SOX10 Single Transcription Factor-Based Fast and Efficient Generation of  Oligodendrocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

In conclusion, we provide an approach to generate OLs in a very rapid and efficient manner, which can be used for disease modeling, drug discovery efforts, and potentially for therapeutic OL transplantation. Graphical abstract Teaser In this article, García-León JA and colleagues demonstrate the generation of functional oligodendrocytes (OLs) from human pluripotent stem cells in a rapid and efficient manner by the single overexpression of SOX10. Generated OLs resemble primary OLs at the transcriptome level and can myelinate neurons both in vivo and in vitro. Neuron-OL co-cultures, adapted to high-throughput screening formats, responded to drugs affecting myelination.
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research

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Authors: Cichos KH, Lehtonen EJ, McGwin G, Ponce BA, Ghanem ES Abstract INTRODUCTION: Orthopaedic surgeons are wary of patients with neuromuscular (NM) diseases as a result of perceived poor outcomes and lack of data regarding complication risks. We determined the prevalence of patients with NM disease undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and characterized its relationship with in-hospital complications, prolonged length of stay, and total charges. METHODS: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2014 was used for this retrospective cohort study to identify 8,028,435 discharges with total jo...
Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents neurotoxic plasma components, blood cells, and pathogens from entering the brain. At the same time, the BBB regulates transport of molecules into and out of the central nervous system (CNS), which maintains tightly controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu that is required for proper neuronal functioning. In this review, we first examine molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the BBB. Then, we focus on BBB transport physiology, endothelial and pericyte transporters, and perivascular and paravascular transport. Next, we discuss ...
Source: Physiological Reviews - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Rev Source Type: research
Brain magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was developed on the basis of a desire to “palpate by imaging” and is becoming a powerful tool in the investigation of neurophysiological and neuropathological states. Measurements are acquired with a specialized MR phase-contrast pulse sequence that can detect tissue motion in response to an applied external or internal excitation. The tissue viscoelasticity is then reconstructed from the measured displacement. Quantitative characterization of brain viscoelastic behaviors provides us an insight into the brain structure and function by assessing the mechanical rigidit...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
AbstractMany  central nervous system diseases currently lack effective treatment and are often associated with defects in microvascular function, including a failure to match the energy supplied by the blood to the energy used on neuronal computation, or a breakdown of the blood–brain barrier. Pericytes, an u nder-studied cell type located on capillaries, are of crucial importance in regulating diverse microvascular functions, such as angiogenesis, the blood–brain barrier, capillary blood flow and the movement of immune cells into the brain. They also form part of the “glial” scar isolating dam...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Age-related neurological disorders continue to pose a significant societal and economic burden. Aging is a complex phenomenon that affects many aspects of the human body. Specifically, aging can have detrimental effects on the progression of brain diseases and endogenous stem cells. Stem cell therapies possess promising potential to mitigate the neurological symptoms of such diseases. However, aging presents a major obstacle for maximum efficacy of these treatments. In this review, we discuss current preclinical and clinical literature to highlight the interactions between aging, stem cell therapy, and th...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
We examined the relationships (Pearson correlations) between NFL-CSF levels and demographic (age, gender) and clinical (CAG repeat number, disease burden, UHDRS motor, behavioural, functional total scores and NPI scale) variables. All the participants gave their signed consent for the procedure. Results Demographic, clinical data and NFL-CSF levels of all participants are shown in Table 1. NFL-CSF results were significantly higher in all HD subjects [5014.4 (1557.3) ng/l] as compared to controls [331.4 (200.2) ng/l] (p
Source: PLOS Currents Huntington Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Frank Aiwansoba Imarhiagbe, OA AbidakunAnnals of African Medicine 2018 17(3):156-158 Emotionalism is the abnormal expression of emotions like crying and laughing and could follow stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Emotionalism has been known to respond therapeutically to different classes of drugs including tricyclic antidepressants like imipramine, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) like sertraline and citalopram, anticonvulsants like lamotrigine, dopamine precursors like levodopa and NMDA receptor antagonists like dextromethorphan. Classical antipsychotics a...
Source: Annals of African Medicine - Category: African Health Authors: Source Type: research
Scientists at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) have developed a method implemented as pulse sequences and software to be used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and systems. This technology is available for licensing and commercial development. The method allows for measuring and mapping features of the bulk or average apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in tissue – aiding in stroke diagnosis and cancer therapy assessment. The pulse sequences and software enable MRI scanners to yield diffusion weighted images (DWI) that are orientationa...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractMany  central nervous system diseases currently lack effective treatment and are often associated with defects in microvascular function, including a failure to match the energy supplied by the blood to the energy used on neuronal computation, or a breakdown of the blood–brain barrier. Pericytes, an u nder-studied cell type located on capillaries, are of crucial importance in regulating diverse microvascular functions, such as angiogenesis, the blood–brain barrier, capillary blood flow and the movement of immune cells into the brain. They also form part of the “glial” scar isolating dam...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we screened C9orf72 in 189 Italian patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS), a rare clinical form characterized by less inflammation over neurodegenerative features. We failed to detect C9orf72 RE, but a significant representation of intermediate alleles (≥20 units) was observed in our PPMS cohort (2.1%) compared to healthy controls (0%, p
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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