Insight into the emerging role of striatal neurotransmitters in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease: A review.

Insight into the emerging role of striatal neurotransmitters in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease: A review. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018 Mar 01;: Authors: Jamwal S, Kumar P Abstract Alteration in neurotransmitters signaling in basal ganglia has been consistently shown to significantly contribute to the pathophysiological basis of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Dopamine is important neurotransmitter which play critical role in coordinated body movements. Alteration in level of brain dopamine and receptor radically contribute to irregular movements, glutamate mediated excitotoxic neuronal death and further leads to imbalance in the levels of other neurotransmitters viz. GABA, adenosine, acetylcholine and endocannabinoids. This review is based upon the data from clinical and preclinical studies to characterize the role of various striatal neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Further, we have collected data of altered level of various neurotransmitters and their metabolites and receptor density in basal ganglia region. Though the exact mechanisms underlying neuropathology of movement disorders are not fully understood, but several mechanisms related to neurotransmitters alteration, excitotoxic neuronal death, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation are being put forward. Restoring neurotransmitters level and downstream signaling has been co...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

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Abstract The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) has been considered a key contributor to cell death, inducing the process in several major neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the molecular nature of the mPTP remains confounding but its significance is universally acknowledged. Several targets have been screened and inhibition of mPTP has emerged as an attractive field for researchers. Nowadays, in silico-directed studies help to explore new small molecules targeting the mPTP to improve their drug-like properties and bioactivity. Here, we briefly summarize the role of mPTP in neurodegenerative disea...
Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
Abstract Many evidences indicate that oxidative stress plays a significant role in a variety of human disease states, including neurodegenerative diseases. Iron is an essential metal for almost all living organisms due to its involvement in a large number of iron-containing proteins and enzymes, though it could be also toxic. Actually, free iron excess generates oxidative stress, particularly in brain, where anti-oxidative defences are relatively low. Its accumulation in specific regions is associated with pathogenesis in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Hunt...
Source: Biometals - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biometals Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017Source: MitochondrionAuthor(s): Mohammad Jodeiri Farshbaf, Abbas Kiani-EsfahaniAbstractOnset of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases as neurodegenerative disorders is increased by age. Alleviation of clinical symptoms and protection of neurons against degeneration are the main aspects of researches to establish new therapeutic strategies. Many studies have shown that mitochondria play crucial roles in high energy demand tissues like brain. Impairments in mitochondrial activity and physiology can makes neurons vulnerable to stress and degeneration. Succinate de...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2018Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 117Author(s): Shannon Chiang, Danuta S. Kalinowski, Patric J. Jansson, Des R. Richardson, Michael L.-H. HuangAbstractMitochondrial homeostasis is essential for maintaining healthy cellular function and survival. The detrimental involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in neuro-degenerative diseases has recently been highlighted in human conditions, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is another neuro-degenerative, but also cardio-degenerative condition, where mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017Source: MitochondrionAuthor(s): Mohammad Jodeiri Farshbaf, Abbas Kiani-EsfahaniAbstractOnset of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases as neurodegenerative disorders is increased by age. Alleviation of clinical symptoms and protection of neurons against degeneration are the main aspects of researches to establish new therapeutic strategies. Many studies have shown that mitochondria play crucial roles in high energy demand tissues like brain. Impairments in mitochondrial activity and physiology can makes neurons vulnerable to stress and degeneration. Succinate de...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2018Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 117Author(s): Shannon Chiang, Danuta S. Kalinowski, Patric J. Jansson, Des R. Richardson, Michael L.-H. HuangAbstractMitochondrial homeostasis is essential for maintaining healthy cellular function and survival. The detrimental involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in neuro-degenerative diseases has recently been highlighted in human conditions, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is another neuro-degenerative, but also cardio-degenerative condition, where mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, we examine multiple mitochondrial pathways of amyloid toxicity in neuronal and cerebral endothelial cells (ECs), and evaluate CAIs methazolamide (MTZ) and, for the first time, its analog acetazolamide (ATZ), on specific Aβ-mediated pathways of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. The CAIs selectively inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction pathways induced by Aβ, without affecting metabolic function. Due to the long-term use of MTZ and ATZ in chronic conditions, the efficacy and the safety of their systemic administration have been widely assessed, making clinical trials for CAIs ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 117 Author(s): Shannon Chiang, Danuta S. Kalinowski, Patric J. Jansson, Des R. Richardson, Michael L.-H. Huang Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for maintaining healthy cellular function and survival. The detrimental involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in neuro-degenerative diseases has recently been highlighted in human conditions, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is another neuro-degenerative, but also cardio-degenerative condition, where mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in d...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In conclusion, the connection between DNA damage and aging is emphasized by the secretion of senescence-associated proteins during cellular senescence, a phenotype which is activated by DNA damage and is common for both human and mice. Though much progress has been achieved, full understanding of these mechanisms has still a long way to go. XPO1 as a Novel Target for Therapies to Enhance Autophagy https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/05/xpo1-as-a-novel-target-for-therapies-to-enhance-autophagy/ Autophagy is the name given to a collection of cellular housekeeping processes that recycle damaged and un...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Since mitochondria seem to be the dominant theme this week, today I thought I'd point out a couple of recent open access papers that focus on the role of mitochondrial function (and dysfunction) in the neurodegeneration that accompanies aging. Every cell bears a swarm of mitochondria, the descendants of ancient symbiotic bacteria. Even though mitochondria long ago evolved into integrated cellular components, they still behave very much like bacteria in many ways. They multiply through division, and can fuse together and swap component parts, pieces of the molecular machinery necessary to their function. They also contain t...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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