Daclatasvir Plasma Levels in a Cohort of Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection Taking Methadone: A Prospective Analysis
Conclusion: We found a significant difference in DCV levels at 2 weeks and 1 month: 150 ng/mL in patients without MET and 313 ng/mL with MET at 2 weeks (p #x3c; 0.001), 149 and 279  ng/mL at 1 month (p = 0.006). DCV levels were lower in cirrhotic patients (p #x3c; 0.001); among cirrhotic patients we also evidenced higher DCV concentrations in patients receiving MET at 2 weeks, 1 and 2 months (p #x3c; 0.001,p = 0.005, andp = 0.031, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the only predictive factor associated with DCV plasma levels was the  presence of MET. The reason for this increased DCV exposure is unclear; on...
Source: European Addiction Research - August 10, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Anxiety and Depression before and after Alcohol Detoxification: Anxiety and Depression as Gender-Related Predictors of Relapse
Conclusions: In both genders, the psychopathological dimension that showed the most significant worsening at 6-month follow-up (i.e., anxiety in males and depression in females) was found to be a significant predictor of relapse at the 12-month follow-up.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:163 –172 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Long-Term Opioid Agonist Treatment Participation after First Treatment Entry is Similar across 4 European Regions but Lower in Non-Nationals
Heroin users in opioid agonist treatment (OAT) show markedly reduced heroin consumption, less crime and a lower mortality rate. However, the extent of long-term OAT participation over subsequent treatment episodes remains unclear. We analysed the annual proportion of patients in treatment  (at least 1 day) since the start of first OAT in 4 European regions: Barcelona (BA) 1996–2012: 8,602 patients; Czech ­Republic (CZ) 2000–2014: 4,377 patients; Netherlands (NL) 1994–2014: 33,235 patients, Zurich (ZU) 1992–2015: 11,795. We estimated the long-term decline of treatment need d ue to mortality ...
Source: European Addiction Research - July 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Clinical Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Treatments for Alcohol and Drugs Use Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized and Nonrandomized Controlled Trials
Conclusion: MBIs seemed to show clinically significant advantages compared to other clinical approaches in relation to specific primary and secondary outcomes. Conversely, treatment retention was independent of the therapeutic approach.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:137 –162 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Executive Impairments in Binge Drinking: Evidence for a Specific Performance-Monitoring Difficulty during Alcohol-Related Processing
This study evaluated inhibition and performance-monitoring abilities through the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Twenty-two binge drinkers (BD) and 22 control participants performed a speeded Go/No-Go task using pictures of alcohol and soft cans as Go and No-Go targets. This task measures inhibitory control and performance monitoring (i.e., task adjustment through errors and feedback processing) during the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Groups did not significantly differ regarding inhibition abilities. However, BD had poorer performance-monitoring abilities, reflected by a difficulty to adjust after errors, esp...
Source: European Addiction Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Early Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Inpatient Detoxification and Motivation Treatment: Results and Consequences
Conclusions: Early and systematic evaluation of PTSD in SUD inpatient detoxification treatment is largely safe and yields important information for individual treatment. The high PTSD-rate and the high symptom load in SUD patients during inpatient detoxification treatment highlight the need for a more stringent address of trauma/PTSD in early SUD treatment.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:128 –136 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Quantitative Criteria to Screen for Cannabis Use Disorder
Conclusion: Frequency and quantity should be considered when exploring cannabis risks. A 1 SJU per day is proposed as a preliminary quantitative-based criterion to screen users with at least a moderate risk for CUD.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:109 –117 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 27, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The European Innovation Express: Wim van den Brink Retires as Editor in Chief of European Addiction Research and Will Be Succeeded by Anna E. Goudriaan
Eur Addict Res 2018;24:107 –108 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 18, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Association between the Level of Plasma Oxytocin and Craving among Former Heroin Users
Conclusion: This finding may be taken into account in future studies and may provide a basis for the development of potential treatment for addiction. The effect of oxytocin for the treatment of opioid dependence might be modulated by some psychological factors.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:71 –78 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Cannabis Use Treatment Also Indicated for Patients with Low to Moderate Polysubstance Use
Conclusions: CU treatment is also effective for patients with moderate PSU. However, treatment effects may be enhanced by addressing specific PSU characteristics as part of a modularized program.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:79 –87 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comment on “Methadone Dose Adjustments, Plasma R-Methadone Levels and Therapeutic Outcome of Heroin Users: A Randomized Clinical Trial”
Eur Addict Res 2018;24:88 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Response to Letter to the Editor by Ernesto de Bernadis
Eur Addict Res 2018;24:89 –90 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Predictors of Utilization of an Addiction-Specific Behavioural Couple Therapy in Alcohol Dependence
Conclusions: Certain subgroups of patients with AD are less likely to participate in BCT during inpatient treatment.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:91 –97 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Aspects of Methamphetamine Abuse in Adolescents and Young Adults in a Thuringian County
Conclusion: Among pupils aged about 16 years nearly 6% reported to have consumed methamphetamine. This group has a middle socioeconomic background. Two factors were strongly associated with methamphetamine usage: a family with only a single parent and friends who were used to taking methamphetamine. The self-perception of users was generally considered to be a disadvantage as compared to the other factors.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:98 –105 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Decreases of Life Expectancy Despite Decreases in Non-Communicable Disease Mortality: The Role of Substance Use and Socioeconomic Status
With the epidemiological transition, causes of death shifted from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and life expectancy increased, as these NCD deaths occurred later in life. However, in the United States, over the past years, life expectancy has been stagnating or decreasing despite decreasing NCD mortality rates. Analyses of the most important underlying causes of death with increasing premature mortality reveal that psychoactive substance use played a crucial role for these increases. Furthermore, it can be shown, that a high proportion of the increased premature mortality and decreased life expectancies ...
