). Patients completed items from the Self-Regulation Skills Battery to assess goal-related cognitions and goal achievement for these goals, and depressive symptoms were ass...
Source: Behavior Therapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research
Abstract Suicide is a growing public health crisis among military veterans. Despite recent attention to this area, there are few empirically supported preventative interventions for suicidality among veterans. In the context of an empirically supported theoretical framework, the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, the current study targeted suicide risk factors (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) among a sample of 46 veterans selected from a larger clinical trial. Participants were randomized to receive either a newly developed computerized intervention aimed at decreasing perceived burdensome...
Source: Behavior Therapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research
This study therefore examined the efficacy and acceptability of group BA drawn from clinical trial evidence. Randomized controlled trials of group BA were identified using a comprehensive literature search. Depression outcomes at posttreatment/follow-up, recovery and dropout rates were extracted and analyzed using a random-effects meta-analysis. Treatment moderators were analyzed using meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Nineteen trials were quantitatively synthesized. Depression outcomes postgroup BA treatment were superior to controls (SMD 0.72, CI 0.34 to 1.10, k=13, N=461) and were equivalent to other active therapi...
Source: Behavior Therapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research
Abstract The majority of people with depression in the United States either never seek treatment or gravitate exclusively to antidepressant medication (ADM), despite the existence of other effective treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Reluctance to use psychotherapy is partly due to lack of appropriate mental health literacy and perceptions of low treatment acceptability (appropriateness for a given problem) and credibility (treatment logicalness, and whether the patient expects improvement). In the current investigation, we examined whether providing psychoeducation about CBT for depression wo...
Source: Behavior Therapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: LWTAuthor(s): R. Becerril, S. Manso, C. NerínAbstractThe influence of the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Escherichia coli on the concentration of the main compounds released by essential oils of cinnamon, clove and oregano has been studied. A diffusion vapour test and a subsequent analysis of three different areas of the plate were carried out. The results showed that in absence of microorganisms a gradient of concentration from the centre towards the periphery of the plate was observed for eugenol, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde but not for thymol or linalool...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
This study provides insight into biodegradable packaging by which synthetic packaging could be substituted.
Source: Food Packaging and Shelf Life - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
This study examines the extent to which data linkages between Indian Health Service, tribal data, and cancer registries affect cancer incidence rates among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in Michigan. The incidence of tobacco- and alcohol-associated cancers for 1995-2012 was analyzed to compare rates of the Upper Peninsula (UP) and Lower Peninsula (LP) in Michigan and among AI/ANs and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Complete linkage resulted in 1,352 additional AI/AN cases; 141 cases were linked via IHS records alone, while 373 were linked via tribal records alone; 838 were linked through both IHS and tribal records. ...
Source: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: J Health Care Poor Underserved Source Type: research
Abstract The prevalence of tobacco smoking among people with HIV (PWH) ranges from 40% to 70%. Additionally, tobacco smoking is higher among low-income individuals, yet few studies have examined tobacco smoking in low socioeconomic status PWH. Using data from a cohort of PWH receiving care in an urban HIV clinic, we characterized factors associated with current and former smoking and with initiation/re-initiation and cessation of tobacco use. Among a study sample of 1,607 PWH, the prevalence of current smoking was 46.6% among men and 46.0% among women. Current smoking in men and women was associated with Medicaid ...
Source: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: J Health Care Poor Underserved Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 224Author(s): Shichao Bi, Pengjun Wang, Shihao Hu, Shaoke Li, Jianhui Pang, Zhongzheng Zhou, Guohui Sun, Liang Huang, Xiaojie Cheng, Shichao Xing, Xiguang ChenAbstractWeak mechanical properties, lack biocompatibility and relatively bioinert are formidable obstruct in application of bone repair materials. Multifunctional composite materials have been considered as a viable solution to this problem. Here, a new double network (DN) hydrogel was constructed by physical cross-linking of medical grade poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan in KOH/urea disso...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
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