Estimates of mortality attributable to COVID-19: a statistical model for monitoring COVID-19 and seasonal influenza, Denmark, spring 2020
ConclusionAttMOMO estimates mortality attributable to several pathogens simultaneously, providing a fuller picture of mortality by COVID-19 during the pandemic in the context of other seasonal diseases and mortality patterns. Using Danish data, we show that the model accurately estimates mortality attributable to COVID-19 and influenza, respectively. We propose using standardised indicators for pathogen circulation in the population, to make estimates comparable between countries and applicable for timely monitoring. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jens Nielsen, Naja Hulvej Rod, Lasse S Vestergaard and Theis Lange Source Type: research

Impact of physical distancing measures against COVID-19 on contacts and mixing patterns: repeated cross-sectional surveys, the Netherlands, 2016 –17, April 2020 and June 2020
ConclusionStrict physical distancing measures greatly reduced overall contact numbers, which likely contributed to curbing the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Netherlands. However, age groups reacted differently when measures were relaxed, with children reverting to normal contact numbers and elderly individuals maintaining restricted contact numbers. These findings offer guidance for age-targeted measures in future waves of the pandemic. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jantien A Backer, Liesbeth Mollema, Eric RA Vos, Don Klinkenberg, Fiona RM van der Klis, Hester E de Melker, Susan van den Hof and Jacco Wallinga Source Type: research

Screening for Candida auris in patients admitted to eight intensive care units in England, 2017 to 2018
ConclusionThese findings imply thatC. auris colonisation among patients admitted to ICUs in England is currently rare. We would not currently recommend widespread screening forC. auris in ICUs in England. Hospitals should continue to screen high-risk individuals based on local risk assessment. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ashley Sharp, Berit Muller-Pebody, Andre Charlett, Bharat Patel, Rebecca Gorton, Jonathan Lambourne, Martina Cummins, Adela Alcolea-Medina, Mark Wilks, Robin Smith, Damien Mack, Susan Hopkins, Andrew Dodgson, Phillipa Burns, Nelun Perera, Felicia Lim, Gop Source Type: research

Correction for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(32)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Authors ’ response: Excess all-cause mortality during second wave of COVID-19 – the Polish perspective
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lasse S Vestergaard, Sarah K N ørgaard, Jens Nielsen, Tyra G Krause and Kåre Mølbak Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Excess all-cause mortality during second wave of COVID-19 – the Polish perspective
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jakub Grabowski, Natalia Witkowska and Leszek Bidzan Source Type: research

Reducing contacts to stop SARS-CoV-2 transmission during the second pandemic wave in Brussels, Belgium, August to November 2020
To evaluate the effect of physical distancing and school reopening in Brussels between August and November 2020, we monitored changes in the number of reported contacts per SARS-CoV-2 case and associated SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The second COVID-19 pandemic wave in Brussels was the result of increased social contact across all ages following school reopening. Physical distancing measures including closure of bars and restaurants, and limiting close contacts, while primary and secondary schools remained open, reduced social mixing and controlled SARS-CoV-2 transmission. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brecht Ingelbeen, Laur ène Peckeu, Marie Laga, Ilona Hendrix, Inge Neven, Marianne AB van der Sande and Esther van Kleef Source Type: research

An outbreak investigation of Legionella non-pneumophila Legionnaires ’ disease in Sweden, April to August 2018: Gardening and use of commercial bagged soil associated with infections
In early June 2018, an increase in non-travel-related cases ofLegionella non-pneumophila Legionnaires’ disease (LD) was observed in Sweden and a national outbreak investigation was started. Outbreak cases were defined as notified confirmed or probable cases ofL. non-pneumophila LD, with symptom onset after 1 April 2018. From April to August 2018, 41 cases were reported, 30 of whom were identified asL. longbeachae. We conducted a case–control study with 27 cases and 182 matched controls. Results from the case–control study indicated that gardening and handling commercial bagged soil, especially dusty dry s...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emma L öf, Fanny Chereau, Pontus Jureen, Sabina Andersson, Kristina Rizzardi, Petra Edquist, Sharon Kühlmann-Berenzon, Ilias Galanis, Caroline Schönning, Madeleine Kais, Anne Tideholm Nylén, Anders Wallensten, Adam Roth and on behalf of the National O Source Type: research