Source: European Addiction Research - April 6, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Global Scientific Production on Illicit Drug Addiction: A Two-Decade Analysis
Conclusion: As there are important socio-cultural differences in the epidemiology and optimal clinical care of addictive disorders, it is suggested that low- and more affected middle-income countries increase their capacity to conduct research and disseminate the knowledge in this field.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:60 –70 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 6, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

International Consensus Statement on Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment of Substance Use Disorder Patients with Comorbid Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD) and is associated with early onset and more severe development of SUD and with reduced treatment effectiveness. Screening tools allow for a good recognition of possible ADHD in adults with SUD and should be used routinely, followed by an ADHD diagnostic process initiated as soon as possible. Simultaneous and integrated treatment of ADHD and SUD, using a combination of pharmaco- and psychotherapy, is recommended. Long-acting methylphenidate, extended-release amphetamines, and atomoxetine with up-titration to higher dosag...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 6, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Age Invariance of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test in a Probabilistic Sample of Cannabis Users
The Cannabis abuse screening test (CAST) is a short test used for screening those with problematic cannabis use. Recently, its invariance toward age was tested in an Israeli sample of cannabis users, but this study had some sample and methodological limitations: it was conducted in a volunteer sample aged 18 –40 and considered the CAST items as continuous variables, although they are based on 5-point Likert scales. We thus tested the CAST invariance toward age (15–24, 25–34, and 35–64 years old) using a French probabilistic sample of 1,351 past-year cannabis users aged 15–64 and using appropri...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Impact of Health Authority Control Measures Aimed at Reducing the Illicit Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
Conclusion: The health actions were very effective, in that they brought about a sharp reduction in the illicit use of AAS. These interventions could be applied to other drugs in which abuse were detected.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:28 –36 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Acknowledgement
Eur Addict Res 2017;23:314 –314 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 9, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 23, 2017
Eur Addict Res 2017;23:I-IV (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 8, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Intellectual Functioning in In-Patients with Substance Use Disorders: Preliminary Results from a Clinical Mediation Study of Factors Contributing to IQ Variance
Conclusion: IQ variance in in-treatment individuals with SUD was related to childhood functioning alone or through the mediator of education. Substance-related factors did not contribute to IQ variance. The results fit a normal theory of IQ development with commonly known risk factors and no disturbing effect of substance use.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:19 –27 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 2, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Methadone Dose Adjustments, Plasma R-Methadone Levels and Therapeutic Outcome of Heroin Users: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusion: Although the primary endpoint of this study was not demonstrated, a post hoc and a per protocol analysis suggested that patients in MMT with plasma R-methadone concentrations in the target range have a better therapeutic outcome than controls.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:9 –18 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mentalization-Based Treatment for Concurrent Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study
Conclusion: MBT for patients with concurrent BPD and SD does not appear to be harmful; on the other hand, it is possibly helpful in reducing the risk involved in suicide attempts.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:1 –8 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 19, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking and Promoter-Specific Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene: Methylation of Smokers and Non-Smokers Differs Significantly during Withdrawal
Conclusion: Compared to non-smokers, promoter-related deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of the ANP promoter was significantly elevated on days 7 and 14 of withdrawal in tobacco-dependent patients. Baseline methylation status of the ANP promoter was not significantly different from controls, arguing for an impaired regulation during withdrawal. Eur Addict Res 2017;23:306 –311 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 16, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

New: The European Addiction Research Award
Eur Addict Res 2017;23:312 –313 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 16, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms are Common in Patients in Opioid Maintenance Treatment
Conclusions: ADHD symptoms were common in these OMT patients. High ADHD symptom burden was associated with higher mental distress and use of stimulants. This underlines a need of more systematic focus on ADHD in OMT to plan treatment accordingly.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:298 –305 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 10, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Family-Related Stress versus External Stressors: Differential Impacts on Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men
This study aimed to determine whether family-related stress factors (FSF) influenced SU in a different way than external stress factors (ESF). Data was drawn from a Swiss cohort study on SU risk factors (C-SURF), involving 5,308 young adult men. Twelve month use of alcohol and of illicit substances was assessed. FSF and ESF for the time period preceding SU were measured. FSF and ESF were both significantly associated with SU. FSF had a greater impact on the use of most substances than did ESF. The FSF with the strongest association with SU was lack of parental monitoring. Regarding ESF, the cumulative number of stressful e...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 22, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cognitive Functioning in Formerly Opioid-Dependent Adults after At Least 1 Year of Abstinence: A Naturalistic Study
This study is an evaluation of cognitive functioning in formerly opioid-dependent adults after at least 1 year of abstinence. Participants (45 formerly opioid-dependent patients, referred to as abstainers, and 45 matched healthy controls) completed a structured screening and subsequent cognitive test battery covering intelligence, learning and memory, attention, and executive functions. Many cognitive functions were comparable between long-term abstainers and healthy controls, and we found few relevant differences. Long-term abstainers seem to have subtle deficits in recognition performance. Based on our and earlier findin...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Fatal Overdoses of Opioids in Israel 2005 –2014
Conclusions: Rates of opioid-related deaths in Israel were low compared to those reported in the United States and United Kingdom. In addition, the decline in opioid-related deaths in Israel is contrary to trends observed in the United States and United Kingdom. Factors that may contribute to these differences are discussed.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence?
