Epidemiology of measles during the COVID-19 pandemic, a description of the surveillance data, 29 EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom, January to May 2020
The number of measles cases declined in European Union/European Economic Area countries and the United Kingdom in 2020. Reported cases to The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control decreased from 710 to 54 between January and May. Epidemic intelligence screening observed a similar trend. Under-diagnoses and under-reporting during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic should be ruled out before concluding reduced measles circulation is because of social distancing and any community control measures taken to control COVID-19. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nathalie Nicolay, Grazina Mirinaviciute, Thomas Mollet, Lucia Pastore Celentano and Sabrina Bacci Source Type: research

Age-specific SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality ratio and associated risk factors, Italy, February to April 2020
We analysed 5,484 close contacts of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in Italy, all tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection fatality ratio was 0.43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21–0.79) for individuals younger than 70 years and 10.5% (95% CI: 8.0–13.6) for older individuals. Risk of death after infection was 62% lower (95% CI: 31–80) in clusters identified after 16 March 2020 and 1.8-fold higher for males (95% CI: 1.03–3.16). (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Piero Poletti, Marcello Tirani, Danilo Cereda, Filippo Trentini, Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Marziano, Sabrina Buoro, Simona Riboli, Lucia Crottogini, Raffaella Piccarreta, Alessandra Piatti, Giacomo Grasselli, Alessia Melegaro, Maria Gramegna, Marco Ajel Source Type: research

Repeated leftover serosurvey of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, Greece, March and April 2020
A serosurvey of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was performed during March and April 2020. Among 6,586 leftover sera, 24 (0.36%) were positive, with higher prevalence in females, older individuals and residents of large urban areas. Seroprevalence was estimated at 0.02% and 0.25%, respectively, in March and April, infection fatality rate at 2.66% and 0.54%. Our findings confirm low COVID-19 incidence in Greece and possibly the effectiveness of early measures. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zacharoula Bogogiannidou, Alexandros Vontas, Katerina Dadouli, Maria A Kyritsi, Soteris Soteriades, Dimitrios J Nikoulis, Varvara Α Mouchtouri, Michalis Koureas, Evangelos I Kazakos, Emmanouil G Spanos, Georgia Gioula, Evangelia E Ntzani, Alexandros A El Source Type: research

Marked reductions in outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for children and adolescents – a population-based study covering 83% of the paediatric population, Germany, 2010 to 2018
This study was conducted as consecutive annual cross-sectional analyses and included all children aged 0–14 years (n = 9,389,183 in 2018) covered by statutory health insurance in Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates from 2010 to 2018 were calculated for the age groups 0–1, 2–5, 6–9 and 10–14 years. Poisson regression was used to estimate trends of prescription rates by age group and antibiotic subgroup.ResultsOverall, the age-standardised antibiotic prescription rate decreased significantly by 43% from 746 prescriptions per 1,000 persons in 2010 to 428 per 1,000 in 2018 (p 
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jakob Holstiege, Maike Schulz, Manas K Akmatov, Annika Steffen and J örg Bätzing Source Type: research

Authors ’ correction for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(3)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(3)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Editorial note: possible undisclosed conflict of interest
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Authors ’ response: COVID-19: how accurate are seroprevalence studies?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Irene Cassaniti, Elena Percivalle, Antonella Sarasini, Giuseppe Cambi è, Gherard Batisti Biffignandi, Danilo Cereda and Fausto Baldanti Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: COVID-19: how accurate are seroprevalence studies?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kamran Kadkhoda Source Type: research

Legionella pneumonia: increased risk after COVID-19 lockdown? Italy, May to June 2020
We report a case ofLegionella pneumonia in a dishwasher of a restaurant in Rome, Italy, just after the end of the lockdown that was in place to control the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. The case highlights the importance of strict monitoring of water and air systems immediately before reopening business or public sector buildings, and the need to considerLegionella infections among the differential diagnosis of respiratory infections after lockdown due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Palazzolo, Gaetano Maffongelli, Alessandra D ’Abramo, Luciana Lepore, Andrea Mariano, Antonella Vulcano, Tommaso Ascoli Bartoli, Nazario Bevilacqua, Maria Letizia Giancola, Enrico Di Rosa and Emanuele Nicastri Source Type: research

Duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in COVID-19 patients in home isolation, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, 2020 – an interval-censored survival analysis
We analysed consecutive RT-qPCR results of 537 symptomatic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients in home quarantine. Respectively 2, 3, and 4 weeks after symptom onset, 50%, 25% and 10% of patients had detectable RNA from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In patients with mild COVID-19, RNA detection is likely to outlast currently known periods of infectiousness by far and fixed time periods seem more appropriate in determining the length of home isolation than laboratory-based approaches. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah Omar, Christoph Bartz, Sabine Becker, Silke Basenach, Sandra Pfeifer, Corinna Trapp, Hildegard Hamm, Hans Christoph Schlichting, Magdalena Friederichs, Ulrich Koch, Christian Jestrabek, Ernst Hilger, Manfred Vogt, Klaus Jahn, Simiao Chen, Till B är Source Type: research

Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in Cyprus 2004 to 2018
ConclusionDespite the low incidence of IMD in Cyprus, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Serogroup B is the most frequent serogroup, while incidence of serogroups W and Y is rising. Monitoring new cases and yearly evaluation of the immunisation programmes by the National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) is essential for successful control of the disease. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Koliou, Diamanto Kasapi, Stella Mazeri, Panagiota Maikanti, Anna Demetriou, Chrystalla Skordi, Maria Agathocleous, Georgina Tzanakaki and Elisavet Constantinou Source Type: research

Job vacancies at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Authors ’ correction for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(18)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Generation interval for COVID-19 based on symptom onset data
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sergio Bacallado, Qingyuan Zhao and Nianqiao Ju Source Type: research

A large COVID-19 outbreak in a high school 10 days after schools ’ reopening, Israel, May 2020
On 13 March 2020, Israel’s government declared closure of all schools. Schools fully reopened on 17 May 2020. Ten days later, a major outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in a high school. The first case was registered on 26 May, the second on 27 May. They were not epidemiologically linked. Testing of the complete school community revealed 153 students (attack rate: 13.2%) and 25 staff members (attack rate: 16.6%) who were COVID-19 positive. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen Stein-Zamir, Nitza Abramson, Hanna Shoob, Erez Libal, Menachem Bitan, Tanya Cardash, Refael Cayam and Ian Miskin Source Type: research

Authors ’ response: Estimating the generation interval for COVID-19 based on symptom onset data
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C écile Kremer, Tapiwa Ganyani, Dongxuan Chen, Andrea Torneri, Christel Faes, Jacco Wallinga and Niel Hens Source Type: research

Transmission of viral hepatitis through blood transfusion in Sweden, 1968 to 2012
ConclusionThere is still a substantial number of individuals in Sweden who have probably been infected with HCV through blood transfusion and who are still unaware of their infection. We recommend that a follow-up study should be conducted to validate the method we used by approaching these individuals and offer testing. This would also serve as an opportunity to offer treatment to those who remain infected. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Viktor Dahl, Ammar Majeed, Agneta Wikman, Rut Norda and Gustaf Edgren Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence in blood donors located in three different federal states, Germany, March to June 2020
Most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 are mild or asymptomatic. Therefore, many cases remain unrecorded. We determined seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 3,186 regular blood donors in three German federal states between 9 March and 3 June 2020. The IgG seroprevalence was 0.91% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58–1.24) overall, ranging from 0.66% (95% CI: 0.13–1.19) in Hesse to 1.22% (95% CI: 0.33–2.10) in Lower-Saxony. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bastian Fischer, Cornelius Knabbe and Tanja Vollmer Source Type: research

Convalescent plasma treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection: analysis of the first 436 donors in England, 22 April to 12 May 2020
Serological reactivity was analysed in plasma from 436 individuals with a history of disease compatible with COVID-19, including 256 who had been laboratory-confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over 99% of laboratory-confirmed cases developed a measurable antibody response (254/256) and 88% harboured neutralising antibodies (226/256). Antibody levels declined over 3 months following diagnosis, emphasising the importance of the timing of convalescent plasma collections. Binding antibody measurements can inform selection of convalescent plasma donors with high neutralising antibody levels. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heli Harvala, Jennifer Mehew, Matthew L Robb, Samreen Ijaz, Steven Dicks, Monika Patel, Nicholas Watkins, Peter Simmonds, Tim Brooks, Rachel Johnson, Robin Gopal, David J Roberts, Maria Zambon and the NHS Blood and Transplant Convalescent Plasma Testing G Source Type: research

All-cause excess mortality observed by age group and regions in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England
England has experienced one of the highest excess in all-cause mortality in Europe during the current COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 emerged, the excess in all-cause mortality rapidly increased, starting in March 2020. The excess observed during the pandemic was higher than excesses noted in the past 5 years. It concerned all regions and all age groups, except the 0–14 year olds, but was more pronounced in the London region and in those aged≥ 85 years. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mary A Sinnathamby, Heather Whitaker, Laura Coughlan, Jamie Lopez Bernal, Mary Ramsay and Nick Andrews Source Type: research