Impact of age, ethnicity, sex and prior infection status on immunogenicity following a single dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: real-world evidence from healthcare workers, Israel, December 2020 to January 2021
We describe immunogenicity 21 days post-dose 1 among 514 Israeli healthcare workers by age, ethnicity, sex and prior COVID-19 infection. Immunogenicity was similar by ethnicity and sex but decreased with age. Those with prior infection had antibody titres one magnitude order higher than naïve individuals regardless of the presence of detectable IgG antibodies pre-vaccination. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kamal Abu Jabal, Hila Ben-Amram, Karine Beiruti, Yunis Batheesh, Christian Sussan, Salman Zarka and Michael Edelstein Source Type: research

Comparison and correlation of commercial SARS-CoV-2 real-time-PCR assays, Ireland, June 2020
We report the performance of a variety of commercially available SARS-CoV-2 PCR kits, used in several different sites across Ireland to determine if Ct values across platforms are comparable. We also investigate whether a Ct value, a surrogate for calculated viral loads in the absence of viral culture of > 34 can be used to exclude SARS-CoV-2 infection and its complications. We found a variation in Ctvalues from different assays for the same calculated viral load; this should be taken into consideration for result interpretation. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anne Carroll and Eleanor McNamara Source Type: research

Respiratory syncytial virus in young children: community cohort study integrating serological surveys, questionnaire and electronic health records, Born in Bradford cohort, England, 2008 to 2013
ConclusionOver half of children experienced RSV infection in infancy, a further one third had evidence of primary RSV infection by age 2, and one in seven remained seronegative by their second birthday. These findings will inform future analyses to assess the cost-effectiveness of RSV vaccination programmes in high-income settings. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ania Zylbersztejn, Lucy Pembrey, Harvey Goldstein, Guy Berbers, Rutger Schepp, Fiona van der Klis, Charles Sande, Dan Mason, John Wright, Rosalind Smyth and Pia Hardelid Source Type: research

Lessons from intensified surveillance of viral hepatitis A, Israel, 2017 and 2018
IntroductionUniversal vaccination of toddlers has led to very low hepatitis A (HAV) endemicity in Israel. However, sporadic outbreaks still occur, necessitating better surveillance.AimTo implement a comprehensive HAV surveillance programme.MethodsIn 2017 and 2018, sera from suspected HAV cases that tested positive for anti-HAV IgM antibodies were transferred to the Central Virology Laboratory (CVL) for molecular confirmation and genotyping. Sewage samples were collected in Israel and Palestine* and were molecularly analysed. All molecular (CVL), epidemiological (District Health Offices and Epidemiological Division) and cli...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yael Gozlan, Itay Bar-Or, Hadar Volnowitz, Efrat Asulin, Rivka Rich, Emilia Anis, Yonat Shemer, Moran Szwarcwort Cohen, Etti Levy Dahary, Licita Schreiber, Ilana Goldiner, Orit Rozenberg, Orit Picard, Michal Savion, Inbal Fuchs, Ella Mendelson and Orna Mo Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(3)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Response to retraction request and allegations of misconduct and scientific flaws
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 protect against re-infection during outbreaks in care homes, September and October 2020
Two London care homes experienced a second COVID-19 outbreak, with 29/209 (13.9%) SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive cases (16/103 residents, 13/106 staff). In those with prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 1/88 (1.1%) individuals (antibody positive: 87; RT-PCR-positive: 1) became PCR-positive compared with 22/73 (30.1%) with confirmed seronegative status. After four months protection offered by prior infection against re-infection was 96.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72.7–99.5%) using risk ratios from comparison of proportions and 96.1% (95% CI: 78.8–99.3%) using a penalised logistic regression model. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anna Jeffery-Smith, Nalini Iyanger, Sarah V Williams, J Yimmy Chow, Felicity Aiano, Katja Hoschler, Angie Lackenby, Joanna Ellis, Steven Platt, Shahjahan Miah, Kevin Brown, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Monika Patel, Mary E Ramsay, Robin Gopal, Andre Charlett, S Source Type: research

