Self-Reported Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis Use during COVID-19 Lockdown Measures: Results from a Web-Based Survey
Conclusions: During the lockdown, individuals consumed slightly more alcohol and smoked marginally more cigarettes compared to the period before the lockdown. Further research focussing on follow-up of individuals at risk may be useful to provide appropriate care in post-COVID times.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Imaginal Retraining Reduces Cigarette Smoking: A Randomized Controlled Study
Conclusion: When used regularly, imaginal retraining may reduce craving for tobacco and actual smoking behavior in a subgroup of smokers. In view of the large subgroup that did not read the manual or did not perform the exercises, alternative ways of conveying the imaginal retraining technique should be sought (e.g., demonstration via video clips). To conclude, imaginal retraining may represent a simple low-threshold technique to reduce smoking and assist current evidence-based treatment programs targeted at abstinence. It needs to be tested whether its mechanism of action deviates from standard ABM.Eur Addict Res (Source:...
Source: European Addiction Research - September 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

SmoCuDa: A Validated Smoking Cue Database to Reliably Induce Craving in Tobacco Use Disorder
Conclusions: We present a novel image library of well-described smoking-related cues, which were rated on a continuous scale along the dimensions craving, valence, and arousal that accounts for inter-individual differences. The rating software, image database, and their ratings are publicly available at https://smocuda.github.io.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Clients Diagnosed with a Substance Use Disorder in the Therapeutic Communities: Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity
Conclusions: The ADHD prevalence in TCs was nearly 10-fold compared to the globally recorded values. ADHD diagnostic procedures and interventions should become an integral part of the standard diagnostic and treatment process.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Subject Index
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:307 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Author Index
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:306 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prelims
Eur Addict Res 2020;26:165 –168 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis and Inflammatory Mediators
Discussion: Although cannabis use can produce immune inflammatory suppression in healthy people, this effect is not robust enough to change inflammatory mediators ’ levels in situations of highly dysfunctional inflammatory activation. Nevertheless, the impact of cannabinoids in clinical outcomes of these conditions remains to be determined.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Tobacco Smoking Rates in a National Cohort of People with Substance Use Disorder Receiving Treatment
Conclusions: This study identifies the potential for a greater emphasis on reducing tobacco consumption within SUD treatment, for example, by offering all smokers within SUD treatment smoking cessation support as part of their SUD treatment programme.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Conclusions: Although the observed negative outcomes were large in the MA-exposed newborns, the adjustment had a profound effect on the comparison with the GP, indicating the large influence of lifestyle and socio-economic factors in these high-risk pregnancies. MA-exposed newborns had better neonatal outcomes compared to opioids-exposed.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Publisher's Note
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effects of Substance Misuse and Family History of Substance Use Disorder on Delay Discounting in Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conclusions: In adolescents and young adults with ADHD, high impulsive choice might only be present in those with comorbid SM and in an FH+ subgroup with high callous traits. This suggests that impulsive choice in ADHD might result from (1) effects of SM and (2) a combined effect of SUD vulnerability and high callousness. Future studies should investigate efficacy of early interventions, targeting CU traits.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

ADHD Is Associated with a Higher Risk for Traumatic Events, Self-Reported PTSD, and a Higher Severity of PTSD Symptoms in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
Conclusions: ADHD in patients with AD is associated with a higher frequency of PTEs and PTSD with more severe and more impairing PTSD symptoms. In alcohol-dependent patients with ADHD, regular screening for PTSD should be considered.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder
Conclusion: This international consensus statement can be used by clinicians and patients together in a shared decision-making process to select the best interventions and to reach optimal outcomes in adolescent patients with concurrent ADHD and SUD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Prisoners: Increased Substance Use Disorder Severity and Psychiatric Comorbidity
Conclusions: Findings highlight the complex mental health needs of incarcerated populations, where SUD, ADHD, and other psychiatric disorders are prevalent and interrelated.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Often Overlooked and Ignored, but Do Not Underestimate Its Relevance: ADHD in Addiction – Addiction in ADHD
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The International Collaboration on ADHD and Substance Abuse (ICASA): Mission, Results, and Future Activities
