COVID-19 Lockdown and Consumption Patterns among Substance Use Disorder Outpatients: A Multicentre Study
Conclusion: The home lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with major implications for substance consumption and psychiatric distress among SUD outpatients. Considering this, the need to plan appropriate interventions in cases of similar health crises is highlighted.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 17, 2022 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Hypothesis of Subliminal Cue Reactivity in Addiction Revisited: An fMRI Study
Conclusion: We found no evidence of neural reactivity to subliminally presented drug cues in this sample of subjects with severe amphetamine dependence. These results are discussed in relation to the earlier literature, and the evidence for subliminal drug cue reactivity in substance use disorders is questioned.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 13, 2022 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Take-Home Naloxone and the Prevention of Deaths from Heroin Overdose: Pursuing Strong Science, Fuller Understanding, Greater Impact
This article explores 5 areas (many illustrations UK-based where the author works): firstly, the need for strong science; secondly, our improved understanding of opioid overdose and deaths; thirdly, the search for greater impact from our policies and interventions; fourthly, developing better forms of naloxone; and fifthly, examining the challenges still to be addressed.Key Messages:“Take-home naloxone” is an exemplar of harm reduction with potential global impact – drug policy and practice for the public good. However, “having the potential” is not good enough – there needs to be actual...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 28, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effectiveness and Safety of Low-Threshold Opioid-Agonist Treatment in Hard-To-Reach Populations with Opioid Dependence
Conclusions: Low-threshold OAT was at least as effective and safe as the standard OAT in terms of treatment retention, the use of illicit opioids, non-fatal overdose, and death. Healthcare utilization increased during the OAT compared to the period before. Lowering the threshold for OAT entrance within proper delivery platforms should be broadly considered to reduce harm and improve healthcare access among patients with opioid dependence.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 3, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

High Prevalence and Early Onsets: Legal and Illegal Substance Use in an Urban Cohort of Young Adults in Switzerland
The objective of the current study was to investigate substance use prevalence rates and ages of onset in a community-representative sample of female and male young adults in Switzerland.Methods: Data came from the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso). In 2018, participants (N = 1,180, 50.8% females) were ∼20 years old. Lifetime and past-year use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens, opioids, and benzodiazepines were assessed with an extensive substance use questionnaire. Additionally, ages of onsets of the respective substances were estimated by averagi...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 3, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Interactions between Genetic, Prenatal, Cortisol, and Parenting Influences on Adolescent Substance Use and Frequency: A TRAILS Study
Conclusion: Polygenic risk seems of importance for early use but less so for frequency of use, whereas blunted cortisol reactivity was correlated with both. Blunted cortisol reactivity may also catalyze early risks for substance use, though to a limited degree. Gene-environment interactions play no role in the context of this multifactorial model.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 30, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Country-Level Heavy Episodic Drinking and Individual-Level Experiences of Harm from Others ’ Drinking-Related Aggression in 19 European Countries
Conclusion: Harm from others ’ drinking-related aggression depends not only on individual factors but is also influenced by the drinking patterns of the population. However, the country-level prevalence of HED only explains a small part of the variance of this type of harm.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 29, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Drug Use Changes at the Individual Level: Results from a Longitudinal, Multisite Survey in Young Europeans Frequenting the Nightlife Scene
Conclusions: In this European nightlife sample, ketamine was found to have the biggest increase in the past 12 months, which occurred alongside an increase in frequency of use in continuing users. The patterns of uptake and discontinuation of alkyl nitrates, novel psychoactive substances, and prescription opioids provide new information that has not been captured by existing cross-sectional surveys. These findings demonstrate the importance of longitudinal assessments of drug use and highlight the dynamic nature of the European drug landscape.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 26, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A 6-Month Randomized Trial of a Smartphone Application, UControlDrink, in Aiding Recovery in Alcohol Use Disorder
Conclusions: The UCD smartphone app demonstrates a significant benefit to reducing heavy drinking days over a 6-month post-rehabilitation period in AUD.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 19, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Indicators of Drug-Related Community Impacts of Open Drug Scenes: A Scoping Review
Discussion: DRCI indicators are heterogenic, and various factors affect the indicators. The factors include social mores, political discourse, and historical approaches to dealing with and using drugs. Some societies do not tolerate the existence of ODSs. In contrast, many countries have adopted harm reduction programs to manage DRCIs. Identified DRCI indicators were drug using and dealing in public, drug-related litter, crime, drug-related loitering, street-based income generation activities, noise, and unsafety feelings in inhabitants. To solve the problems associated with DRCIs and to make a major change in ODSs, it is ...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 18, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Dependence and Association with Concurrent Use of Cocaine, Alcohol, and Cannabis: A Cross-Sectional Study
Discussion: Against initial hypotheses, frequent concurrent use of alcohol or cannabis generally decreased chances for ATS dependence. An explanation could be the study population, which consists of many irregular users of ATS, who mainly consume alcohol or cannabis. Cocaine generally increased chances, although results were not significant. The frequent use of all 3 substances together with ATS in the last year was significantly associated with dependence, thus reporting important information for treatment services. Further research is needed for disentangling causal relationships underlying these associations and for pin...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 17, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 27, 2021
Eur Addict Res 2021;27:I –VI (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 1, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Reviewers
Eur Addict Res 2021;27:475 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 1, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Perception of a New Prolonged-Release Buprenorphine Formulation in Patients with Opioid Use Disorder: The PREDEPO Study
Conclusion: Two-thirds of patients would switch their treatment for PRB, and most patients on B/N considered that switching would be easy. PRB could be a suitable alternative for OUD management.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 1, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparing Cannabis Use Disorder in the General Population with Cannabis Treatment Seekers Using Multi-Source National Datasets: Who Receives Treatment?