Preliminary report of an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in mink and mink farmers associated with community spread, Denmark, June to November 2020
In June–November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25–30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Helle Daugaard Larsen, Jannik Fonager, Frederikke Kristensen Lomholt, Tine Dalby, Guido Benedetti, Brian Kristensen, Tinna Ravnholt Urth, Morten Rasmussen, Ria Lassauni ère, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Bertel Strandbygaard, Louise Lohse, Manon Chaine, Karina Source Type: research

National perinatal survey demonstrates a decreasing seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in France, 1995 to 2016: impact for screening policy
ConclusionHigher prevalences in older women may reflect a higher past risk of exposure while persistent geographical differences may reflect dietary or environmental differences.Toxoplasma seroprevalence among pregnant women continues to fall and will impact screening effectiveness. This warrants a comprehensive review to determine the appropriate future of prevention in France. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eve Robinson, Henriette de Valk, Isabelle Villena, Yann Le Strat and Mathieu Tourdjman Source Type: research

Healthcare-associated infections in home healthcare: an extensive assessment, 2019
ConclusionsThis study offers an overview of available evidence and field knowledge of HAI in HHC. It provides a framework for a prevalence study, future monitoring policies and guidelines on IPC in Belgium. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ana Hoxha, Els Duysburgh and Laure Mortgat Source Type: research

Building the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance network in veterinary medicine (EARS-Vet)
We describe the landscape of AMR surveillance in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) and underline a gap regarding veterinary medicine. Current AMR surveillance efforts are of limited help to veterinary practitioners and policymakers seeking to improve antimicrobial stewardship in animal health. We propose to establish the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance network in Veterinary medicine (EARS-Vet) to report on the AMR situation, follow AMR trends and detect emerging AMR in selected bacterial pathogens of animals. This information could be useful to advise policymakers, explore efficacy of interv...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodolphe Mader, Peter Damborg, Jean-Philippe Amat, Bj örn Bengtsson, Clémence Bourély, Els M Broens, Luca Busani, Paloma Crespo-Robledo, Maria-Eleni Filippitzi, William Fitzgerald, Heike Kaspar, Cristina Muñoz Madero, Madelaine Norström, Suvi Nykäse Source Type: research

Incidence and severity of pertussis hospitalisations in infants aged less than 1  year in 37 hospitals of six EU/EEA countries, results of PERTINENT sentinel pilot surveillance system, December 2015 to December 2018
ConclusionsIncidence appeared to decrease between 2017 and 2018 in all but one site. Enhanced surveillance of hospitalised pertussis in Europe is essential to monitor pertussis epidemiology and disease burden. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lore Merdrignac, Fatima A ït El Belghiti, Elisabetta Pandolfi, Mireia Jané, Jane Murphy, Kateřina Fabiánová, Manuel García Cenoz, Elmira Flem, Sophie Guillot, Alberto E Tozzi, Gloria Carmona, Adele Habington, Jana Zavadilová, Ana Navasués, Håkon Source Type: research

Immunisation of healthcare workers in the Nordic countries: Variation in recommendations and practices and a lack of assessment
In conclusion, recommendations or guidelines exist in the Nordic countries, but their impact cannot be assessed, as vaccine uptake among HCWs is not currently measured. Systematic collection of data is a necessary step towards improving HCW immunisation policy and practice in the Nordic countries. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Timothee Dub, Bolette S øborg, Peter Henrik Andersen, Thorolfur Gudnason, Hanne Nøkleby, Ann Lindstrand, Rose-Marie Carlsson and Hanna Nohynek Source Type: research

