First outbreak of Zika virus in the continental United States: a modelling analysis

Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread throughout Latin and Central America. This emerging infectious disease has been causing considerable public health concern because of severe neurological complications, especially in newborns after congenital infections. In July 2016, the first outbreak in the continental United States was identified in the Wynwood neighbourhood of Miami-Dade County, Florida. In this work, we investigated transmission dynamics using a mathematical model calibrated to observed data on mosquito abundance and symptomatic human infections. We found that, although ZIKV transmission was detected in July 2016, the first importation may have occurred between March and mid-April. The estimated highest value for R0 was 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-4.17); the attack rate was 14% (95% CI: 5.6-27.4%), with 15 (95% CI: 6-29) pregnant women involved and a 12% probability of infected blood donations. Vector control avoided 60% of potential infections. According to our results, it is likely that further ZIKV outbreaks identified in other areas of Miami-Dade County were seeded by commuters to Wynwood rather than by additional importation from international travellers. Our study can help prepare future outbreak-related interventions in European areas where competent mosquitoes for ZIKV transmission are already established.
Source: Eurosurveillance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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In this study, we report for the first time that highly diluted ethanol extracts prepared from basil leaves can effectively inhibit ZIKV replication in Vero E6 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 1:134. The diluted extract as well as the amount of ethanol that goes into its preparation have been found to be completely non-toxic to the above mentioned cell line. The extract seems to inhibit the virus at the step of attachment and entry into the host cell. The specific inhibition of ZIKV observed using the basil leaf extract suggests a new alternative mode of treatment against flavivirus. Keywo...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Antonio E. Muruato, Chao Shan, Camila R. Fontes-Garfias, Yang Liu, Qiang Gao, Scott C. Weaver, Pei-Yong ShiAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of Zika Congenital Syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. To prevent future ZIKV outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3′UTR of the viral genome (Δ10 and Δ20). After a single-dose immunization, both &D...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of Zika Congenital Syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. To prevent future ZIKV outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3'UTR of the viral genome (Δ10 and Δ20). After a single-dose immunization, both Δ10 and Δ20 LAVs protected mice and non-human primates against ZIKV infection. Here, we characterized the stability, safety, and efficacy of the LAVs after continuously culturing th...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
ard Hildt Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) came first to public attention after it was found to be associated with congenital microcephaly during the outbreak in Brazil (2015–2016). Diagnosis of ZIKV suffers from extensive cross-reactivity with other Flaviviruses, which are circulating in many ZIKV epidemic areas. Due to the fatal outcome of ZIKV infection during pregnancy, detailed knowledge about neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes is crucial for the development of robust detection systems of protective antibodies. Therefore, additional information about ZIKV immunogenicity and antibody response is requi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
During the 2015-16 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil, hospital surveillance for congenital Zika infection (CZI) was conducted at the Jos é Maria de Magalhães Neto reference maternity hospital, located in Salvador-Brazil, between February and December 20161. Normocephalic infants with prenatal exposure to ZIKV were recruited if their serological testing or a polymerase-chain-reaction assay (PCR) for ZIKV were positive. All their mot hers reported ZIKV infection symptoms during pregnancy and had anti-ZIKV IgG positivity at the time of delivery.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
Conclusions: We observed a high frequency of gestational and neonatal complications in pregnant women who acquired Zika infection, especially in early pregnancy, resulting in a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Preventive measures are urgently needed to reduce the clinical burden during future Zika outbreaks.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research
rhard Hildt Zika virus (ZIKV) is a highly transmissive virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family, which comprises several other pathogens that threaten human health. This re-emerging virus gained attention during the outbreak in Brazil in 2016, where a considerable number of microcephaly cases in newborns was associated with ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Lacking a preventive vaccine or antiviral drugs, efforts have been made to better understand the viral life cycle. In light of this, the relevance of the endosomal–lysosomal compartment for the ZIKV life cycle was investigated. A549 and SH-SY5Y cells w...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion We found no differences in pregnancy or neonatal outcomes between women who tested positive and presumed positive for Zika virus during pregnancy. Testing of infants and placenta tissue after delivery was largely inconclusive. Improvement in testing for Zika virus infection is needed to determine which pregnancies are at risk for congenital anomalies. Further research is still needed to determine which children are at risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes related to Zika virus and how to best coordinate care among the immigrant population during a new disease epidemic. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 33...
Source: American Journal of Perinatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The U.S. diagnostic market celebrated three regulatory firsts last week.  1. FDA Authorizes Marketing of First Zika Test Until now, tests for detecting Zika virus immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies in blood were only authorized for emergency use under FDA's Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) authority. On Thursday, the agency said it has authorized marketing of the ZIKV Detect 2.0 IgM Capture ELISA under the agency's traditional premarket authority. The test is manufactured by InBios International. “At the onset of the Zika virus outbreak, when little was known about the disease or how...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Regulatory and Compliance IVD Source Type: news
Abstract We estimated the impact of the Zika virus outbreak on birth rates and demand for health care services in Colombia. Our analysis exploits the variation in the level of natural protection against mosquito-transmitted diseases across the country. This characteristic induced exogenous variation in Zika incidence, which allows us to construct a control group of municipalities with similar historical fertility trends but with differential exposure to the Zika crisis. We implemented a difference-in-differences model after matching, as well as synthetic control. We found a decrease in birth rates of approx. 10% i...
Source: Economics and Human Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Econ Hum Biol Source Type: research
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