Genome-wide CRISPR screen for Zika virus resistance in human neural cells Medical Sciences

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurotropic and neurovirulent arbovirus that has severe detrimental impact on the developing human fetal brain. To date, little is known about the factors required for ZIKV infection of human neural cells. We identified ZIKV host genes in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural progenitors (NPs)...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Shaobo Wang, Qiong Zhang, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Gianluigi Lichinchi, Edwin H. Yau, Hui Hui, Wanyu Li, Frank Furnari, Tariq M. RanaSummaryWe perform a CRISPR-Cas9 genome-wide screen in glioblastoma stem cells and identify integrin αvβ5 as an internalization factor for Zika virus (ZIKV). Expression of αvβ5 is correlated with ZIKV susceptibility in various cells and tropism in developing human cerebral cortex. A blocking antibody against integrin αvβ5, but not αvβ3, efficiently inhibits ZIKV infection. ZI...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
(University of California - San Diego) Two different UC San Diego research teams identified the same molecule --αvβ5 integrin -- as Zika virus' key to brain cell entry. They found ways to take advantage of the integrin to both block Zika virus from infecting cells and turn it into something good: a way to shrink brain cancer stem cells.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Abstract The apical Par complex, which contains atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Bazooka (Par-3), and Par-6, is required for establishing polarity during asymmetric division of neuroblasts in Drosophila, and its activity depends on L(2)gl. We show that loss of Ankle2, a protein associated with microcephaly in humans and known to interact with Zika protein NS4A, reduces brain volume in flies and impacts the function of the Par complex. Reducing Ankle2 levels disrupts endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope morphology, releasing the kinase Ballchen-VRK1 into the cytosol. These defects are associated with re...
Source: Developmental Cell - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Dev Cell Source Type: research
Abstract Virus-specific T cells allow targeting of multiple pathogens in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and have demonstrated potential efficacy for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, and adenovirus. Novel targets may include BK virus, JC virus, varicella zoster virus, human herpesvirus 6, Aspergillus, human parainfluenza virus-3, herpes simplex virus Type I, Zika virus, and mycobacteria. Generation of patient-specific products and third-party products may expand feasibility of therapy. PMID: 31469438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transfusion - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Transfusion Source Type: research
Clusters of living brain cells are teaching scientists about diseases like autism. With a new finding, some experts wonder if these organoids may become too much like the real thing.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: your-feed-science Brain Zika Virus Laboratories and Scientific Equipment Stem Cells Pregnancy and Childbirth Biology and Biochemistry Autism International Space Station Biotechnology and Bioengineering Cell (Journal) University of Ca Source Type: news
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is associated with microcephaly, a congenital malformation resulting from neuroinflammation and direct effects of virus replication on the developing central nervous system (CNS). However, the exact changes in the affected CNS remain unknown. Here, we show by transcriptome analysis (at 48 hours post-infection) and multiplex immune profiling that human induced-neuroprogenitor stem cells (hiNPCs) respond to ZIKV infection with a strong induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and several type I IFNs stimulated genes (ISGs), notably cytokines and the pro-apoptotic chemokines CXCL9 an...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can cause disease in the nervous system, resulting in a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Disease models are necessary to understand neuropathogenesis and identify potential therapeutics and vaccines. Non-human primates have been used extensively but present major challenges. Advances have also been made towards the development of humanized mouse models, but these models still do not fully represent human pathophysiology. Recent developments in stem cell technology and cell culture techniques have allowed the development of more physiologically relevant human cell-based models. In s...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: 18 June 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 27, Issue 12Author(s): Jason W. Dang, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Yue Qin, Tariq M. RanaSummaryZika virus (ZIKV) infection is implicated in severe fetal developmental disorders, including microcephaly. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate numerous processes associated with viral infection and neurodegeneration, but their contribution to ZIKV pathogenesis is unclear. We analyzed the mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes of human neuronal stem cells (hNSCs) during infection with ZIKV MR766 and Paraiba strains. Integration of the miRNA and mRNA expression data...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Series Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing ; Other ; Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensThis SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Other Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Jason Dang ; Tariq RanaSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapienssmall RNA-seq was utilized to characterize the transcriptome of human neural stem cells infected with Zika virus strains MR766 and Paraiba at MOI 1. Coding and noncoding genes were analyzed to determine transcriptional changes 3 days post-infection.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
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