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2021;26(1)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on the risk related to the spread of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in the EU/EEA – first update
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Two-step strategy for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/01 and other variants with spike deletion H69 –V70, France, August to December 2020
We report the strategy leading to the first detection of variant of concern 202012/01 (VOC) in France (21 December 2020). First, the spike (S) deletion H69–V70 (ΔH69/ΔV70), identified in certain SARS-CoV-2 variants including VOC, is screened for. This deletion is associated with a S-gene target failure (SGTF) in the three-target RT-PCR assay (TaqPath kit). Subsequently, SGTF samples are whole genome sequenced. This approach revealed mutations co-occurring withΔH69/ΔV70 including S:N501Y in the VOC. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antonin Bal, Gregory Destras, Alexandre Gaymard, Karl Stefic, Julien Marlet, S ébastien Eymieux, Hadrien Regue, Quentin Semanas, Constance d’Aubarede, Geneviève Billaud, Frédéric Laurent, Claudia Gonzalez, Yahia Mekki, Martine Valette, Maude Bouscam Source Type: research

Attitudes of healthcare workers towards COVID-19 vaccination: a survey in France and French-speaking parts of Belgium and Canada, 2020
In October and November 2020, we conducted a survey of 2,678 healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in general population immunisation in France, French-speaking Belgium and Quebec, Canada to assess acceptance of future COVID-19 vaccines (i.e. willingness to receive or recommend these) and its determinants. Of the HCWs, 48.6% (n = 1,302) showed high acceptance, 23.0% (n = 616) moderate acceptance and 28.4% (n = 760) hesitancy/reluctance. Hesitancy was mostly driven by vaccine safety concerns. These must be addressed before/during upcoming vaccination campaigns. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pierre Verger, Dimitri Scronias, Nicolas Dauby, Kodzo Awoenam Adedzi, Cathy Gobert, Maxime Bergeat, Arnaud Gagneur and Eve Dub é Source Type: research

The European tiered approach for virucidal efficacy testing – rationale for rapidly selecting disinfectants against emerging and re-emerging viral diseases
When facing an emerging virus outbreak such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a quick reaction time is key to control the spread. It takes time to develop antivirals and vaccines, and implement vaccination campaigns. Therefore, preventive measures such as rapid isolation of cases and identification and early quarantine of cases’ close contacts—as well as masks, physical distancing, hand hygiene, surface disinfection and air control—are crucial to reduce the risk of transmission. In this context, disinfectants and antiseptics with proven efficacy against the outbreak virus sh...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maren Eggers, Ingeborg Schwebke, Miranda Suchomel, Valerie Fotheringham, J ürgen Gebel, Bernhard Meyer, Graziella Morace, Hans Joachim Roedger, Christine Roques, Pilar Visa and Katrin Steinhauer Source Type: research

Negligible risk of zoonotic anisakid nematodes in farmed fish from European mariculture, 2016 to 2018
ConclusionsThe risk linked to zoonotic Anisakidae in the examined fish species from European mariculture appears negligible. This study laid the groundwork for considerations to amend the current EU regulation. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Letizia Fioravanti, Andrea Gustinelli, George Rigos, Kurt Buchmann, Monica Caffara, Santiago Pascual and Miguel Ángel Pardo Source Type: research

Improving tuberculosis surveillance by detecting international transmission using publicly available whole genome sequencing data
ConclusionWe demonstrated the added value of using WGS raw data from public repositories to contribute to TB surveillance. Comparing the German with the public dataset, we identified potential international transmission events. Thus, using this approach might support the interpretation of national surveillance results in an international context. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrea Sanchini, Christine Jandrasits, Julius Tembrockhaus, Thomas Andreas Kohl, Christian Utpatel, Florian P Maurer, Stefan Niemann, Walter Haas, Bernhard Y Renard and Stefan Kr öger Source Type: research

Real-time monitoring shows substantial excess all-cause mortality during second wave of COVID-19 in Europe, October to December 2020
The European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action (EuroMOMO) network monitors weekly excess all-cause mortality in 27 European countries or subnational areas. During the first wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe in spring 2020, several countries experienced extraordinarily high levels of excess mortality. Europe is currently seeing another upsurge in COVID-19 cases, and EuroMOMO is again witnessing a substantial excess all-cause mortality attributable to COVID-19. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah K. N ørgaard, Lasse S. Vestergaard, Jens Nielsen, Lukas Richter, Daniela Schmid, Natalia Bustos, Toon Braye, Maria Athanasiadou, Theodore Lytras, Gleb Denissov, Tatjana Veideman, Oskari Luomala, Teemu Möttönen, Anne Fouillet, Céline Caserio-Sch Source Type: research