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that earlier users and those with more complex or disadvantaged lives are more likely to seek treatment. A broad population health approach that engages multiple sectors such as health, social welfare, and education is recommended to ensure that there is increased opportunity for people with CUD to be identified and signposted towards treatment.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 13, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Predictive Value of Degree of Preference for Extended-Release Naltrexone for Treatment Adherence, Opioid Use, and Relapse
Conclusions: Individuals who matched with their preferred treatment used less illicit opioids than those who did not during short-term treatment. However, baseline preference for XR-NTX treatment primarily influenced longer term opioid use and treatment adherence.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 24, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Imaginal Retraining Reduces Craving for Tobacco in 1-Year Controlled Follow-Up Study
Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary support for the long-term efficacy of imaginal retraining on craving for tobacco but not on smoking behaviour, highlighting the importance of multimodal treatment concepts in smoking cessation that target a variety of maintaining factors. Future studies need to investigate the long-term efficacy of the intervention in prospective RCTs that test alternative ways of conveying the technique to improve adherence.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 17, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Time Devoted to Individual, Collective, and Two-Person Sports: Its Association with Risk of Exercise Addiction and Alcohol Use Disorder
Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that different types of sport have different risks for EA (individual sports being more concerned) and AUD (collective sports being more concerned). Results suggest that the type of sports may be a crucial variable to understand how physical activity can be a risk factor for alcohol disorders. The social dimension of collective sports should be further investigated to facilitate preventive approaches.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 10, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Longitudinal Assessment of Alcohol Consumption throughout the First COVID-19 Lockdown: Contribution of Age and Pre-Pandemic Drinking Patterns
Conclusions: Lockdown onset and offset constitute key periods for alcohol consumption changes during the COVID-19 crisis, particularly in youth and in individuals with hazardous or problematic drinking patterns.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 3, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparison of Oxidative Effects of Electronic Cigarette and Tobacco Smoke Exposure Performed Experimentally
Conclusion: Our results indicate that EC smoke induced oxidative stress. Therefore, ECs are potentially risky for human health and can lead to important health problems.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 25, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Nasal Opioid Agonist Treatment in Patients with Severe Opioid Dependence: A Case Series
Conclusions: This is the first description of the clinical use of the nasal route of administration for HAT. n-HAT may constitute an important risk-reduced rapid-onset alternative to i-HAT. In particular, it may be suited for patients with injection-related complications, or noninjecting opioid-dependent patients failing to respond to oral OAT.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 26, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Polysubstance Use Is Positively Associated with Gaming Disorder Symptom Severity: A Latent Class Analytical Study
Conclusions: Positive associations were shown between higher GD severity and the polysubstance using class. The roles of criteria of “giving up other activities” and “negative consequences” were highlighted in more severe substance use patterns. However, GD severity and criteria did not differ as a function of the level of alcohol use. These findings may imply common roots of GD and illicit drug use in adolescents.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 20, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Google Trends Data: A Potential New Tool for Monitoring the Opioid Crisis
Conclusion: Inexpensive, publicly accessible, real-time GT data could supplement and strengthen the monitoring of opioid overdose epidemic if used in conjunction with the existing official data sources.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 15, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Erratum
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 6, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Barriers and Facilitators to Seek Help for Substance Use Disorder among Dutch Physicians: A Qualitative Study
Conclusion: Physicians with SUD face barriers when seeking help for SUD mostly at the level of the individual physician. Health services and people around physicians with SUD could facilitate the help-seeking process by offering confidential and nonpunitive support. Future studies should explore whether the barriers and facilitators identified in this study also hold for other mental health issues.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 30, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Changes in Online Psychoactive Substance Trade via Telegram during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Conclusions: Telegram analysis shows that in the Netherlands, online psychoactive substance trade may have been affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The direction of this effect was different for different classes of substances.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 16, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Metabolic Dynamics in the Prefrontal Cortex during a Working Memory Task in Young Adult Smokers
