The Cellular Origin of Barrett's Esophagus and Its Stem Cells.

The Cellular Origin of Barrett's Esophagus and Its Stem Cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1123:55-69 Authors: Xian W, Duleba M, Zhang Y, Yamamoto Y, Ho KY, Crum C, McKeon F Abstract The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in Western countries. This is despite the introduction of sophisticated endoscopic techniques and our ability to readily monitor the presumed precursor lesion known as Barrett's esophagus. Preemptive approaches, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia are achieving dramatic initial results. Although the long-term efficacy of these nonspecific ablative therapies is awaiting longitudinal studies, reports of recurrences are increasing. More targeted therapies, particularly directed at the stem cells of Barrett's esophagus, demand knowing the origin of this intestinal metaplasia (IM). The prevailing concept holds that Barrett's esophagus arises from the "transcommitment" of esophageal stem cells to produce an intestine-like epithelium. An alternative explanation derives from the discovery of a discrete population of residual embryonic cells (RECs) existing at the gastroesophageal junction in normal individuals that expands and colonizes regions of the esophagus denuded by chronic reflux. These RECs form IM within days of esophageal injury, suggesting a novel mechanism of tumorigenesis.A corollary of this work is that the Barrett's stem cell i...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an acquired condition in which normal squamous epithelium is replaced with metaplastic columnar epithelium as a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. BE is known as a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, the molecular mechanism underlying epithelial metaplasia in BE patients remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) signaling in the initiation of BE-associated metaplasia. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to create a surgical model of bile reflux injury. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze human and mouse esophage...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is associated with multiple gastrointestinal and liver diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett ’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, cholelithiasis, colon polyps, and fatty liver disease. To effectively manage obesity, it is imperative to understand current and emerging therapies and procedures.FindingsObesity is becoming increasingly prevalent and is associated with a growing monetary health care burden. Cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes are among the leading causes of preventable and premature death of Americans related to obesity. In additi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe new understanding of the significance of cardiac mucosa provides a new and highly accurate histologic method of assessment of LES damage, the primary cause of GERD. This opens a new door to complete histologic assessment of GERD from its etiologic standpoint and to new research that permit early diagnosis of GERD at its outset. Ultimately, such early diagnosis has the potential to reverse the increasing trend of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Source: European Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Abstract Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is characterized by acid and bile reflux in the distal oesophagus, and this may cause the development of reflux esophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus (BE). The natural histological course of untreated BE is non-dysplastic or benign BE (ND) than low-grade (LGD), and high-grade dysplastic (HGD) BE, with the expected increase in malignancy transfer to oesophagal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The gold standard for BE diagnostics involves high-resolution white-light endoscopy, followed by uniform endoscopy findings description (Prague classification) with biopsy performance accord...
Source: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Mini Rev Med Chem Source Type: research
The etiology of adenocarcinoma of the cardia and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) is not known and is doubted. It is thought that cardia gastric adenocarcinoma (CGA) is distinct from adenocarcinomas located in the esophagus or distal stomach, both epidemiologically and biologically. Moreover, CGA is often identified in the advanced stage having a poor prognosis. In this paper, we would like to ascertain the possible role of GC family history, lifestyle, demographics, gastroesophageal reflux disease,Helicobacter pylori infection, and multiple genetic and epigenetic risk factors as well as several predisposing conditions ...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Background: Chronic gastroesophageal reflux predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Asthma and medication to treat it are associated with gastroesophageal reflux and EAC. We studied subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to examine the relationship between COPD and medication used to treat it, and the risk of reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and EAC. Methods: A case-control study from the UK General Practice Research Database was conducted. Cases were aged 50 or above with a diagnosis of COPD and were matched with controls without a diagnosis of COPD by age,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ONLINE ARTICLES: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, we found an inverse association between serum PTH and Barrett’s esophagus. Validation of the finding and the mechanism of that association deserves further study.
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ALIMENTARY TRACT: Original Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2019Source: Cirugía Española (English Edition)Author(s): Félix Junquera, Sonia Fernández-Ananín, Carmen BalaguéAbstractEarly-stage (T1) esophagogastric junction cancer continues to represent 2%–3% of all cases. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent and important type, the main risk factors for which are gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus with dysplasia.Patients with mucosal (T1a) or submucosal (T1b) involvement initially require a thorough digestive endoscopy, and narrow-band imaging can improve visualization. Endoscopic...
Source: Cirugia Espanola - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a concern considering the popularity of this procedure, lack of long-term data and theoretical risk of esophageal cancer development. Gastric bypass is considered the best therapeutic option for persisting reflux after SG. However up to 30% of patients suffer from post-operative GER.
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Okereke I, Hamilton C, Wenholz A, Jala V, Giang T, Reynolds S, Miller A, Pyles R Abstract The incidence of esophageal diseases such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been increasing over the last 40 years. The esophageal microbiome appears to have a role in the development of some disease processes, and could also serve as markers of early diseases of the esophagus. A literature review was performed examining the role of the microbiome in the development of esophageal disease. In addition, the results of several studies and experiments were included in the r...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
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