Uptake and impact of vaccinating primary school-age children against influenza: experiences of a live attenuated influenza vaccine programme, England, 2015/16.

Uptake and impact of vaccinating primary school-age children against influenza: experiences of a live attenuated influenza vaccine programme, England, 2015/16. Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(25): Authors: Pebody RG, Sinnathamby MA, Warburton F, Andrews N, Boddington NL, Zhao H, Yonova I, Ellis J, Tessier E, Donati M, Elliot AJ, Hughes HE, Pathirannehelage S, Byford R, Smith GE, de Lusignan S, Zambon M Abstract The 2015/16 influenza season was the third season of the introduction of an intra-nasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for children in England. All children aged 2‒6 years were offered LAIV, and in addition, a series of geographically discrete areas piloted vaccinating school-age children 7‒11 years old. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the dominant circulating strain during 2015/16 followed by influenza B. We measured influenza vaccine uptake and the overall and indirect effect of vaccinating children of primary school -age, by comparing cumulative disease incidence in targeted and non-targeted age groups in vaccine pilot and non-pilot areas in England. Uptake of 57.9% (range: 43.6-72.0) was achieved in the five pilot areas for children aged 5‒11 years. In pilot areas, cumulative emergency department respiratory attendances, influenza-confirmed hospitalisations and intensive care unit admissions were consistently lower, albeit mostly non-significantly, in targeted and non-targeted age groups compared with non-pilot areas. Effe...
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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Conclusions: QIV was immunogenic against the additional B lineage strain (B Victoria) without significantly compromising the immunogenicity of the other three vaccine strains, therefore, adding a second B lineage strain in QIV could broaden protection against influenza B infection in this age group. As the QIV immunogenicity differed regarding the four antigens, formulation adjustments to increase the antigen concentration of the serotypes that have lower immunogenicity could increase effectiveness. Prior season vaccination was associated with lower antibody response to a new vaccine, although not consistent through the vaccine strains.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Clinical and historical data underscore the ability of influenza viruses to ally with Staphylococcus aureus and predispose the host for secondary bacterial pneumonia, which is a leading cause of influenza-associated mortality. This is fundamental because no vaccine for S. aureus is available and the number of antibiotic-resistant strains is alarmingly rising. Hence, this leaves influenza vaccination the only strategy to prevent postinfluenza staphylococcal infections. In the present work, we assessed the off-target effects of a Tnms42 insect cell-expressed BEI-treated Gag-VLP preparation expressing the HA...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Influenza A virus infection is a global health threat to livestock and humans, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. As both pigs and humans are readily infected with influenza viruses of similar subtype, the pig is a robust and appropriate model for investigating swine and human disease. We evaluated the efficacy of the human cold-adapted 2017–2018 quadrivalent seasonal LAIV in pigs against H1N1pdm09 challenge. LAIV immunized animals showed significantly reduced viral load in nasal swabs. There was limited replication of the H1N1 component of the vaccine in the nose, a limited response to H1N1 in the lung lym...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to develop a first-generation vaccine which combines the safety and efficacy advantages of inactivated and attenuated vaccines respectively. The approach targeted fragmentation of viral nucleic acids while preserving structure. Hence, cultures of influenza A/CA/04/09 H1N1 were exposed to 44 °C for 10 min. to reversibly denature the capsid, followed by RNase treatment to digest the genomic RNA and then refolded at lower temperatures. As targeted, treated virions retained an intact structure and were not detected in the first passage in infected cells. To improve intra-nasal ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract 2018/19 was the first season of introduction of a newly licensed adjuvanted influenza vaccine (aTIV) for adults aged 65 years and over and the sixth season in the roll-out of a childhood influenza vaccination programme with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The season saw mainly A(H1N1)pdm09 and latterly A(H3N2) circulation. End-of-season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) estimates against laboratory confirmed influenza infection in primary care were calculated using the test negative case control method adjusting for key confounders. End-of-season aVE was 44.3% (95% CI: 26.8, ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The objective of this paper is to describe the perspectives of key stakeholder groups of the ADVANCE consortium for vaccine benefit-risk monitoring and their views on how to build a European system addressing the needs and challenges of such monitoring. These perspectives and needs were assessed at the start of the ADVANCE project by the European Medicines Agency together with representatives of the main stakeholders in the field of vaccines within and outside the ADVANCE consortium (i.e. research institutes, public health institutes, medicines regulatory authorities, vaccine manufacturers, patient associations). Although ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In this phase I trial of adults ≥ 65 years of age who received increased adjuvant and antigen dosages relative to the licensed aTIV, increased dosage of MF59 resulted in increased immunogenicity against all 3 components of seasonal influenza vaccine. The increase in immunogenicity was accompanied by an increase in the incidence of local reactogenicity. PMID: 31679865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
ConclusionWhen applying quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) for vaccination, the recommendations of compositions for influenza B could be altered and assessed once in 3 or 4  years; when economic burden was considered intensively and TIVs were utilized, the recommended compositions for influenza B could be announced in April or May, rather than in February or March as now.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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