Gene-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 shown to limit impact of certain parasitic diseases

(George Washington University) For the first time, researchers at the George Washington University have successfully used the gene-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 to limit the impact of parasitic worms responsible for schistosomiasis and for liver fluke infection, which can cause a diverse spectrum of human disease including bile duct cancer.  
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Abstract Human liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Mekong countries such as Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar with over 10 million infected through consumption of fish containing infective metacercariae. With no tissue migration phase and living entirely within the larger secondary (intrahepatic) bile ducts, liver flukes are only exposed to a biliary mucosal immune response, while their excretory and secretory products also stimulate chronic inflammation of biliary epithelium. Neither mucosal nor tissue immune responses appear to cause parasi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract The availability of genome and transcriptome data of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini provides the foundation for exploration of gene function and its effect on host-parasite interactions and pathogenesis of O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. Functional genomics approaches address the function of DNA at levels of the gene, RNA transcript and protein product using informative manipulations of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, microbiome and metabolome. Advances in functional genomics for O. viverrini have thus far focused on RNA interference. The flukes have been transfected with...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract The liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, and Clonorchis sinensis are closely related fish-borne trematodes endemic in East Asia, Eurasia, and Siberia. Following ingestion, the parasites locate to the biliary tree, where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Infection with O. felineus may also be carcinogenic. The mechanism(s) by which infection with these liver flukes culminates in CCA remain elusive, although they are likely to be mult...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
(George Washington University) Paul Brindley, Ph.D., at the GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences, has received more than $1.7 million from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health to investigate the cellular and molecular links between liver fluke infection and bile duct cancer.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Authors: Kaewpitoon N, Kaewpitoon SJ, Meererksom T, Chan-Aran S, Sangwalee W, Kujapun J, Norkaew J, Chuatanam J, Ponpimai S, Pothipim M, Padchasuwan N, Tongtawee T, Matrakool L, Panpimanmas S, Loyd RA, Wakkhuwatthapong P Abstract The carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, is a serious health problem in Southeast Asia where infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a major cause of death in Thailand. This cross-sectional study aimed to screen for O. viverrini infection among a Thai rural population of 560 individuals from Nakhon Ratchasima, Khonkaen, and Chaiyaphum provinces with a verbal screening...
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
Abstract Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease of major proportion, caused by the carcinogenic, Asian liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. This hepatobiliary disease is known to be associated with malignant cancer (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA) and affects millions of people in Southeast Asia. No vaccine is available, and only one drug (praziquantel) is routinely employed against the parasite. Despite technological advances, little is known about the molecular biology of the fluke itself and the disease complex that it causes in humans. The advent of high-throughput nucleic acid sequencing and bioinformatic t...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundCholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal bile duct cancer associated with infection by the liver fluke,Opisthorchis viverrini, in the lower Mekong region. Numerous public health interventions have focused on reducing exposure toO. viverrini, but incidence of CCA in the region remains high. While this may indicate the inefficacy of public health interventions due to complex social and cultural factors, it may further indicate other risk factors or interactions with the parasite are important in pathogenesis of CCA. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of described risk factors for CCA...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Metronidazole is a synthetic derivative of nitroimidazole that has been widely used for the treatment of several bacterial and protozoal parasitic infections including trichomoniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, liver abscess, acute ulcerative gingivitis, syphilis and tropical phagedena. In addition to its toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract and central/peripheral nervous system, metronidazole has been reported to cause mucosal imbalance by affecting the expression of mucin (Muc2 gene), which is responsible to form an insoluble mucous barrier that protects the gut lumen from microbial colonization. Since m...
Source: Current Drug Metabolism - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Metab Source Type: research
Abstract Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) is an important foodborne parasite that has a major socioeconomic impact on ~35 million people predominantly in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. In humans, infection with C. sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a complex hepatobiliary disease that can induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant cancer of the bile ducts. Central to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single s...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research
This study aimed to find the prevalence of opisthorchiasis in various hosts in Udon Thani Province. Total fecal samples were collected from 14,766 participants. The epidemiological data collected and analysed included prevalence and intensity of infection. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to determine the associations between cross sectional data and to predict possible risk factors. The prevalence of O. viverrini infection in Udon Thani Province averaged 15.3% (eggs per gram (epg.) = 48.9 and range; 12-1, 320), with differences between villages (range; 3.8%-79.8%). An age-dependence for infection was observed to increase ...
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
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