Job vacancies at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Eurosurveillance reviewers in 2020
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Control of a COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home by general screening and cohort isolation in Germany, March to May 2020
Elderly care facilities have become a major focus of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) control. Here, we describe an outbreak of COVID-19 in a nursing home in Germany from 8 March to 4 May 2020 (58 days), and the effect of an intervention of general screening and cohort isolation. COVID-19 cases among residents and staff were recorded on a daily basis from the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test from a resident on 8 March 2020, until 4 May 2020 when the last staff member was classified COVID-19 negative. Eighty of 160 residents (50%) and 37 of 135 staff members (27%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-seven of the 80 residents...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Manuel Krone, Annette Noffz, Elisabeth Richter, Ulrich Vogel and Michael Schwab Source Type: research

Early transmissibility assessment of the N501Y mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2 in the United Kingdom, October to November 2020
Two new SARS-CoV-2 lineages with the N501Y mutation in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein spread rapidly in the United Kingdom. We estimated that the earlier 501Y lineage without amino acid deletionΔ69/Δ70, circulating mainly between early September and mid-November, was 10% (6–13%) more transmissible than the 501N lineage, and the 501Y lineage with amino acid deletionΔ69/Δ70, circulating since late September, was 75% (70–80%) more transmissible than the 501N lineage. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kathy Leung, Marcus HH Shum, Gabriel M Leung, Tommy TY Lam and Joseph T Wu Source Type: research

Minimal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from paediatric COVID-19 cases in primary schools, Norway, August to November 2020
An intense debate on school closures to control the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing in Europe. We prospectively examined transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from confirmed paediatric cases in Norwegian primary schools between August and November 2020. All in-school contacts were systematically tested twice during their quarantine period. With preventive measures implemented in schools, we found minimal child-to-child (0.9%, 2/234) and child-to-adult (1.7%, 1/58) transmission, supporting that under 14 year olds are not the drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lin T Brandal, Trine S Ofitserova, Hinta Meijerink, Rikard Rykkvin, Hilde M Lund, Olav Hungnes, Margrethe Greve-Isdahl, Karoline Bragstad, Karin Nyg ård and Brita A Winje Source Type: research

Impact of mass testing during an epidemic rebound of SARS-CoV-2: a modelling study using the example of France
We used a mathematical model to evaluate the impact of mass testing in the control of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Under optimistic assumptions, one round of mass testing may reduce daily infections by up to 20–30%. Consequently, very frequent testing would be required to control a quickly growing epidemic if other control measures were to be relaxed. Mass testing is most relevant when epidemic growth remains limited through a combination of interventions. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paolo Bosetti, C écile Tran Kiem, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Arnaud Fontanet, Bruno Lina, Vittoria Colizza and Simon Cauchemez Source Type: research

Early assessment of the impact of mitigation measures to control COVID-19 in 22 French metropolitan areas, October to November 2020
This study descriptively assesses their possible effects, also relative to their timing. A considerable decrease in incidence of COVID-19 cases and hospital admissions was observed 7 to 10 days after mitigation measures were put in place, occurring earlier in metropolitan areas which had implemented these first. This temporal coincidence suggests the measures’ positive impact, consistent with international experiences. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guillaume Spaccaferri, Sophie Larrieu, J érôme Pouey, Clémentine Calba, Thomas Benet, Cécile Sommen, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Sabira Smaili, Didier Che, Laurent Filleul, Céline Caserio-Schönemann, Fatima Ait-El-Belghiti, Sylvie Haeghebaert, Source Type: research

