The Double Effect of COVID-19 Confinement Measures and Economic Recession on High-Risk Drug Users and Drug Services
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a profound impact on the lives of high-risk drug users and on the services responding to their needs in at least two important ways: first, through the restrictive measures introduced to mitigate the spread of the virus and, second, as a result of extensive economic downturn. Currently there is great uncertainty as to the future intensity and duration of the pandemic. In addition, the lessons we have been able to learn from previous economic downturns may be of limited applicability to the current situation, which differs in a number of significant respects. Experience nevert...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Buying-Shopping Disorder among Women: The Role of Vulnerability to Marketing, Buying Motives, Impulsivity, and Self-Esteem
Conclusions: Compulsive buyers seem to be more sensitive to marketing strategies, although vulnerability to marketing was not identified as a predictor of the severity of BSD. Given the enormous literature on the role of marketing in other addictive behaviours, further studies are needed to better understand the role of marketing in BSD to develop appropriate public health policies.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Problems among Prisoners: Subgroup Variations, Concurrent Drug Problems, and Treatment Needs
Conclusions: More than half of the prisoners in Norway had AUDIT scores that indicated they could benefit from alcohol-related interventions, and the prevalence was elevated in younger, less educated groups of previously convicted DWI, and violent offenders. Alcohol problems were most often combined with drug problems, and possible dual dependence was associated with particularly severe drinking problems.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis and Pregnancy: A Psychiatric, Medical, or General Population Issue?
Conclusions: Addiction to cannabis during pregnancy has an increased rate confirming surveys on the general US population but seem entirely linked to psychiatric issues, especially borderline personality disorder. Personality disorders may have been underestimated in surveys in the general population until now because these are usually not assessed.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Interventions Tailored to Smoking Parents of Children Aged 0 –18 Years: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: Smoking cessation interventions tailored to parents are modestly effective. To increase the effectiveness and the impact of these interventions in terms of controlling tobacco use and public health, it is crucial for further research to explore how these interventions can be improved.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparison of European Clinical Guidelines on the Management of Alcohol Use Disorders
Conclusions: The results of this survey reflect widespread good practice in producing AUD clinical guidelines across European countries. Regional research collaborations could offer significant time and cost savings in producing the evidence base from which guidelines are then written.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 8, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Feedback-Related Brain Potentials Indicate the Influence of Craving on Decision-Making in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder: An Experimental Study
Conclusions: Results support orientation to reward in AUD patients, particularly amplified upon experienced craving, which may interfere with (feedback-guided) decision-making even in alcohol-unrelated context. Craving-accentuated ERP indices suggest neuroadaptive changes of cognitive-motivational states upon chronic alcohol abuse. Together with altered reward-related expectancies, this has to be considered in intervention and relapse prevention.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 8, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Emerging Adults in Inpatient Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study of Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes
Conclusions: Treatment and follow-up initiatives could be better tailored for emerging adults. Identification of treatment needs among emerging adults manifesting polysubstance use and ADHD may reduce the likelihood of unfavorable treatment outcomes in this patient group.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 4, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Slam Practice: A Review of the Literature
Conclusion: The data we found in international literature were very heterogeneous and from poorly reproducible studies. The definition of slamming in the international literature is not always clear, which limits the completeness of the collected data. This topic has been open to studies only recently; however, health professionals must be trained in the management of this practice, considering its risks in the short and medium terms and its addictive potential. We provided and discussed recommendations and potential future directions.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 4, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Fewer Cancer Cases in 4 Countries of the WHO European Region in 2018 through Increased Alcohol Excise Taxation: A Modelling Study
Conclusion: Increasing excise duties can markedly reduce cancer incidence in European countries.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 3, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in Stress-Related Genes Are Associated with Reduced Cocaine Abuse and Longer Retention in Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder
Conclusions: The study suggests that a reduction in cocaine abuse and longer retention among MMT patients is mediated in part by variants in stress-related genes and is a step toward precision medicine.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Influences of Fasting on Stress Response and Withdrawal Symptoms in Habitual Khat Users
Conclusion: These preliminary results demonstrate that fasting is associated with reduced negative affect and withdrawal symptoms in khat users. Khat use was related to blunted blood pressure stress responses, but this was independent of fasting. Due to the small sample size, these results should be replicated with a large sample and comprehensive stress tasks.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 17, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 26, 2020
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:I –VI (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Acknowledgement
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:365 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Associations of Buying-Shopping Disorder Symptoms with Identity Confusion, Materialism, and Socially Undesirable Personality Features in a Community Sample
Conclusion: The findings suggest that individuals with BSD attempt to address their narcissistic deficits via materialistic possessions. This assumption warrants further investigation in a clinical sample.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Compulsive Health-Related Internet Use and Cyberchondria
