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Brain metastases: epidemiology.

Brain metastases: epidemiology. Handb Clin Neurol. 2018;149:27-42 Authors: Ostrom QT, Wright CH, Barnholtz-Sloan JS Abstract Brain metastases (BM) are the most commonly diagnosed type of central nervous system tumor in the United States. Estimates of the frequency of BM vary significantly, as there is no nationwide reporting system for metastases. BM may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed cancer, or occur years or decades after the primary cancer was diagnosed. Incidence of BM varies significantly by primary cancer site. Lung, breast, and melanoma continue to be the leading cause of BM. These tumors are increasingly more common as new therapeutics, advanced imaging, and improved screening have led to lengthened survival after primary diagnosis for cancer patients. BM are difficult to treat, and for most individuals the diagnosis of BM generally portends a poor prognosis. PMID: 29307358 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Handb Clin Neurol Source Type: research

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Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Researchers from Arizona State University and National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have developed a remarkable new way of killing tumors. They’ve developed robot-like nanoscale devices that cling to ...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Nanomedicine Oncology Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:The Lancet Author(s): Claudia Allemani, Tomohiro Matsuda, Veronica Di Carlo, Rhea Harewood, Melissa Matz, Maja Nikšić, Audrey Bonaventure, Mikhail Valkov, Christopher J Johnson, Jacques Estève, Olufemi J Ogunbiyi, Gulnar Azevedo e Silva, Wan-Qing Chen, Sultan Eser, Gerda Engholm, Charles A Stiller, Alain Monnereau, Ryan R Woods, Otto Visser, Gek Hsiang Lim, Joanne Aitken, Hannah K Weir, Michel P Coleman Background In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of ...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Central nervous system metastases cause grave morbidity in patients with advanced malignancies. Lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma are the three most common causes of brain metastases. Although the exact incidence of brain metastases is unclear, there appears to be an increasing incidence which has been attributed to longer survival, better control of systemic disease, and better imaging modalities. Until recently surgical resection of solitary or symptomatic brain metastases, and radiation therapy (either whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiation) were the mainstay of treatment for pa...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Handb Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Publication date: 2018 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 149 Author(s): Vyshak Alva Venur, Vidhya Karivedu, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia Central nervous system metastases cause grave morbidity in patients with advanced malignancies. Lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma are the three most common causes of brain metastases. Although the exact incidence of brain metastases is unclear, there appears to be an increasing incidence which has been attributed to longer survival, better control of systemic disease, and better imaging modalities. Until recently surgical resection of solitary or symptomatic brain metastases, ...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
KISS1 tumor suppressor protein regulates cancer cell invasion via MMP9 metalloproteinase. Downregulation of KISS1 gene expression promotes progression of breast cancer and melanoma, resulting in the development of distant metastases. In the current study, we investigated whether restoration of KISS1 expression in KISS1-deficient human metastatic breast cancer cells holds potential as an advanced anticancer strategy. To this end we engineered an infectivity-enhanced conditionally-replicative human adenovirus type 5 encoding KISS1 as an “arming” transgene in the Ad5 E3 region for an ectopic KISS1 expression in tr...
Source: Cancer Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Authors: Kann BH, Park HS, Johnson SB, Chiang VL, Yu JB Abstract Background: Management of brain metastases typically includes radiotherapy (RT) with conventional fractionation and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, optimal indications and practice patterns for SRS remain unclear. We sought to evaluate national practice patterns for patients with metastatic disease receiving brain RT. Methods: We queried the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for patients diagnosed with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or melanoma from 2004 to 2014 who received upfront brain RT. Patie...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
This article reviews current patterns of metastatic disease and the increasingly nuanced landscape of evolving therapies, their complications, and their impact on quality of survival. Recent Findings: Targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors and cytotoxic therapies directed at disease-specific chemosensitivity patterns have dramatically improved the prognosis of non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and breast cancer, but have led to some novel complications and altered recurrence patterns. Clinical trials suggest the superiority of hippocampal-avoidance radiation fields an...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
AbstractThere is limited available literature examining factors that predispose patients to the development of LMC after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. We sought to evaluate risk factors that may predispose patients to LMC after SRS treatment in this case –control study of patients with brain metastases who underwent single-fraction SRS between 2011 and 2016. Demographic and clinical information were collected retrospectively for 19 LMC cases and 30 controls out of 413 screened patients with brain metastases. Risk factors of interest were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regres...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017 Source:Pharmacological Research Author(s): Jing Wang, Changpei Gan, Rolf W. Sparidans, Els Wagenaar, Stéphanie van Hoppe, Jos H. Beijnen, Alfred H. Schinkel Encorafenib (LGX818) is a promising BRAFV600E inhibitor that has efficacy against metastatic melanoma. To better understand its pharmacokinetics, we studied its interactions with the multidrug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 and the multidrug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A. In polarized MDCK-II cells, encorafenib was efficiently transported by canine and human ABCB1 and ABCG2 and by mouse Abcg2. Upon oral admin...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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