Conclusions: The ICASA research to date has demonstrated a high prevalence of comorbid ADHD and SUD, associated with elevated rates of additional comorbidities and risk factors for adverse outcomes. More research is needed to find the best way to treat these patients, which is the main topic of the ongoing INCAS study.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Onset and Severity of Early Disruptive Behavioral Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conclusions: ADHD is associated with earlier onset of SUD as well as with an earlier onset of more frequent and more severe disruptive behavioral disorders. These findings may inform preventive interventions to mitigate adverse consequences of ADHD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Global Severity Profiles in Treatment-Seeking Patients with Substance Use Disorders
Conclusions: In treatment-seeking SUD patients, comorbid ADHD is associated with polysubstance dependence, psychopathological complexity, and social risks, which substantiates the clinical relevance of screening, diagnosing, and treating ADHD in patients with SUDs.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Quality of Life in High-Dose Benzodiazepine and Related Z-Drug Users
Conclusions: Adult ADHD is associated with worse QoL measures in high-dose BZD/Z-drug users. Future studies should explore whether appropriate BZD/Z-drug detoxification might improve QoL measures and whether the most appropriate detoxification protocol differs in ADHD+ versus ADHD − populations.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Use Motives of Patients with Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conclusions: Patients with and without ADHD show very similar motive patterns for ATS use. This indicates that ATS treatment programs addressing use motives do not necessarily have to be different for patients with and without ADHD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Screened Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as a Predictor of Substance Use Initiation and Escalation in Early Adulthood and the Role of Self-Reported Conduct Disorder and Sensation Seeking: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study with Young Adult Swiss Men
Conclusion: Screened-positive ADHD is an independent predictor of late SU and AUD, along with self-reported CD and SS. From a public health perspective, identifying ADHD is not only important in childhood and adolescence but also in early adulthood to guide specific interventions to lower risks of drug use initiation and the development of AUD in early adulthood.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Prescription of Anticraving Medication and its Economic Consequences
Conclusion: Anticraving medications are hardly ever prescribed. Their routine use could reduce hospital readmission rates and save on health-care costs.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Qualitative Approach in Understanding Illness Perception and Treatment Needs in Patients with Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Use Disorder
Conclusion: GUD shares many characteristics with other substance use disorders, in line with gradual development from positive reinforcement in early-stage GUD to negative reinforcement in later stages of more compulsive GHB use. Future studies should investigate whether personalization of treatment goals, such as social reintegration, lead to better treatment outcomes. (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Personality Traits among the Various Profiles of Substance Use Disorder Patients: New Evidence Using the DSM-5 Section III Framework
Conclusions: The results help to identify the personality profiles associated with various SUD profiles. In particular, patients from the groups POLY, COC-HER, and ALC present high scores on pathological facets related to borderline PD and schizotypal PD (all 3), and antisocial PD (POLY), while the CAN cluster is more normalized and its pathological facets are related to the schizotypal PD. Patients with POLY have a greater tendency toward pathological personality, with the involvement of a large number of facets, while COC-HER and ALC show a slightly less severe profile, and CAN users are characterized by lower scores, bu...
Source: European Addiction Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

“Readiness to Change” Predicts Efficacy of Reduction among Smokers with Severe Mental Illness
Conclusion: The motivation level achieved in the preparation phase predicted the reduction of expired CO over a given period when calculated by a continuous measure (RTC).Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is a Risk Factor for Multiple Addictions in Police Officers Hospitalized for Alcohol
Conclusions: PTSD is common in police officers hospitalized for alcohol and associated with a higher severity of some addictive disorders (alcohol/tobacco). PTSD and its comorbid addictive disorders should be systematically screened and treated in this population.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

How Are Self-Efficacy and Motivation Related to Drinking Five Years after Residential Treatment? A Longitudinal Multicenter Study
Conclusions: The results indicate that self-efficacy and motivation are interrelated in improving long-term abstinence and PDA following residential treatments and may play a substantial role in recovery from AUD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Concomitant Heroin and Cocaine Use among Opioid-Dependent Patients during Methadone, Buprenorphine or Morphine Opioid Agonist Therapy
Conclusion: This study suggests that BUP OAT is associated with reduced additional opiate co-use.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 9, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Decision-Making Measured by the Iowa Gambling Task in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders Choosing Harm Reduction versus Relapse Prevention Program
Conclusion: This study confirms that the decision-making process of patients with an alcohol use disorder is impaired. However, the 2 groups differ on the IGT scores, despite comparable clinical and cognitive profiles. The patients ’ decision-making abilities could be a useful guide when developing therapeutic programs.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Degree of Multidimensional Severity of Alcohol Use Disorder among Treatment-Seeking Patients: Is There an Additive Effect of Parental Alcohol Use Disorder?