Occupation- and age-associated risk of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity, the Netherlands, June to October 2020
High coronavirus incidence has prompted the Netherlands to implement a second lockdown. To elucidate the epidemic’s development preceding this second wave, we analysed weekly test positivity in public test locations by population subgroup between 1 June and 17 October 2020. Hospitality and public transport workers, driving instructors, hairdressers and aestheticians had higher test positivity compared with a reference group of individuals without a close-contact occupation. Workers in childcare, education and healthcare showed lower test positivity. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brechje de Gier, Priscila de Oliveira Bressane Lima, Rolina D van Gaalen, Pieter T de Boer, Jeroen Alblas, Marc Ruijten, Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Toos Waegemaekers, Anja Schreijer, Susan van den Hof and Susan JM Hahn é Source Type: research

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain: characterisation of cases and risk factors for severe outcomes, as at 27 April 2020
ConclusionsCOVID-19 case numbers began declining 6 days after the national lockdown. The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain had a severe impact on elderly people. Patients with cardiovascular or renal conditions were at higher risk for severe outcomes. A high proportion of cases were HCWs. Enhanced surveillance and control measures in these subgroups are crucial during future COVID-19 waves. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Working group for the surveillance and control of COVID-19 in Spain Source Type: research

Evaluation of lockdown effect on SARS-CoV-2 dynamics through viral genome quantification in waste water, Greater Paris, France, 5 March to 23 April 2020
ConclusionThis work suggests that a quantitative monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 genomes in WW could generate important additional information for improved monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 circulation at local or regional levels and emphasises the role of WW-based epidemiology. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: S Wurtzer, V Marechal, JM Mouchel, Y Maday, R Teyssou, E Richard, JL Almayrac and L Moulin Source Type: research

Estimating the false-negative test probability of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR
BackgroundReverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays are used to test for infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. RT-PCR tests are highly specific and the probability of false positives is low, but false negatives are possible depending on swab type and time since symptom onset.AimTo determine how the probability of obtaining a false-negative test in infected patients is affected by time since symptom onset and swab type.MethodsWe used generalised additive mixed models to analyse publicly available data from patients who received multiple RT-PCR tests and were identified as SARS-CoV-2 positive at least once.ResultsThe probabil...
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paul S Wikramaratna, Robert S Paton, Mahan Ghafari and Jos é Lourenço Source Type: research

Face masks and COVID-19: don ’t let perfect be the enemy of good
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benjamin J Cowling and Gabriel M Leung Source Type: research

Secondary transmission of COVID-19 in preschool and school settings in northern Italy after their reopening in September 2020: a population-based study
We report epidemiological investigations of transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 41 classes of 36 schools in Reggio Emilia province, northern Italy, from their reopening on 1 September to 15 October 2020. The overall secondary case attack rate was 3.2%, reaching 6.6% in middle and high schools. More timely isolation and testing of classmates could be effective in reducing virus transmission in this setting. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elisabetta Larosa, Olivera Djuric, Mariateresa Cassinadri, Silvia Cilloni, Eufemia Bisaccia, Massimo Vicentini, Francesco Venturelli, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Patrizio Pezzotti, Emanuela Bedeschi and the Reggio Emilia Covid-19 Working Group Source Type: research

Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases and estimates of the reproductive numbers 1 month into the epidemic, Italy, 28 January to 31 March 2020
ConclusionThe COVID-19 outbreak in Italy showed a clustering onset similar to the one in Wuhan, China. R0 at 2.96 in Lombardy combined with delayed detection explains the high case load and rapid geographical spread. Overall, Rt in Italian regions showed early signs of decrease, with large diversity in incidence, supporting the importance of combined non-pharmacological control measures. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Flavia Riccardo, Marco Ajelli, Xanthi D Andrianou, Antonino Bella, Martina Del Manso, Massimo Fabiani, Stefania Bellino, Stefano Boros, Alberto Mateo Urdiales, Valentina Marziano, Maria Cristina Rota, Antonietta Filia, Fortunato D'Ancona, Andrea Siddu, O Source Type: research