Monoclonal antibodies for the S2 subunit of spike of SARS-CoV-1 cross-react with the newly-emerged SARS-CoV-2
ConclusionThe cross-reactive mAbs may serve as useful tools for SARS-CoV-2 research and for the development of diagnostic assays for COVID-19. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhiqiang Zheng, Vanessa Marthe Monteil, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Chow Wenn Yew, Carol Leong, Nur Khairiah Mohd-Ismail, Suganya Cheyyatraivendran Arularasu, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, Raymond Tzer Pin Lin, Ali Mirazimi, Wanjin Hong and Yee-Joo Tan Source Type: research

Different guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) eligibility estimate HIV risk differently: an incidence study in a cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men, Portugal, 2014 –2018
ConclusionsBeing identified as eligible for PrEP was associated with a higher risk of infection. The magnitude of risk varied according to the guideline used. However, the number of HIV infections identified among ineligible participants highlights the potential for missing people who need PrEP. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paula Meireles, Michael Plankey, Miguel Rocha, Jo ão Brito, Luís Mendão and Henrique Barros Source Type: research

International external quality assessment for SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection and survey on clinical laboratory preparedness during the COVID-19 pandemic, April/May 2020
Laboratory preparedness with quality-assured diagnostic assays is essential for controlling the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. We conducted an external quality assessment study with inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) samples to support clinical laboratories with a proficiency testing option for molecular assays. To analyse SARS-CoV-2 testing performance, we used an online questionnaire developed for the European Union project RECOVER to assess molecular testing capacities in clinical diagnostic laboratories. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Veerle Matheeussen, Victor M Corman, Oliver Donoso Mantke, Elaine McCulloch, Christine Lammens, Herman Goossens, Daniela Niemeyer, Paul S Wallace, Paul Klapper, Hubert GM Niesters, Christian Drosten, Margareta Ieven and on behalf of the RECOVER project an Source Type: research

Infectious disease surveillance system descriptors: proposal for a comprehensive set
The objective of this paper is to propose a comprehensive set of surveillance system descriptors that can delineate the important elements and clarify the meaning of the terms used. We identified 20 descriptors that we classified in five categories: (i) surveillance scheme; (ii) population and cases; (iii) supplementary data; (iv) information flow; and (v) period of time. We tried to make the definitions of these descriptors as clear and simple as possible to avoid confusion or misinterpretation of the terms used. The relative importance of each element may vary depending on the objectives of the surveillance scheme. Surve...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Julien Beaut é, Bruno Christian Ciancio and Takis Panagiotopoulos Source Type: research

Proxy indicators to estimate appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions by general practitioners: a proof-of-concept cross-sectional study based on reimbursement data, north-eastern France 2017
BackgroundIn most countries, including France, data on clinical indications for outpatient antibiotic prescriptions are not available, making it impossible to assess appropriateness of antibiotic use at prescription level.AimOur objectives were to: (i) propose proxy indicators (PIs) to estimate appropriateness of antibiotic use at general practitioner (GP) level based on routine reimbursement data; and (ii) assess PIs’ performance scores and their clinimetric properties using a large regional reimbursement database.MethodsA recent systematic literature review on quality indicators was the starting point for defining ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nathalie Thilly, Ouarda Pereira, Jeroen Schouten, Marlies EJL Hulscher and C éline Pulcini Source Type: research

Rapid risk assessment from ECDC: Resurgence of reported cases of COVID-19 in the EU/EEA, the UK and EU candidate and potential candidate countries
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Excess all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe – preliminary pooled estimates from the EuroMOMO network, March to April 2020
We present preliminary pooled estimates of all-cause mortality for 24 European countries/federal states participating in the European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action (EuroMOMO) network, for the period March–April 2020. Excess mortality particularly affected ≥ 65 year olds (91% of all excess deaths), but also 45–64 (8%) and 15–44 year olds (1%). No excess mortality was observed in 0–14 year olds. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lasse S Vestergaard, Jens Nielsen, Lukas Richter, Daniela Schmid, Natalia Bustos, Toon Braeye, Gleb Denissov, Tatjana Veideman, Oskari Luomala, Teemu M öttönen, Anne Fouillet, Céline Caserio-Schönemann, Matthias an der Heiden, Helmut Uphoff, Theodore Source Type: research