Conclusions: The finding that the adapted CIUS scores are associated with cyberchondria indicates that cyberchondria has a compulsive component, at least in terms of health-related Internet use. It also suggests that compulsive health-related Internet use persists despite the distress associated with this activity. Males may engage in cyberchondria more compulsively than females. These findings have implications for research and clinical practice.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cognition and Cortical Thickness in Heavy Cannabis Users
Conclusions: The data support the notion of domain-specific cognitive impairment in individuals with HCU and provide a neuromechanistic understanding of such deficits, particularly with respect to abnormal CT in brain areas associated with long-term memory processing.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Characteristics of Patients in Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Addiction Who Succeed in Changing Smoking, Weight, and Physical Activity: A Secondary Analysis of an RCT on Combined Lifestyle Interventions
Conclusions: Having several unhealthy lifestyles in addition to alcohol and drug addiction was a significant predictor of successful lifestyle changes in the short- and long term after the VIP for lifestyle interventions. Likewise, education was significant. The results should be considered in future development and research among this vulnerable group of patients.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis Use during Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
Conclusions: There was a statistically significant and clinically relevant association between the use of cannabis during pregnancy and reduced birth weight. Clinicians should screen not only for cannabis use but also for the length and intensity of use as part of a comprehensive substance use screening.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Self-Reported Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis Use during COVID-19 Lockdown Measures: Results from a Web-Based Survey
Conclusions: During the lockdown, individuals consumed slightly more alcohol and smoked marginally more cigarettes compared to the period before the lockdown. Further research focussing on follow-up of individuals at risk may be useful to provide appropriate care in post-COVID times.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Imaginal Retraining Reduces Cigarette Smoking: A Randomized Controlled Study
Conclusion: When used regularly, imaginal retraining may reduce craving for tobacco and actual smoking behavior in a subgroup of smokers. In view of the large subgroup that did not read the manual or did not perform the exercises, alternative ways of conveying the imaginal retraining technique should be sought (e.g., demonstration via video clips). To conclude, imaginal retraining may represent a simple low-threshold technique to reduce smoking and assist current evidence-based treatment programs targeted at abstinence. It needs to be tested whether its mechanism of action deviates from standard ABM.Eur Addict Res (Source:...
Source: European Addiction Research - September 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

SmoCuDa: A Validated Smoking Cue Database to Reliably Induce Craving in Tobacco Use Disorder
Conclusions: We present a novel image library of well-described smoking-related cues, which were rated on a continuous scale along the dimensions craving, valence, and arousal that accounts for inter-individual differences. The rating software, image database, and their ratings are publicly available at https://smocuda.github.io.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Clients Diagnosed with a Substance Use Disorder in the Therapeutic Communities: Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity
Conclusions: The ADHD prevalence in TCs was nearly 10-fold compared to the globally recorded values. ADHD diagnostic procedures and interventions should become an integral part of the standard diagnostic and treatment process.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Subject Index
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:307 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Author Index
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:306 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prelims
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:165 –168 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis and Inflammatory Mediators
Discussion: Although cannabis use can produce immune inflammatory suppression in healthy people, this effect is not robust enough to change inflammatory mediators ’ levels in situations of highly dysfunctional inflammatory activation. Nevertheless, the impact of cannabinoids in clinical outcomes of these conditions remains to be determined.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Tobacco Smoking Rates in a National Cohort of People with Substance Use Disorder Receiving Treatment
Conclusions: This study identifies the potential for a greater emphasis on reducing tobacco consumption within SUD treatment, for example, by offering all smokers within SUD treatment smoking cessation support as part of their SUD treatment programme.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Conclusions: Although the observed negative outcomes were large in the MA-exposed newborns, the adjustment had a profound effect on the comparison with the GP, indicating the large influence of lifestyle and socio-economic factors in these high-risk pregnancies. MA-exposed newborns had better neonatal outcomes compared to opioids-exposed.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Publisher's Note
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effects of Substance Misuse and Family History of Substance Use Disorder on Delay Discounting in Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conclusions: In adolescents and young adults with ADHD, high impulsive choice might only be present in those with comorbid SM and in an FH+ subgroup with high callous traits. This suggests that impulsive choice in ADHD might result from (1) effects of SM and (2) a combined effect of SUD vulnerability and high callousness. Future studies should investigate efficacy of early interventions, targeting CU traits.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

ADHD Is Associated with a Higher Risk for Traumatic Events, Self-Reported PTSD, and a Higher Severity of PTSD Symptoms in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
Conclusions: ADHD in patients with AD is associated with a higher frequency of PTEs and PTSD with more severe and more impairing PTSD symptoms. In alcohol-dependent patients with ADHD, regular screening for PTSD should be considered.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder
Conclusion: This international consensus statement can be used by clinicians and patients together in a shared decision-making process to select the best interventions and to reach optimal outcomes in adolescent patients with concurrent ADHD and SUD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Prisoners: Increased Substance Use Disorder Severity and Psychiatric Comorbidity
