Investigating Sex-Specific Characteristics of Nicotine Addiction Using Metabolic and Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging

This study sought to examine the sex-specific influence of nicotine addiction on gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and the white matter (WM) microstructure. Sixty healthy subjects (smokers/non-smokers) underwent structural and metabolic magnetic resonance imaging scans. Results showed alterations in WM integrity (measured as changes in fractional anisotropy [FA] and GABA in smokers versus non-smokers and females versus males. No overall significant smoking and sex-specific interactions were observed in this study. However, on comparing female smokers with female non-smokers, significantly higher GABA and FA values were observed in female smokers. However, GABA and FA values did not differ significantly when male smokers were compared against male non-smokers. Our results provide a further rationale to investigate the impact of nicotine on central GABAergic function and WM integrity, in particular due to the potential risk for females to experience depressive/anxiety symptoms during smoking cessation.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:267 –277
Source: European Addiction Research - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions The treatment used for PD, particularly DA, is associated with the development of ICDs and related behaviors. Susceptibility to these disorders depends on the associated risk factors. ICDs can have serious personal, family, psychosocial, financial, and medical consequences. However, in contrast, artistic activities have been described in patients with PD while undergoing treatment with DA. These patients are compulsive but report a positive influence on quality of life. These findings highlight the need for a very critical approach at the moment of Dopaminergic Replacement therapy choice. Author Contributio...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives Although interesting data have come from pharmacogenetics, neuroimaging and the interaction of both fields of study, few converging findings are available that describe the antipsychotic treatment response and resistance mechanisms in schizophrenia (DeLisi and Fleischhacker, 2016). Based on the available evidence, the results from both neuroimaging and pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic studies point to an overlap in the neurobiological vulnerability risk factors influencing the antipsychotic drug response in schizophrenia and the risk factors underlying schizophrenia itself. Currently for ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study, therefore, compares reappraisal of negative, positive, neutral, and alcohol-related images at a behavioral and neural level between ADPs and healthy controls (HCs).Thirty-nine ADPs and 39 age-, gender-, and education-matched HCs performed an emotion reappraisal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and craving was measured before and after the reappraisal task. During the emotion reappraisal task, participants were instructed to either attend or reappraise positive, negative, neutral, or alcohol-related images, and to indicate their experienced emotion on a visual analogue scale (VAS).Both A...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study supports existing research showing promise for the application of rt-fMRI neurofeedback in the treatment of problems like PTSD, addiction and depression that are associated with heightened amygdala activation. The clinical potential of this technique, bridging the worlds of neurobiology and psychotherapy, is clear. That said, fMRI scanning is an expensive business, so it may be a while before a new world of personalised mental health interventions reveals itself. —Training emotion regulation through real-time fMRI neurofeedback of amygdala activity Post written by Eleanor Morgan (@eleanormorgan) for B...
Source: BPS RESEARCH DIGEST - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain guest blogger Mental health Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, these results suggested that MMT over one year does not significantly change the behavioral indicators of inhibitory control function in heroin-dependent patients. The increase in activation leads to the hypothesis that MMT over one year may increase cognitive inhibitory control, which may be the result of the combined negative effect of methadone and the positive effect of functional recovery after withdrawal of heroin. PMID: 30214543 [PubMed]
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Conclusion offered by NHS Choices) This study showed some promising initial findings for a new way of managing auditory hallucinations in people with schizophrenia. It may be possible for people to be able to learn how to better control and cope with the sounds they hear by using a process of computer feedback. But this was only a pilot study and wasn’t designed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. To do this would require: A much larger number of participants to see whether the effects could be consistently detected and not down to chance. A control group. It may be helpful to compare the results w...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness Technology auditory auditory hallucinations Brain-Training fMRI fMRI neurofeedback literacy neurocognitive neuroimaging NHS NHS Choices schizophrenia video-game Source Type: blogs
A new technique of analyzing brain patterns appears to help people overcome fear and build self-confidence.The approach, developed by a UCLA-led team of neuroscientists, is described in two new papers, published in the journals Nature Communications and Nature Human Behaviour.Their method could have implications for treating people with depression, dementia and anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder, said Hakwan Lau, a UCLA associate professor of psychology and the senior author of both studies. It could also play a role in improving leadership training for executives and managers.In theNature Human Be...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
We report here an overview of the Depression Inventory Development initiative, including results of the third iteration of items assessing symptoms related to anhedonia, cognition, fatigue, general malaise, motivation, anxiety, negative thinking, pain and appetite. The strategies adopted from the Depression Inventory Development program, as an empirically driven and collaborative process for scale development, have provided the foundation to develop and validate measurement tools in other therapeutic areas as well. Introduction The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)[1] and Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rati...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Current Issue Depression Mood Disorders Patient Assessment Psychiatry Review Scales Trial Methodology depressive symptoms item response theory major depressive disorder rating scales Source Type: research
LSD, once a demonized hippie drug, has been evolving toward a clinically validated psychotherapy tool and Silicon Valley productivity hack for years now. And this week, it hit a major milestone. In a landmark study published Monday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the first modern brain scans of people tripping on LSD illustrate the neural bases of the psychedelic drug's powerful consciousness-altering effects.  The research, which was conducted by the Beckley/Imperial Research Programme in the U.K., showed that LSD reduces connectivity within brain net...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
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