Conclusions: Exposure to parental AUD is strikingly high among treatment-seeking outpatients. Nonetheless, the additive effect has a modest impact on multidimensional addiction severity and is mostly related to psycho-social impairment among treatment-seeking male offspring.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 18, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Influence of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Use and Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Coma on Affect and the Affective Network
Conclusions: GHB-use but in particular GHB-induced comas, are associated with altered emotion identification and hippocampal functioning. Awareness campaigns are required to raise consciousness about the adverse effects of GHB-induced comas on affect regulation, despite the absence of subjective side effects.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 18, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Definition and Validity of the Construct “Problematic Khat Use”: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: Problematic khat use constitutes, but is not limited to, harms, increased use over time, and frequent engagement in other psychoactive substances misuse. Khat use is different from problematic khat use since it is occasional and used for prayer, social, and functional reasons. Strong empirical studies that could establish thresholds for patterns of problematic khat use and a culturally suitable problematic khat use measures that follows a bottom-up approach of scale development are warranted.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Four-Factor Model of Work Addiction: The Development of the Work Addiction Risk Test Revised
Conclusions: As a conclusion, the WART-R is suitable to be used as an indicator of work addiction based on clinically relevant symptom dimensions.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:145 –159 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Feasibility and Acceptability of an Intervention Providing Computer-Generated Tailored Feedback to Target Alcohol Consumption and Depressive Symptoms in Proactively Recruited Health Care Patients and Reactively Recruited Media Volunteers: Results of a Pilot Study
Conclusion: The intervention was technically and logistically feasible, well accepted, and may have the potential to reduce hazardous drinking and depressive symptoms in different populations. Subsamples differed in terms of problem severity, motivation to change, intervention usage, pre-post changes, and attitudes toward the intervention, showing that intervention development should involve the intended target populations to avoid biased conclusions on intervention effectiveness and acceptability.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:119 –131 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 31, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking Behavior of Women Before, During, and after Pregnancy: Indicators of Smoking, Quitting, and Relapse
Conclusions: One of the key findings of this study suggests that it is essential that partners quit smoking before pregnancy and do not smoke during pregnancy. If partners continue smoking during pregnancy, they should quit smoking postpartum. Health care professionals can play an important role in addressing partners ’ smoking and giving them evidence-based cessation support before, during, and after pregnancy.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:132 –144 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 31, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Thiamine Substitution in Alcohol Use Disorder: A Narrative Review of Medical Guidelines
Conclusion: Substitution of parenteral thiamine in individuals with suspected WE is a well-established treatment regimen. However, suggestions according to guidelines vary widely. Furthermore, hardly any evidence-based recommendations exist on a more general use of thiamine as a preventative intervention in individuals with AUD. Further research is of utmost importance to raise awareness for this potentially undervalued problem.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:103 –110 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 21, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

History of Lifetime Cannabis Use Is Associated with Better Cognition and Worse Real-World Functioning in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
Conclusions: Lifetime cannabis use is associated with better working memory and processing speed and worse real-world functioning in the area of socially useful activities in patients with schizophrenia-related disorders. Clinicians should, therefore, be aware of it to provide patient-centred care in their daily clinical practice.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:111 –118 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 21, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Status in a Mixed Gender Population of Opioid-Maintained Prison Inmates
Conclusion: There is a need for assessment of ADHD and other psychiatric comorbidities in OMT prisoners. Evidence-based treatment should be routinely provided.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:80 –92 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 18, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Identification and Assessment of Drug-User Groups Among Nightlife Attendees: Self-Reports, Breathalyzer-Tests and Oral Fluid Drug Tests
Conclusions: Despite some discrepancies between self-reports and biological tests, self-reports proved both suitable and useful in identification of substantively different drug-user typologies, potentially informing targeted policy responses. Still, methodological challenges associated with onsite studies of illicit drug use should be further explored.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:93 –102 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 18, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the AUDIT, AUDIT-C, CRAFFT and ASSIST-Y among Swedish Adolescents
