Proton therapy shows efficacy, low toxicity in large cohort of children with high-risk neuroblastoma

(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Researchers from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania analyzed the largest cohort to date of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT), finding both that proton therapy was effective at reducing tumors and demonstrated minimal toxicity to surrounding organs.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Low Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Trigger Self-aggregated Amyloid β-Induced Neuronal Cell Death in an Alzheimer's Cell Model. Biol Pharm Bull. 2020;43(7):1073-1080 Authors: Tagai N, Tanaka A, Sato A, Uchiumi F, Tanuma SI Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau, and thereby induction of neuronal cell death. The Aβ-induced neuronal cell death has been shown to occur by several modes, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis. Interestingly, in AD patients, the brain and serum leve...
Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biol Pharm Bull Source Type: research
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Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
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Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that MycN and c-Myc tightly cooperate in regulation of the neuroblastoma CSC phenotypes and radioresistance upon glutamine deprivation. Pharmacologically, strategies targeting glutamine metabolism may prove beneficial in Myc-driven tumors. Consideration of MycN/c-Myc status in selecting neuroblastoma patients for glutamine metabolism treatment will be important to avoid potential radioresistance.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
BARD1 is associated with the development of high-risk neuroblastoma patients. Particularly, the expression of full length (FL) isoform, FL BARD1, correlates to high-risk neuroblastoma development and its inhibition is sufficient to induce neuroblastoma cells towards a worst phenotype. Here we have investigated the mechanisms of FL BARD1 in neuroblastoma cell lines depleted for FL BARD1 expression. We have shown that FL BARD1 expression protects the cells from spontaneous DNA damage and from damage accumulated after irradiation. We demonstrated a role for FL BARD1 as tumor suppressor to prevent unscheduled mitotic entry of ...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in childhood with the overall 5 years' survival less than 40%. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a serine/threonine-protein kinase expressed during mitosis and over expressed in multiple cancers, including neuroblastoma. We found that higher PLK1 expression related to poor outcome of NB patients. BI2536, a small molecule inhibitor against PLK1, significantly reduced cell viability in a panel of NB cell lines, with IC50 less than 100 nM. PLK1 inhibition by BI 2536 treatment induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and cell apoptosis in NB cells. Realtime PCR array re...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
In this study, the performance of an UCNP modified with a pH-sensitive dye (pHAb) is studied. The dye (emission wavelength 580 nm) was attached in a polyethylene imine (PEI) coating on the UCNP and excited via the 540-nm UCNP emission under 980-nm excitation. The UC resonance energy transfer efficiencies at different pHs ranged from 25 to 30% and a Förster distance of 2.56 nm was predicted from these results. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, equilibrated with nigericin H+/K+ ionophore to equalize the intra- and extracellular pH' showed uptake of the UCNP-pHAb conjugate particles and, taking the ratio of th...
Source: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Bioanal Chem Source Type: research
Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to act as essential regulators in the growth and progression of neuroblastoma. In the present research, the high expression of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 4 (SNHG4) in neuroblastoma was tested via quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and then the function of SNHG4 was explored and verified by CCK-8 assay, EdU assay, cell cycle assay, cell apoptosis test, wound healing test and invasion test in neuroblastoma cell lines. It was discovered that lncRNA SNHG4 exhibited high expression in neuroblastoma tissues and ...
Source: Neoplasma - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Neoplasma Source Type: research
Abstract Neuroblastoma ranks as the most commonly seen and deadly solid tumour in infancy. The aberrant activity of m6 A-RNA methyltransferase METTL3 is involved in human cancers. Therefore, functional genetic variants in the METTL3 gene may contribute to neuroblastoma risk. In the current nine-centre case-control study, we aimed to analyse the association between the METTL3 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroblastoma susceptibility. We genotyped four METTL3 gene SNPs (rs1061026 T>G, rs1061027 C>A, rs1139130 A>G, and rs1263801 G>C) in 968 neuroblastoma patients and 1814 controls in Ch...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Authors: Yang CL, Serra-Roma A, Gualandi M, Bodmer N, Niggli F, Schulte JH, Bode PK, Shakhova O Abstract Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common cancer in infants and it accounts for six percent of all pediatric malignancies. There are several hypotheses proposed on the origins of NB. While there is little genetic evidence to support this, the prevailing model is that NB originates from neural crest stem cells (NCSCs). Utilizing in vivo mouse models, we demonstrate that targeting MYCN oncogene to NCSCs causes perinatal lethality. During sympathoadrenal (SA) lineage development, SOX transcriptional factors drive the t...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
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