Conclusions: Findings highlight the complex mental health needs of incarcerated populations, where SUD, ADHD, and other psychiatric disorders are prevalent and interrelated.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Often Overlooked and Ignored, but Do Not Underestimate Its Relevance: ADHD in Addiction – Addiction in ADHD
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The International Collaboration on ADHD and Substance Abuse (ICASA): Mission, Results, and Future Activities
Conclusions: The ICASA research to date has demonstrated a high prevalence of comorbid ADHD and SUD, associated with elevated rates of additional comorbidities and risk factors for adverse outcomes. More research is needed to find the best way to treat these patients, which is the main topic of the ongoing INCAS study.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Onset and Severity of Early Disruptive Behavioral Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conclusions: ADHD is associated with earlier onset of SUD as well as with an earlier onset of more frequent and more severe disruptive behavioral disorders. These findings may inform preventive interventions to mitigate adverse consequences of ADHD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Global Severity Profiles in Treatment-Seeking Patients with Substance Use Disorders
Conclusions: In treatment-seeking SUD patients, comorbid ADHD is associated with polysubstance dependence, psychopathological complexity, and social risks, which substantiates the clinical relevance of screening, diagnosing, and treating ADHD in patients with SUDs.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Quality of Life in High-Dose Benzodiazepine and Related Z-Drug Users
Conclusions: Adult ADHD is associated with worse QoL measures in high-dose BZD/Z-drug users. Future studies should explore whether appropriate BZD/Z-drug detoxification might improve QoL measures and whether the most appropriate detoxification protocol differs in ADHD+ versus ADHD − populations.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Use Motives of Patients with Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conclusions: Patients with and without ADHD show very similar motive patterns for ATS use. This indicates that ATS treatment programs addressing use motives do not necessarily have to be different for patients with and without ADHD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Screened Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as a Predictor of Substance Use Initiation and Escalation in Early Adulthood and the Role of Self-Reported Conduct Disorder and Sensation Seeking: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study with Young Adult Swiss Men
Conclusion: Screened-positive ADHD is an independent predictor of late SU and AUD, along with self-reported CD and SS. From a public health perspective, identifying ADHD is not only important in childhood and adolescence but also in early adulthood to guide specific interventions to lower risks of drug use initiation and the development of AUD in early adulthood.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Prescription of Anticraving Medication and its Economic Consequences
Conclusion: Anticraving medications are hardly ever prescribed. Their routine use could reduce hospital readmission rates and save on health-care costs.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Qualitative Approach in Understanding Illness Perception and Treatment Needs in Patients with Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Use Disorder
Conclusion: GUD shares many characteristics with other substance use disorders, in line with gradual development from positive reinforcement in early-stage GUD to negative reinforcement in later stages of more compulsive GHB use. Future studies should investigate whether personalization of treatment goals, such as social reintegration, lead to better treatment outcomes. (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Personality Traits among the Various Profiles of Substance Use Disorder Patients: New Evidence Using the DSM-5 Section III Framework
Conclusions: The results help to identify the personality profiles associated with various SUD profiles. In particular, patients from the groups POLY, COC-HER, and ALC present high scores on pathological facets related to borderline PD and schizotypal PD (all 3), and antisocial PD (POLY), while the CAN cluster is more normalized and its pathological facets are related to the schizotypal PD. Patients with POLY have a greater tendency toward pathological personality, with the involvement of a large number of facets, while COC-HER and ALC show a slightly less severe profile, and CAN users are characterized by lower scores, bu...
Source: European Addiction Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

“Readiness to Change” Predicts Efficacy of Reduction among Smokers with Severe Mental Illness
Conclusion: The motivation level achieved in the preparation phase predicted the reduction of expired CO over a given period when calculated by a continuous measure (RTC).Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is a Risk Factor for Multiple Addictions in Police Officers Hospitalized for Alcohol
Conclusions: PTSD is common in police officers hospitalized for alcohol and associated with a higher severity of some addictive disorders (alcohol/tobacco). PTSD and its comorbid addictive disorders should be systematically screened and treated in this population.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

How Are Self-Efficacy and Motivation Related to Drinking Five Years after Residential Treatment? A Longitudinal Multicenter Study
Conclusions: The results indicate that self-efficacy and motivation are interrelated in improving long-term abstinence and PDA following residential treatments and may play a substantial role in recovery from AUD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Concomitant Heroin and Cocaine Use among Opioid-Dependent Patients during Methadone, Buprenorphine or Morphine Opioid Agonist Therapy
Conclusion: This study suggests that BUP OAT is associated with reduced additional opiate co-use.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 9, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Decision-Making Measured by the Iowa Gambling Task in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders Choosing Harm Reduction versus Relapse Prevention Program
Conclusion: This study confirms that the decision-making process of patients with an alcohol use disorder is impaired. However, the 2 groups differ on the IGT scores, despite comparable clinical and cognitive profiles. The patients ’ decision-making abilities could be a useful guide when developing therapeutic programs.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Degree of Multidimensional Severity of Alcohol Use Disorder among Treatment-Seeking Patients: Is There an Additive Effect of Parental Alcohol Use Disorder?
Conclusions: Exposure to parental AUD is strikingly high among treatment-seeking outpatients. Nonetheless, the additive effect has a modest impact on multidimensional addiction severity and is mostly related to psycho-social impairment among treatment-seeking male offspring.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 18, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research