Conclusion: Based on the current sample, ASSIST-Y and the CRAFFT performed better than AUDIT and AUDIT-C. Health-care clinics working with adolescents should carefully consider their choice of screening instruments.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:68 –77 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Addiction Research and Socialpsychiatry Between Machiavelli and Modern Art
Eur Addict Res 2019;25:78 –79 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Intravenous Misuse of Methadone, Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine-Naloxone in Patients Under Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Cross-Sectional Multicentre Study
Conclusions: We offered new information on factors associated with intravenous OMT misuse, repeated misuse and ER admission in Italian patients under OMT. Our data indicate that BUP-NLX misuse is not different from that of BUP or MET. Choosing the more expensive BUP-NLX over MET will likely not lead to the expected reduction of the risk of injection misuse of the OMT. Instead of prescribing new and expensive OMT formulations, addiction unit physicians and medical personnel should better focus on patient ’s features that are associated with a higher likelihood of misuse. Care should be paid to concurrent benzodiazepin...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effect of Assertive Community Treatment for Patients with Substance Use Disorder: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: The results of the very few existing randomized control studies are mixed. Treatment engagement was higher for ACT in 4 datasets. One dataset reported higher service contact rates for the ACT group than for controls. In 2 datasets a positive effect on hospitalization rates was found. Higher fidelity to the ACT model appears to improve outcomes. Substance use reduced only in half of the datasets, of which only one showed a significant reduction in the ACT group. Overall, ACT is a promising approach that may be useful for promoting treatment engagement for patients with SUD. According to earlier studies on patie...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

DNA Methylation of the Leptin Gene Promoter is Altered by Chronic Alcohol Exposure in an Animal Model for Alcohol Dependence
The objective of our study was to investigate the dynamics of leptin gene promoter methylation during alcohol withdrawal and specific treatment in a rodent (rat) model for alcohol dependence. DNA methylation was measured using direct bisulfite sequencing at 0 h, 24 h, and 6 days of alcohol withdrawal as well as after treatment with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), Beta-Endorphin, or saline. We found significantly lower methylation levels in alcohol-consuming animals compared to alcohol-na ïve animals. During 6 days of alcohol deprivation, this difference in methylation vanished. Leptin methylation of ...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Intrapretuvalisuse of Methadone, Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine-Naloxone in Patients Under Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Cross-Sectional Multicentre Study
Conclusions: We offered new information on factors associated with intravenous OMT misuse, repeated misuse and ER admission in Italian patients under OMT. Our data indicate that BUP-NLX misuse is not different from that of BUP or MET. Choosing the more expensive BUP-NLX over MET will likely not lead to the expected reduction of the risk of injection misuse of the OMT. Instead of prescribing new and expensive OMT formulations, addiction unit physicians and medical personnel should better focus on patient ’s features that are associated with a higher likelihood of misuse. Care should be paid to concurrent benzodiazepin...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 13, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Substance Abuse-Related Self-Stigma in Women with Substance Use Disorder and Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Conclusions: The progressive model of self-stigma could be confirmed in women with SUD and PTSD, but PTSD severity and childhood trauma did not directly affect this process. Self-stigma appears to be related to depression in a stronger way than PTSD is related to women with SUD and PTSD.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:20 –29 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 13, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gambling on Smartphones: A Study of a Potentially Addictive Behaviour in a Naturalistic Setting
Smartphone users engage extensively with their devices, on an intermittent basis for short periods of time. These patterns of behaviour have the potential to make mobile gambling especially perseverative. This paper reports the first empirical study of mobile gambling in which a simulated gambling app was used to measure gambling behaviour in phases of acquisition and extinction. We found that participants showed considerable perseverance in the face of continued losses that were linearly related to their prior engagement with the app. Latencies between gambles were associated with the magnitude of reinforcement; more posi...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 13, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Effects of Oxytocin on Withdrawal, Craving and Stress Response in Heroin-Dependent Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial
Opioid dependence is an increasing clinical and public health problem. Current pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy and cause serious side effects. Increasing bodies of evidences suggest the neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT), as a potential treatment for drug abuse disorders. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of OT on withdrawal, craving and anxiety scores, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) blood level in heroin-dependent male patients. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 58 males with opioid dependence by Abstinence Center of Addictive People...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 13, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Acknowledgement
Eur Addict Res 2018;24:312 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Addiction Source Type: research