Music therapy program at UCLA aims to help premature infants develop feeding skills

It ’s a Friday morning in January when Jana Gallus, 32, and Gregor Martynus, 35, peek their heads over their triplets’ set of bassinets in their Westwood apartment. Six-month-olds Ada, Kian and Nico are just waking up, kicking with excitement and beaming from ear to ear.It ’s a daily moment that Gallus and Martynus say doesn’t get old. The triplets have come a long way since July, when they were born early, at 31 weeks, with weights ranging from 2.5 to 4 pounds. For 52 days, the trio were cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit, or NICU, atUCLA Mattel Children ’s Hospital.As the UCLA team of nurses, physicians and staff monitored the triplets, the delicate newborns were met by another care team: a group of music therapists using an auditory device aimed at helping preemies develop, feed and grow.Premature infants in the NICU — especially those born before 34 weeks — struggle with oral feeding. They typically haven’t developed the reflex to suck, breathe and swallow, which inhibits their ability to gain weight.It ’s for this reason that music therapist Jenna Bollard sought to study whether a pacifier-activated lullaby device, or PAL, might help. The device is a white, rectangular object about the size of a shoebox with an electronic screen and a pacifier connected via a short cord. Its secret ingredient: t he music it plays — a personal lullaby that parents write, sing and record for their baby with the help of ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Abstract Neural control of the heart is regulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, both opposing each other to maintain cardiac homeostasis via regulating heart rate, conduction velocity, force of contraction and coronary blood flow. Sympathetic hyperactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity are the characteristic features of many cardiovascular disease states including hypertension, myocardial ischemia, and arrhythmias that result in heart failure. Restoring parasympathetic activity to the heart has recently been identified as the promising approach to treat suc...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research
Obstructive sleep apnea, similar to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, is associated with laryngeal airway hyperreactivity (LAH). IH-induced laryngeal oxidative stress may contribute to LAH, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Conscious rats were subjected to repetitive 75 s cycles of IH for 7 or 14 consecutive days. Reflex apneic responses to laryngeal provocations with chemical stimulants were measured to reflect laryngeal reflex reactivity. Compared with control rats, rats exposed to IH for 14 days, but not for 7 days, displayed enhanced apneic response to laryngeal chemical stimulants. The apneic respons...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have evolving sleep and respiratory pathophysiology over their lifetimes. Across the lifespan of DMD, various sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) have been described, including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, and nocturnal hypoventilation. In addition to SRBD, individuals with DMD can be affected by insomnia, chronic pain and other factors interfering with sleep quality, and daytime somnolence. The natural progression of DMD pathophysiology has changed with the introduction of therapies for downstream pathologic pathways and will continue to evolve with ...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Repetitive hypoxic apneas, similar to that observed in sleep apnea, result in resetting of the sympathetic baroreflex to higher blood pressures (BP). This baroreflex resetting is associated with hypertension in preclinical models of sleep apnea (intermittent hypoxia, IH); however, the majority of understanding comes from males. There are data to suggest female rats exposed to IH do not develop high BP. Clinical data further support sex differences in the development of hypertension in sleep apnea, but mechanistic data are lacking. Herein we examined sex-related differences in the effect of IH on sympathet...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Abstract The melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are a relatively recently discovered class of atypical ganglion cell photoreceptor. These ipRGCs are a morphologically and physiologically heterogeneous population that project widely throughout the brain and mediate a wide array of visual functions ranging from photoentrainment of our circadian rhythms, to driving the pupillary light reflex to improve visual function, to modulating our mood, alertness, learning, sleep/wakefulness, regulation of body temperature, and even our visual perception. The presence of melanops...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
AbstractBreast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. It is associated with multiple symptoms in both patients and caregivers, such as stress, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and fatigue. Stress appears to promote cancer progression via activation of the sympathetic nervous system releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine as well as activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis releasing cortisol. These stress hormones have been shown to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. This review focuses on stress-reducing strategies which may decrease cancer progression by abrogating these pathways, wi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Abstract Emergency responders often credit 'adrenaline' (i.e. sympathetic activity) as the reason they respond quickly upon waking, unimpaired by sleep inertia. Movement upon waking may promote sympathetic activity in this population. This pilot study (n = 4 healthy males) tested the effects of a 30 s exercise bout (maximal sprint) upon waking during the night (02:00 h) on sympathetic activity and sleep inertia. When compared to sedentary conditions, exercise reduced subjective sleepiness levels and elicited a temporary increase in sympathetic activity, measured by plasma noradrenaline levels. These...
Source: Chronobiology International - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Chronobiol Int Source Type: research
Conclusions: The Bayesian estimation of correlation with 95% HDI on MCMC simulated data is a new technique for data analysis in sport science and seems to provide a more robust approach to allocating credibility through a meaningful mathematical model. However, the 95% HDI found in this study, accompanied by the theoretical explanations regarding the dynamics between the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system in relation to different recording conditions (supine, reactivation, rest), recording systems, time of day (morning, evening, sleep etc.) and age of participants, suggests that the associati...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
We described a case of a patient 20 years old, affected by Duchenne dystrophy with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and severe nocturnal desaturation. He was not compliant to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for claustrophobia and panic attacks. Mouthpiece ventilation was successfully used in this patient, who later accepted the nighttime NIV. PMID: 32904909 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Myologica - Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Myol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we aim to discuss the pathophysiologic basis of hypertension in sleep disorders and the current evidence in the medical literature linking sleep disorders and hypertension in children.Recent FindingsThe medical literature in adults is clear about the contribution of sleep disorders, poor sleep quality, and sleep deprivation to hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk. The literature on cardiovascular consequences of sleep disorders in children is not as robust, but there is some evidence of early cardiovascular changes in children with sleep deprivation and obstructive sleep a...
Source: Current Hypertension Reports - Category: Primary Care Source Type: research
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