Assessment of Histopathological Grade and Ki-67 Expression in Tobacco and Non-tobacco Habitual Buccal Mucosa Cancer
AbstractAlthough there are various risk factors in the literature, the established primary risk factor for oral cancer is tobacco and betal-nut chewing habits. It is believed that pathogenesis of oral cancer depends on the aetiology. To assess the histopathological grade and Ki-67 expression in tobacco (smoking/smokeless) and non-tobacco (betal nut/pan masala) habitual buccal mucosa cancer. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Regional cancer centre, Tamilnadu. Proliferative marker, Ki-67 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using biotin-streptavidin method. The study includes 117 buccal mucosa cancer patients (61 male and 56 female). According to WHO grading system, high frequency observed with well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma 48 (41%) followed by moderate 46 (39.3%) and poorly differentiated 23 (19.7%). The cut-off value 50% was used to categorize Ki-67 expression into low and high labelling index (LI); 96 (82%) buccal mucosa cancer and 4 (3.4%) adjacent normal mucosa patients showed high Ki-67 expression. The present study showed highly significant association of histopathological tumor grade and Ki-67 expression by Chi square and pairedt testp
Conclusions: HART represents an attractive approach for patients with HNSCC where treatment intensification is indicated. PMID: 31519130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a deadly disease that comprises 60% of all head and neck squamous cell cancers. The leaves of the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for centuries to treat numerous oral maladies and are known to have significant anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesize that a highly pure super critical CO2 Neem leaf extract (SCNE) prevents initiation and progression of OSCC via downregulation of intra-tumor pro-inflammatory pathways, which promote tumorigenesis. Hence, we investigated the anticancer effects of SCNE using in vitro and in vivo platforms....
ConclusionsOur data demonstrate that PD-L1 expression of 1% or greater is more frequent in OSCC in females, nonsmokers, and in patients with p53-positive OSCC. These findings have important implications for immune therapy for OSCC.
The evidence for adjuvant therapy of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) in NCCN guidelines derives from head and neck cancer patients. Here, we examined whether adjuvant therapy should be guided by a detailed analysis of pathological risk factors in pure OCSCC patients. We propose new indications for adjuvant therapy in resected OCSCC. Our guidelines for adjuvant therapy performed better than NCCN guidelines, with 28% of NCCN intermediate-risk patients potentially avoiding adjuvant therapy.
Currently, no reliable intraoperative tumor detection and margin assessment technologies are available for oncological surgery in the head and neck area. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) using tumor-specific fluorescent imaging agents can improve intraoperative tumor detection. However, a major limitation is the lack of broad tumor applicability due to complex oncogenotypes and histologic phenotypes. A strategy to overcome this limitation is targeting metabolic vulnerabilities that are more ubiquitous and regarded as generic hallmarks of cancer.
This article focuses on the epidemiology, transmission, risk factors, and clinical presentation of HPV-associated oropharyngeal SCC, and provides an update on HPV vaccination in the context of the new head and neck cancer epidemic.
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Jitesh B Shewale, Maura L GillisonHead and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is attributable to carcinogen and oncogenic virus exposure and rates are driven by the prevalence, intensity, and duration of exposures. Recent dramatic shifts in human behavior have resulted in substantial heterogeneity in HNSCC incidence trends over calendar time. For example, changes in sexual behavior during the 1900s likely increased exposure to oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and, consequently, rates of HPV-positive HNSCC. Shifting rate-ratio...
ConclusionAlteration in SOX2 and podoplanin is likely an important event in head and neck carcinogenesis; however, their expression may be valuable only in a few cases of oral epithelial dysplasia to assess the risk of malignant transformation.
Abstract The selection of target volumes for head and neck cancer radiation therapy, particularly prophylactic volumes that reflect infra-clinic spreads, is a complex process. It is based on the knowledge of the natural history of these tumors and must take into consideration the special challenges due to the diversity and complexity of head and neck anatomy. The dosimetric and ballistic precision provided by modern radiation techniques has required strong strategic deliberation to ensure the relevance and reproducibility of target volumes. Specifically, regarding cervical lymph node volumes, two issues emerged. W...
CONCLUSION: Due to its unclear components, potential toxicities, misuse, and over-application, TCM might contribute to tumorigenesis and progression of head neck carcinoma. We seek effective approaches to ensure the safe use of TCM. PMID: 31424693 [PubMed - in process]