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Can vitamins and dietary supplements benefit patients with mitochondrial disease?

(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Defects in mitochondria, the tiny structures that power cells by functioning as biological batteries, cause an array of complex disorders that can affect any and all organs and systems. In the absence of validated, effective drug treatments, patients with mitochondrial disease often take a variety of vitamins and supplements, substances that are largely unstandardized, unregulated, and unproven. Experts in the field are calling for systematic studies to evaluate nutritional interventions.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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In this study, we investigated whether aerobic interval training (AIT) could attenuate high-fat-diet- (HFD-) associated cognitive dysfunction and the possible mechanism of SIRT3-MnSOD pathway. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice were randomized into control (Con) or HFD group with or without AIT training for 6 weeks. The spatial learning and memory ability were impaired in HFD group compared to the control group. The levels of mitochondrial protein acetylation were increased in the hippocampus of HFD group. The acetylation level of antioxidative MnSOD was increased as well. As a result, the ROS and MDA...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Papua New Guinea (PNG) can be roughly divided into highland, coastal and island peoples with significant mitochondrial DNA differentiation reflecting early and recent distinct migrations from Africa and East Asia, respectively. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV severely impact on the health of its peoples for which drug therapy is the major treatment and pharmacogenetics has clinical relevance for many of these drugs. Although there is generally little information about known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the population, in some instances, their frequencies have been shown to be higher than any...
Source: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Mini Review Source Type: research
Authors: Saldaña-Rivera E, Careaga-Castilla MJ, Olvera-Cárdenas GD, Pérez-Soto E, Sánchez-Monroy V Abstract Genetic factors, such as the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) T16189C polymorphism, have been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but this association has not been studied in Mexico to date. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this polymorphism contributes to MetS in the Mexican population. We recruited 100 unrelated volunteer subjects who were divided into 2 groups: with MetS (MetS group) and without MetS (control group). All subjects were genotyped for the mtDNA...
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics Author(s): Natalia Skoczeń, Alain Dautant, Krystyna Binko, François Godard, Marine Bouhier, Xin Su, Jean-Paul Lasserre, Marie-France Giraud, Déborah Tribouillard-Tanvier, Huimei Chen, Jean-Paul di Rago, Roza Kucharczyk The ATP synthase which provides aerobic eukaryotes with ATP, organizes into a membrane-extrinsic catalytic domain, where ATP is generated, and a membrane-embedded FO domain that shuttles protons across the membrane. We previously identified a mutation in the mitochondrial MT-ATP6 gene (m....
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Bioenergetics - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Compartmentalization is a fundamental design principle of eukaryotic metabolism. Here, we review the compartmentalization of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH with a focus on the liver, an organ that experiences the extremes of biochemical physiology each day. Historical studies of the liver, using classical biochemical fractionation and measurements of redox-coupled metabolites, have given rise to the prevailing view that mitochondrial NAD(H) pools tend to be oxidized and important for energy homeostasis, whereas cytosolic NADP(H) pools tend to be highly reduced for reductive biosynthesis. Despite this textbook view, many questio...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Thematic Minireviews Source Type: research
ZnT7 (Slc30a7) is a widely expressed zinc transporter involved in sequestration of zinc into the Golgi apparatus and vesicular compartments. znt7-knockout (KO) mice are mildly zinc-deficient and lean. Despite their lean phenotype, adult male znt7-KO mice are prone to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat partitioning from adipose to nonadipose tissues causes insulin resistance in znt7-KO mice. Here, we used biological and biochemical methods, including fatty acid and oxylipin profiling, EM, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis, to identify the underlying mechanism of insulin resistanc...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Molecular Bases of Disease Source Type: research
AbstractPrimary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a severe kidney stone disease caused by abnormalities of the peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). The most frequent mutation G170R results in aberrant mitochondrial localization of the active enzyme. To evaluate the population of peroxisome-localized AGT, we developed a quantitative Glow-AGT assay based on the self-assembly split-GFP approach and used it to identify drugs that can correct mislocalization of the mutant protein. In line with previous reports, the Glow-AGT assay showed that mitochondrial transport inhibitors DECA and monensin increased peroxisomal loca...
Source: Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
E, Roden M Abstract Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. Circulating lipids such as free fatty acids, ace...
Source: Physiological Reviews - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Rev Source Type: research
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Source: Placenta - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Since mitochondria seem to be the dominant theme this week, today I thought I'd point out a couple of recent open access papers that focus on the role of mitochondrial function (and dysfunction) in the neurodegeneration that accompanies aging. Every cell bears a swarm of mitochondria, the descendants of ancient symbiotic bacteria. Even though mitochondria long ago evolved into integrated cellular components, they still behave very much like bacteria in many ways. They multiply through division, and can fuse together and swap component parts, pieces of the molecular machinery necessary to their function. They also contain t...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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