SOX10 Single Transcription Factor-Based Fast and Efficient Generation of  Oligodendrocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

In conclusion, we provide an approach to generate OLs in a very rapid and efficient manner, which can be used for disease modeling, drug discovery efforts, and potentially for therapeutic OL transplantation. Graphical abstract Teaser In this article, García-León JA and colleagues demonstrate the generation of functional oligodendrocytes (OLs) from human pluripotent stem cells in a rapid and efficient manner by the single overexpression of SOX10. Generated OLs resemble primary OLs at the transcriptome level and can myelinate neurons both in vivo and in vitro. Neuron-OL co-cultures, adapted to high-throughput screening formats, responded to drugs affecting myelination.
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research

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AbstractNeurological diseases, such as Parkinson ’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis, are often associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. These gastrointestinal disturbances may occur at all stages of the neurodegenerative diseases, to such an extent that they are now consi dered an integral part of their clinical picture. Several lines of evidence support the contention that, in central neurodegenerative diseases, changes in gut microbiota and enteric neuro-immune system alterations could contribute to gastrointesinal dysfuncti...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Semin Neurol 2018; 38: 176-181 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1649338“Stem cell tourism” is defined as the unethical practice of offering unproven cellular preparations to patients suffering from various medical conditions. This phenomenon is rising in the field of neurology as patients are requesting information and opportunities for treatment with stem cells for incurable conditions such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, despite their clinical research and experimental designation. Here, we review the recent trends in “stem cell tourism” in both the United States and abroad, and discus...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Findings from a number of clinical and experimental paradigms suggest spinal cord OPCs/oligodendrocytes are a potential therapeutic target for the control of neuroinflammation. PMID: 29788868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
zon E Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis are characterized by a chronic and selective process of neuronal cell death. Although the causes of neurodegenerative diseases remain still unknown, it is now a well-established idea that more factors, such as genetic, endogenous, and environmental, are involved. Among environmental causes, the accumulation of mercury, a heavy metal considered a toxic agent, was largely studied as a probable factor involved in neurodegenerative disease course. Mercury exists in three mai...
Source: Biological Trace Element Research - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Biol Trace Elem Res Source Type: research
FDA is cracking down on stem cell clinics that market unapproved products and don't meet good manufacturing practice requirements. On behalf of the agency, the Department of Justice filed two complaints in federal court this week seeking permanent injunctions against a Florida-based clinic and a California-based clinic.  “Cell-based regenerative medicine holds significant medical opportunity, but we’ve also seen some bad actors leverage the scientific promise of this field to peddle unapproved treatments that put patients’ health at risk. In some instances, patients have suffered serious and per...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Regulatory and Compliance Source Type: news
Publication date: May 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 115 Author(s): Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Traditionally neurological diseases have been classified, on the basis of their pathogenesis, into vascular, degenerative, inflammatory and traumatic diseases. Examples of the main inflammatory neurological diseases include multiple sclerosis, which is characterized by an immune-mediated immune response against myelin proteins, and meningoencephalitis, where the inflammatory response is triggered by infectious agents. However, recent evidence suggests a potential role of inflammatory mechanisms also in neurological conditions not usually categorized as inflammatory, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson'...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
ConclusionNine out of ten chronic neurological diseases were associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt. These data must be considered for clinicians treating this vulnerable group of patients.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Perron H Abstract The causes of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have long remained elusive. A new category of pathogenic components, normally dormant within human genomes, has been identified: human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). These represent ∼8% of the human genome, and environmental factors have reproducibly been shown to trigger their expression. The resulting production of envelope (Env) proteins from HERV-W and HERV-K appears to engage pathophysiological pathways leading to the pathognomonic features of MS and ALS, respectively. Pathogenic HERV elements may thus provide a missin...
Source: Trends in Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Trends Mol Med Source Type: research
Authors: Tae WS, Ham BJ, Pyun SB, Kang SH, Kim BJ Abstract Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relative...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
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