Conclusion: Further studies are necessary to shed more light on the association between smoking behaviours and metabolic alterations. However, our preliminary findings would assist in this future research to have a complete understanding of the metabolite interactions not only in smoking but also in addiction research.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 2, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Semper Aliquid Haeret
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 28, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Motivational Interviewing for Cannabis Use Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: MI is an effective intervention to reduce cannabis use and achieve abstinence, especially among adults and patients with no prior history of psychotic disorder. Further investigation is needed to assess the effect on CUD symptoms. MI should be included in guidelines for treating cannabis use disorder as one of the essential psychological interventions.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 7, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Explaining the Differences in Opioid Overdose Deaths between Scotland and England/Wales: Implications for European Opioid Policies
Conclusion: It is concluded that the opioid crisis in Scotland is best explained by a combination of drivers, consisting of a higher population involvement in (problematic) opioid use (notably methadone), relatively more polydrug use (notably benzodiazepines and gabapentinoids), a steeper ageing of the PUOP population in the past 2 decades, and lower treatment coverage and efficacy in Scotland compared to England/Wales. The findings have important consequences for strategies to handle the opioid crisis in Scotland.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 7, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Are Individuals with Substance Use Disorders at Higher Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection? Population-Based Registry Study in Northern Italy
Conclusions: Individuals with alcohol and/or other drug use disorders are at higher risk of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection but at lower risk of resulting positive than the general population. Further research is warranted in order to support our findings and to address plausible factors underpinning such associations.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 5, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smokers “Context Reactivity” in Virtual Domestic Environments
Conclusion: Our study provides an experimental paradigm for assessing context reactivity in smokers and suggests a potential use for the identification of non-pharmacological interventions as a co-adjuvant of smoking cessation treatment.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 3, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Effects of the Lockdown during the COVID-19 Pandemic on Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption Behavior in Germany
Conclusion: These findings suggest that it is important to start campaigns to inform the general population about potential long-term effects of increased alcohol and tobacco consumption and to raise the health-care professionals ’ awareness of this topic.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 26, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cabergoline in Treatment of Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients and Its Effect on Serum Level of Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the effect of cabergoline in reducing methamphetamine use. However, a serum level of the GDNF increase, as seen in animal studies, was not associated with cabergoline treatment of human subjects. This study was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (TRN:IRCT2015050422077N1, October 06, 2015, https://en.irct.ir/trial/19134).Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 15, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Substance Use in Turkey
Conclusion: Tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use are serious health concerns in Turkey. Sociodemographic status is an important determinant of several aspects of tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use and, therefore, should be examined thoroughly to be able to develop effective protective and preventive strategies.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 14, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Use during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Self-Reported Changes and Motives for Change
Conclusions: After the COVID-19 restrictions were implemented, a substantial proportion of Norwegians changed their drinking behaviour.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 9, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Quality of Life in Opioid Replacement Therapy: A Naturalistic Cross-Sectional Comparison of Methadone/Levomethadone, Buprenorphine, and Diamorphine Patients
Conclusion: Measurement of important QoL aspects indicates significant differences for physical and psychological functioning in patients receiving the substitutes methadone/levomethadone, diamorphine, and buprenorphine. This could be relevant for the differential therapy of opioid addiction.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 30, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The EUFAS European Addiction Research Award 2020
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 19, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The North American Overdose Crisis and the European-American “Fentanyl and Treatment Gap”
Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 18, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders among the Adult Jewish Population in Israel
Conclusions: These findings represent substantially higher rates of SUDs in Israel than those previously reported and should affect resources allocated to addiction prevention and treatment. Further research on the role of gender, age, culture, and ethnicity in the propensity to develop SUDs is necessary for the development of more focused preventive and intervention measures. Focusing on non-Jewish populations in Israel and broadening the scope to include behavioral addictions should be addressed in future studies.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 17, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Retrospective Cohort Study Comparing In-Person and Telemedicine-Based Opioid Agonist Treatment in Ontario, Canada, Using Administrative Health Data