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 19, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Epigenetic Regulation of the Promotor Region of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Nerve Growth Factor in Opioid-Maintained Patients
Conclusions: The results are of importance, as they indicate that long-term changes in stress regulation regulated by neurotrophines are a crucial part of the symptomatology of opioid dependence, thus influencing drug consumption and the different forms of opioid-maintenance therapies.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:249 –259 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) as a Screener for Depression in Substance Use Disorder Inpatients: A Pilot Study
In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity. The DASS-21 was administered to 47 patients at intake and shortly after inpatient detoxification. The results of the DASS-21 were compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which serv...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Development of OSTQOL: A Measure of Quality of Life for Patients in Opioid Substitution Treatment
Conclusion: The Opioid Substitution Treatment Quality of Life scale (OSTQOL) is a multidimensional instrument with low respondent and administrator burden. A thorough validation is needed to assess its validity.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:238 –248 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Measuring Concurrent Polydrug Use in General Populations: A Critical Assessment
Background/Aims: Polydrug use is a complicated phenomenon that is measured in a wide variety of different ways. Using Finland as an example, we aimed to demonstrate how the prevalence and prevalence trends of concurrent polydrug use (CPU) varied in the general population based on the different measurements used.Methods: Population-based Drug Surveys conducted every 4 years during 1998-2014 were used. CPU was measured with different measurements: strict, medial and loose definition of CPU, which were based on different combinations of alcohol, illicit drugs, pharmaceutical drugs and cigarettes used during the last 12 months...
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Factor Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale and the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale-Revised: Italian Version
Conclusions: MNWS showed 1 factor; MNWS-R showed 2 relatively dependent factors. The results need to be replicated in smokers in withdrawal.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:157-162 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Medicine Use for Nervousness Associated with Adolescent At-Risk or Problem Gambling?
Conclusions: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:171-176 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Brief Outline of the Use of New Technologies for Treating Substance Use Disorders in the European Union
Conclusions: The application of various forms of technology in SUD treatment is an interesting development for the European Union. Technical and non-technical barriers exist and impede their full exploitation.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:177-181 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Synthetic Cannabinoid Use in a Psychiatric Patient Population: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: NC and SCs may cause different symptom clusters. These relationships should be further evaluated.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:182-193 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Fran çaise Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study
Conclusion: Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:194-203 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Naltrexone in the Treatment of Broadly Defined Behavioral Addictions: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Conclusion: The results of our meta-analysis suggest a beneficial effect of naltrexone in the treatment of broadly defined behavioral addictions.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:204-210 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparison of Clomethiazole and Diazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Clinical Practice
Conclusion: Both clomethiazole and diazepam were effective and equally safe in the treatment of AWS. Clomethiazole provided a faster withdrawal and required less concomitant antipsychotic medication and therefore might be the more favorable option for patients and physicians. Taken into account the methodological limitations of the study (retrospective design, secondary matching, missing randomization, use of clomethiazole as drug of first choice), further studies are needed to confirm this result.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:211-218 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Predictors of Persistence of Risky Drinking in Adults: An 11-Year Follow-Up Study
Conclusions: Health behaviour predicts the persistence of risky drinking in a study population of adults aged 30 and over. These factors should be taken into account when assessing the long-term prognosis on risky drinking.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:231-237 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 22, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence?
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparison of Clomethiazole and Diazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Clinical Practice
Conclusion: Both clomethiazole and diazepam were effective and equally safe in the treatment of AWS. Clomethiazole provided a faster withdrawal and required less concomitant antipsychotic medication and therefore might be the more favorable option for patients and physicians. Taken into account the methodological limitations of the study (retrospective design, secondary matching, missing randomization, use of clomethiazole as drug of first choice), further studies are needed to confirm this result.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:211-218 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Naltrexone in the Treatment of Broadly Defined Behavioral Addictions: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Conclusion: The results of our meta-analysis suggest a beneficial effect of naltrexone in the treatment of broadly defined behavioral addictions.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:204-210 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Fran çaise Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study
Conclusion: Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:194-203 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research