Community use of face masks and similar barriers to prevent respiratory illness such as COVID-19: a rapid scoping review
ConclusionWearing face masks may reduce primary respiratory infection risk, probably by 6–15%. It is important to balance evidence from RCTs and observational studies when their conclusions widely differ and both are at risk of significant bias. COVID-19-specific studies are required. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Julii Brainard, Natalia R. Jones, Iain R Lake, Lee Hooper and Paul R Hunter Source Type: research

Editorial note
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome: a retrospective matched case –control study, Paris, France, April to May 2020
We assessed the association between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and Kawasaki disease (KD)-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in a retrospective case–control study in France. RT-PCR and serological tests revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 17/23 cases vs 11/102 controls (matched odds ratio: 26.4; 95% confidence interval: 6.0–116.9), indicating strong association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and KD-like illness. Clinicians should keep a high level of suspicion for KD-like illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Julie Toubiana, Corinne Levy, Slimane Allali, Camille Jung, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Emmanuelle Varon, Fanny Bajolle, Naim Ouldali, Judith Chareyre, Stephane B échet, Annie Elbez, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Martin Chalumeau, Robert Cohen and Jérémie F Cohen Source Type: research

Extremely drug-resistant NDM-9-producing ST147 Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infections in Italy, May 2020
A large outbreak of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-1-producingKlebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 147 occurred in Tuscany, Italy in 2018–2019. In 2020, ST147 NDM-9-producingK. pneumoniae were detected at the University Hospital of Pisa, Tuscany, in two critically ill patients; one developed bacteraemia. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest relatedness of 2018–2019 and 2020 strains, with a change from NDM-1 to NDM-9 in the latter and evolution by colistin, tigecycline and fosfomycin resistance acquisition. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marco Falcone, Cesira Giordano, Simona Barnini, Giusy Tiseo, Alessandro Leonildi, Paolo Malacarne, Francesco Menichetti and Alessandra Carattoli Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with severe COVID-19: prospective analysis of 1,045 hospitalised cases in North-Eastern France, March 2020
ConclusionsOverweightedness, obesity, advanced age, male sex, comorbidities, dyspnoea and inflammation are risk factors for severe COVID-19 or death in hospitalised patients. Identifying these features among patients in routine clinical practice might improve COVID-19 management. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Charlotte Kaeuffer, Coralie Le Hyaric, Thibaut Fabacher, Joy Mootien, Benjamin Dervieux, Yvon Ruch, Antonin Hugerot, Yves-Jean Zhu, Valentin Pointurier, Raphael Clere-Jehl, Valentin Greigert, Loic Kassegne, Nicolas Lefebvre, Floriane Gallais, Covid Alsace Source Type: research

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on testing services for HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections in the WHO European Region, March to August 2020
We present preliminary results of a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) impact assessment on testing for HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections in the WHO European Region. We analyse 98 responses from secondary care (n = 36), community testing sites (n = 52) and national level (n = 10). Compared to pre-COVID-19, 95% of respondents report decreased testing volumes during March–May and 58% during June–August 2020. Reasons for decreases and mitigation measures were analysed. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Daniel Sim ões, Annemarie Rinder Stengaard, Lauren Combs, Dorthe Raben and The EuroTEST COVID-19 impact assessment consortium of partners Source Type: research

Where has all the influenza gone? The impact of COVID-19 on the circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses, Australia, March to September 2020
The coronavirus disease pandemic was declared in March 2020, as the southern hemisphere’s winter approached. Australia expected co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, influenza and other seasonal respiratory viruses. However, influenza notifications were 7,029 (March–September) compared with an average 149,832 for the same period in 2015–2109, despite substantial testing. Restrictions on movement within and into Australia may have temporarily eliminated influenza. Other respiratory pathogens also showed remarkably changed activity in 2020. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sheena G Sullivan, Sandra Carlson, Allen C Cheng, Monique BN Chilver, Dominic E Dwyer, Melissa Irwin, Jen Kok, Kristine Macartney, Jennifer MacLachlan, Cara Minney-Smith, David Smith, Nigel Stocks, Janette Taylor and Ian G Barr Source Type: research