Introductions and early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in France, 24 January to 23 March 2020
Following SARS-CoV-2 emergence in China, a specific surveillance was implemented in France. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences retrieved through this surveillance suggests that detected initial introductions, involving non-clade G viruses, did not seed local transmission. Nevertheless, identification of clade G variants subsequently circulating in the country, with the earliest from a patient who neither travelled to risk areas nor had contact with travellers, suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might have been present before the first recorded local cases. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fabiana G ámbaro, Sylvie Behillil, Artem Baidaliuk, Flora Donati, Mélanie Albert, Andreea Alexandru, Maud Vanpeene, Méline Bizard, Angela Brisebarre, Marion Barbet, Fawzi Derrar, Sylvie van der Werf, Vincent Enouf and Etienne Simon-Loriere Source Type: research

Independent, external validation of clinical prediction rules for the identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, January 2010 to December 2016
ConclusionsApplying published prediction models to institutions these were not derived from, may result in substantial misclassification of patients considered as being at risk, potentially leading to wrong allocation of antibiotic treatment, negatively affecting patient outcomes and overall resistance rates in the long term. Future prediction models need to address differences in local epidemiology by allowing for customisation according to different settings. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Isabelle Vock, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Adrian Egli, Pranita D Tamma and Sarah Tschudin-Sutter Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 does not replicate in embryonated hen ’s eggs or in MDCK cell lines
The advent of COVID-19, has posed a risk that human respiratory samples containing human influenza viruses may also contain SARS-CoV-2. This potential risk may lead to SARS-CoV-2 contaminating conventional influenza vaccine production platforms as respiratory samples are used to directly inoculate embryonated hen’s eggs and continuous cell lines that are used to isolate and produce influenza vaccines. We investigated the ability of these substrates to propagate SARS-CoV-2 and found that neither could support SARS-CoV-2 replication. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ian G Barr, Cleve Rynehart, Paul Whitney and Julian Druce Source Type: research

An epidemic CC1-MRSA-IV clone yields false-negative test results in molecular MRSA identification assays: a note of caution, Austria, Germany, Ireland, 2020
We investigated why a clinical meticillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate yielded false-negative results with some commercial PCR tests for MRSA detection. We found that an epidemic European CC1-MRSA-IV clone generally exhibits this behaviour. The failure of the assays was attributable to a large insertion in theorfX/SCCmec integration site. To ensure the reliability of molecular MRSA tests, it is vital to monitor emergence of new SCCmec types and junction sites. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stefan Monecke, Elisabeth K önig, Megan R Earls, Eva Leitner, Elke Müller, Gabriel E Wagner, David M Poitz, Lutz Jatzwauk, Teodora Vremerǎ, Olivia S Dorneanu, Alexandra Simbeck, Andreas Ambrosch, Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Robert Krause, Werner Ruppitsch, W Source Type: research

Rapid spread of OXA-244-producing Escherichia coli ST38 in Germany: insights from an integrated molecular surveillance approach; 2017 to January 2020
Annually, increasing numbers of OXA-244-producingEscherichia coli in 13 German federal states prompted us to initiate an outbreak investigation. Whole genome sequencing revealed that among 148 isolates analysed, most belonged to sequence type 38 with 62 isolates forming a genetically distinct cluster. Although no epidemiological link could be identified between cases, ongoing investigations suggest non-healthcare associated transmission. A screening-PCR was developed facilitating early detection of ST38 cluster isolates to identify the source and transmission route. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katrin Kremer, Rolf Kramer, Bernd Neumann, Sebastian Haller, Niels Pfennigwerth, Guido Werner, S ören Gatermann, Horst Schroten, Tim Eckmanns and Jörg B Hans Source Type: research

Recurrent invasive meningococcal infections – quantifying the risk, Germany, 2002 to 2018
IntroductionInvasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a rare condition with a high case fatality rate. While most patients suffer from one single episode in life, there is anecdotal evidence for recurrent infection.AimThe German National Reference Laboratory for Meningococci andHaemophilus influenzae (NRZMHi) analysed IMD cases from 2002 to 2018 to retrospectively quantify the risk of recurrent infection.MethodsRecurrent IMD was defined as detection ofNeisseria meningitidis in a sample of the same patient more than 30 days after the first episode of IMD.ResultsAmong 5,854 patients with a median observation period of 9.4 year...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Manuel Krone, Thi ên-Trí Lâm, Heike Claus and Ulrich Vogel Source Type: research