Conclusion: Our findings support the conclusion that telemedicine is equal to in-person care regarding mortality opioid-related emergency department visits and retention, and is a viable option for those seeking opioid agonist treatment.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 11, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reward-Related Attentional Capture Moderates the Association between Fear-Driven Motives and Heavy Drinking
Conclusion: These findings have implications for understanding how cognition may interact with motives in association with problematic drinking. Specifically, the findings highlight different potential pathways to problematic drinking according to an individual ’s cognitive-motivational profile and may inform tailored interventions to target profile-specific mechanisms. Finally, these findings offer support for contemporary models of addiction that view excessive goal-directed behaviour under negative affect as a critical contributor to addictive behavio urs.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 11, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Neurofeedback Training versus Treatment-as-Usual for Alcohol Dependence: Results of an Early-Phase Randomized Controlled Trial and Neuroimaging Correlates
Conclusion: We demonstrated that rtfMRI-neurofeedback targeting hyperactivity of the salience network in response to alcohol cues is feasible in currently abstinent patients with alcohol dependence.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 5, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Validation of the Opioid Overdose Knowledge (OOKS) and Attitudes (OOAS) Scales in French, Spanish, and German Languages, among a Sample of Opioid Users
Conclusion: While satisfactory results were found for the 3 versions of the OOKS, results on the OOAS were relatively inconsistent, suggesting a possible gap between knowledge and attitudes on overdose among opioid users.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Preventive Interventions for Young Adults in Nightlife: Coproduction for a Systematic Literature Assessment Followed by a Stakeholder Dialogue Process
Conclusion: The systematic involvement of stakeholders was an inspiring means for identifying evidence relevant for practice and policy in nightlife and fostering implementation. Especially, individual-based interventions, such as personalized feedback via social media and guided reflection on alcohol or drug use, and broader networking, were considered promising.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 26, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Brain Functioning Associated with Smoking Cue-Reactivity and Inhibitory Control in Nonsmoking Adolescents
Conclusion: These findings suggest that low-to-moderate levels of current ETS exposure are not associated with increased salience of smoking cues or deficits in inhibitory control in nonsmoking adolescents. Longitudinal research is needed to further clarify the exact effect of lifetime ETS exposure on brain functioning, as well as research focusing on the effects of higher levels of ETS exposure.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 10, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Calcium Carbonate Attenuates Withdrawal and Reduces Craving: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
Conclusion: Our data support earlier findings and show that treatment with calcium carbonate during alcohol withdrawal reduces symptoms of alcohol withdrawal as well as alcohol craving in a controlled clinical pilot study. Mode of actions will need to be determined to allow the further development of pharmacological interventions beyond Ca2+ bis-acetyl-homotaurinate.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 10, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Double Effect of COVID-19 Confinement Measures and Economic Recession on High-Risk Drug Users and Drug Services
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a profound impact on the lives of high-risk drug users and on the services responding to their needs in at least two important ways: first, through the restrictive measures introduced to mitigate the spread of the virus and, second, as a result of extensive economic downturn. Currently there is great uncertainty as to the future intensity and duration of the pandemic. In addition, the lessons we have been able to learn from previous economic downturns may be of limited applicability to the current situation, which differs in a number of significant respects. Experience nevert...
Source: European Addiction Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Buying-Shopping Disorder among Women: The Role of Vulnerability to Marketing, Buying Motives, Impulsivity, and Self-Esteem
Conclusions: Compulsive buyers seem to be more sensitive to marketing strategies, although vulnerability to marketing was not identified as a predictor of the severity of BSD. Given the enormous literature on the role of marketing in other addictive behaviours, further studies are needed to better understand the role of marketing in BSD to develop appropriate public health policies.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Problems among Prisoners: Subgroup Variations, Concurrent Drug Problems, and Treatment Needs
Conclusions: More than half of the prisoners in Norway had AUDIT scores that indicated they could benefit from alcohol-related interventions, and the prevalence was elevated in younger, less educated groups of previously convicted DWI, and violent offenders. Alcohol problems were most often combined with drug problems, and possible dual dependence was associated with particularly severe drinking problems.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Source Type: research