Living in the Cold -- Adaptations in Hibernation

NIH Neuroscience Series Seminar Dr. Li ’ s lab studies the structure and function of retinal synapses and circuits. Although they know the basic structure and major cell types of the retina, it remains much of a " black box " in terms of the connections and functions of these neurons. Their long-term research goal is to understand how the neuronal circuits are wired in this " black box " under normal conditions and how the circuits are altered during pathological processes. Both pieces of information will be crucial for the design of biological and/or prosthetic interventions aiming to restore vision in many types of blindness caused by retinal degenerative diseases. Here are some of the research topics: 1) They exploit a combination of anatomical, physiological, and imaging approaches to study synaptic connectivity using in vitro slice and flat-mount preparations of the ground squirrel retina. This is an excellent model system to study cone vision, as the ground squirrel is one of the rare mammals whose retina is cone-dominated and resembles the fovea of human retina. 2) They study synaptic alteration and adaptation in the ground squirrel retina during hibernation - another unique feature of the ground squirrel. 3) They investigate bioenergetics of the retina with a focus on cone photoreceptor mitochondria structure, function and dynamics. 4) They use a combination of genetically engineered mouse lines to study the development of certain synapses an...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video

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Abstract An estimated 45 million U.S. residents enjoy the benefits of contact lens wear, but many of them might be at increased risk for complications stemming from improper wear and care behaviors (1). One of the most serious complications of contact lens wear is a corneal infection known as microbial keratitis, which can sometimes result in reduced vision or blindness (2). In 2014, 50% of contact lens wearers reported ever sleeping in contact lenses, and 55% reported topping off* their contact lens solutions (3), which put them at greater risk for a contact lens-related eye infection (2,4). Data on communication...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Primary open-angle glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction remains the only proven treatment strategy. Elevated IOP occurs as the result of impaired aqueous humor outflow. Both a passive model and a dynamic model have been used to explain trabecular outflow resistance. The passive model posits that the trabecular meshwork acts as a static filter that exerts stable and passive resistance to outflow. In contrast, the dynamic model involves a ‘biomechanical pump.’ In recent years, the range of surgical management options for glaucoma has dramatica...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Major review Source Type: research
DiscussionWe aim to evaluate a M-health system (Peek CEH) geared towards reducing avoidable blindness through early identification and improved adherence to referral for those with eye problems and reducing demand at secondary care for conditions that can be managed effectively at primary care level.Trial registrationThe Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR),201807329096632. Registered on 8 June 2018.
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a group of incurable and inherited eye conditions, and the leading cause of inherited blindness in people under the age of 60. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis...
Source: BMC Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
The molecular chaperone Hsp90α deficiency causes retinal degeneration by disrupting Golgi organization and vesicle transportation in photoreceptors. J Mol Cell Biol. 2019 Aug 13;: Authors: Wu Y, Zheng X, Ding Y, Zhou M, Wei Z, Liu T, Liao K Abstract Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an abundant molecular chaperone with two isoforms, Hsp90α and β. Hsp90β deficiency causes embryonic lethality, whereas Hsp90α deficiency causes few abnormities except male sterility. In this paper, we reported that Hsp90α was exclusively expressed in retina, testis and brain. Its deficiency...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Mol Cell Biol Source Type: research
DiscussionThis systematic review will help in understanding how different types of cataract surgeries and intraocular lenses make a difference on quality of life of age-related cataract patients in terms of visual function and health-related quality of life. As the review attempts to bring together all the cataract-related HRQoL evidences pertaining to different cataract surgical techniques, different intraocular lenses and cataract-related complications, it will also identify gaps in evidence.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42018092377
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Infectious interface keratitis (IIK) is an uncommon complication of lamellar keratoplasty, but it can result in a substantial loss of vision or permanent blindness. Although graft infection can occur at any time following surgery, it most commonly (87%) occurred during the first 3 months postoperatively (54/62 cases). The most commonly reported causative organism of IIK following lamellar keratoplasty was C. albicans. Positive rim culture results can provide more rapid and appropriate treatment directed to the identified organism. Therapeutic keratoplasty (TKP) was the most common surgical procedure for the ma...
Source: The Ocular Surface - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Ocul Surf Source Type: research
Authors: He M, Long P, Guo L, Zhang M, Wang S, He H Abstract Aims: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains one of the leading causes of acquired blindness. Fushiming capsule (FSM), a compound traditional Chinese medicine, is clinically used for DR treatment in China. The present study was to investigate the effect of FSM on retinal alterations, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress triggered by diabetes. Main Methods: Diabetic rat model was induced by 6-week high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). 30 days after successful establishment of diabetic rat model, full field electror...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Irene Sanchez, Raul MartinAbstractContinuous intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring for improving glaucoma diagnosis and treatment has remained a challenge for the past 60 years because glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Several devices with different measurement principles and recently developed biosensors with semiconductor materials offer exciting properties. However, none of these devices for continuous IOP monitoring have been fully integrated into clinical practice, primarily due to technical ...
Source: Journal of Optometry - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
ConclusionsHRQoL was significantly and meaningfully impaired even before the threshold of severe vision loss or blindness was reached. The results encourage the improvement of available treatment options aiming to postpone the onset of visual impairment or declining VA, to maintain better quality of life among the population.
Source: Quality of Life Research - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
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