What ’s Next (Generation) for the Diagnosis of Chronic Meningitis?

Chronic meningitis is a syndrome defined by the presence of clinical signs and symptoms of meningitis or meningoencephalitis with a persisting cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis that are present for at least 4 weeks. The differential diagnosis is broad, with categories including neoplastic, paraneoplastic, autoimmune, and noninfectious inflammatory disorders and central nervous system (CNS) infections. The exact frequency of the different etiologies often varies tremendously across reports; however, among most institutions, common infectious causes of chronic meningitis includeMycobacterium tuberculosis and fungal meningitis (eg,Cryptococcus,Coccidioides, andHistoplasma species) and noninfectious causes include neoplastic meningitis, sarcoidosis, and primary and systemic vasculitis. However, these causes just scratch the surface of the many possible and reported etiologies, and the diagnostic potentials are multiplied enormously among individuals with HIV infection or other immunocompromising conditions. The diagnostic process typically begins with a substantial and expensive battery of tests on serum and spinal fluid and comprehensive imaging of the neuraxis and often of other organs. Not surprisingly, there are many opportunities for errors of omission (eg, failure to test for a cause that should have been considered) or commission (unnecessary testing). Even when conventional diagnostic algorithms are pursued, an answer may not be apparent, and patients then typically...
Source: JAMA Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Source: Neurology Today - Category: Neurology Tags: In the Pipeline Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Laetitia Canini, Benoit DurandAbstractFrance was recognized officially bovine tuberculosis (bTB) free by the European Union in 2001, however an increase of bTB detections has been reported since 2004. Even though the recommended method for bTB control is whole herd depopulation, test-and-cull protocols have been authorized in pilot areas since 2008 and in the rest of France since 2014. BTB impact at the state level and on trade has been thoroughly studied, however the consequences of these control measures at a farm level are...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, specific primers and MGB probes were designed according to the mutation in PstS1 gene, and a sensitive, specific and rapid real-time PCR assay for M. bovis was established. Then the assay was used to detect M. bovis in simulation samples. The minimum detectable concentration is 101 copies for M. bovis DNA. The standard curve showed correlation coefficient between threshold cycle and PstS1 gene fragment copy number was 0.997 and slope is −3.144. The minimum detectable concentration is 101 cells/ml for simulation sample. In addition, M.bovis strain 93006, 14 clinical BCG stains and 7 clinical M.bovi...
Source: Biologicals - Category: Biology Source Type: research
DiscussionThe adapted MAM-36 showed adequate psychometric properties. However, indications of problematic targeting to PwMS with low disability emerged. For this reason, use of the scale appears to be more suitable among patients with moderate-to-severe disability.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsTB can have varied presentation and therefore it is essential to keep tubercular infection in differential diagnosis while working up for any infective pathology. Conservative treatment produces good results in vast majority of cases. Surgery is reserved for select indications.
Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
We describe a previously healthy elderly male who had no known malignancy. He presented with a demyelinating encephalomyelitis and later developed hemorrhagic changes on neuroimaging. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), intravenous steroids, and plasmapheresis; however, sustained clinical and radiographic stabilization and improvement only occurred following cyclophosphamide. He unexpectedly died of a cardiac arrest. Post-mortem, his serum paraneoplastic screen was found to be weakly positive for anti-CV2/CRMP5-Ab.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
A deep-learning algorithm that analyzed chest x-rays was able to predict pulmonary...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Deep-learning algorithm bolsters lung cancer detection AI may help improve sensitivity of ED chest x-ray reads AI model could speed up pneumonia diagnosis in ED AI detects pulmonary nodules on chest x-rays Are studies on AI for tuberculosis really valid?
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Guoying Deng, Na Ji, Xiaoxia Shi, Wenli Zhang, Yuanhua Qin, Shanshan Sha, Shufeng Yang, Yufang MaAbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis is capable of escaping the clearance of immune system mainly due to its complex constituents of cell wall. Certain studies show that glycoproteins are involved in immune evasion and act as virulence factors. Peptidoglycan deacetylase Rv1096 is a member of mannosylated proteins. Previously, we reported Rv1096 protein contributed to the resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) to lysozyme, but ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a relatively newly discovered and rare disease that can be challenging to recognize and diagnose.1 Although a case report first described it in 1961, not until 1995 did it begin to be recognized as a clinical entity in a case series by Yoshida et  al.2 Type 1 AIP is the most common worldwide and is associated with IgG4-positive cells and histologic features described as lymphocytoplasmic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) without granulocyte epithelial lesions, which are seen in type 2 AIP.
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Yes. However, very probably not because of the novel coronavirus that has appeared in China. This seems to be front page headlines in every media outlet on the planet, and  the World Health Organization has convened a meeting to decide whether to declare an official Global Health Emergency.This sort of flapdoodle happens every time a novel pathogen appears. Back when I lived in the Hub of the Universe a mosquito-borne disease called West Nile virus appeared (having formerly been large confined to, yes, west of the Nile). For weeks, every time a new case was identified it would be on the front page of the Boston Globe....
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
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