Active surveillance of acute paediatric hospitalisations demonstrates the impact of vaccination programmes and informs vaccine policy in Canada and Australia
Sentinel surveillance of acute hospitalisations in response to infectious disease emergencies such as the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic is well described, but recognition of its potential to supplement routine public health surveillance and provide scalability for emergency responses has been limited. We summarise the achievements of two national paediatric hospital surveillance networks relevant to vaccine programmes and emerging infectious diseases in Canada (Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active; IMPACT from 1991) and Australia (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance; PAEDS from 2007) and discu...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Karina A Top, Kristine Macartney, Julie A Bettinger, Ben Tan, Christopher C Blyth, Helen S Marshall, Wendy Vaudry, Scott A Halperin, Peter McIntyre and on behalf of the IMPACT and PAEDS investigators Source Type: research

Authors ’ correction for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(23)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Multicentre comparison of quantitative PCR-based assays to detect SARS-CoV-2, Germany, March 2020
Containment strategies and clinical management of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients during the current pandemic depend on reliable diagnostic PCR assays for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we compare 11 different RT-PCR test systems used in seven diagnostic laboratories in Germany in March 2020. While most assays performed well, we identified detection problems in a commonly used assay that may have resulted in false-negative test results during the first weeks of the pandemic. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maximilian Muenchhoff, Helga Mairhofer, Hans Nitschko, Natascha Grzimek-Koschewa, Dieter Hoffmann, Annemarie Berger, Holger Rabenau, Marek Widera, Nikolaus Ackermann, Regina Konrad, Sabine Zange, Alexander Graf, Stefan Krebs, Helmut Blum, Andreas Sing, Be Source Type: research

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralising antibodies in blood donors from the Lodi Red Zone in Lombardy, Italy, as at 06 April 2020
We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA and neutralising antibodies in blood donors (BD) residing in the Lodi Red Zone, Italy. Of 390 BDs recruited after 20 February 2020− when the first COVID-19 case in Lombardy was identified, 91 (23%) aged 19–70 years were antibody positive. Viral RNA was detected in an additional 17 (4.3%) BDs, yielding ca 28% (108/390) with evidence of virus exposure. Five stored samples collected as early as 12 February were seropositive. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elena Percivalle, Giuseppe Cambi è, Irene Cassaniti, Edoardo Vecchio Nepita, Roberta Maserati, Alessandro Ferrari, Raffaella Di Martino, Paola Isernia, Francesco Mojoli, Raffaele Bruno, Marcello Tirani, Danilo Cereda, Carlo Nicora, Massimo Lombardo and F Source Type: research

A common source for a trichinellosis outbreak reported in France and Serbia in 2017
Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis in the European Union. Meat from backyard pigs was the common source for a trichinellosis outbreak caused byTrichinella spiralis, which occurred in France and Serbia in the beginning of 2017. An epidemiological study was conducted in France and Serbia to determine the extent of the outbreak, to identify its source and to implement control measures. Three cases were exposed in Serbia and brought back to France pork delicatessen which they shared with relatives and friends. Around 47 individuals were exposed to the parasitised meat in France and Serbia and 20 cases of trichinellosi...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: R égine Barruet, Alice Devez, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Gregory Karadjian, Dragana Plavsa, Georges Chydériotis, Isabelle Vallée, Ljiljana Sofronic-Milosavljevic and Hélène Yera Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Wide indication for SARS-CoV-2-testing allowed identification of international risk areas during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ute Rexroth, Osamah Hamouda, Johanna Hanefeld, Bettina Ruehe, Lothar H Wieler and Lars Schaade Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020
Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nadia Oreshkova, Robert Jan Molenaar, Sandra Vreman, Frank Harders, Bas B Oude Munnink, Renate W Hakze-van der Honing, Nora Gerhards, Paulien Tolsma, Ruth Bouwstra, Reina S Sikkema, Mirriam GJ Tacken, Myrna MT de Rooij, Eefke Weesendorp, Marc Y Engelsma, Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of serological tests for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies up to 25 April 2020 and public health implications
We reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests. Random-effects models yielded a summary sensitivity of 82% for IgM, and 85% for IgG and total antibodies. For specificity, the pooled estimate were 98% for IgM and 99% for IgG and total antibodies. In populations with ≤ 5% of seroconverted individuals, unless the assays have perfect (i.e. 100%) specificity, the positive predictive value would be ≤ 88%. Serological tests should be used for prevalence surveys only in hard-hit areas. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saverio Caini, Federica Bellerba, Federica Corso, Ang élica Díaz-Basabe, Gioacchino Natoli, John Paget, Federica Facciotti, Simone Pietro De Angelis, Sara Raimondi, Domenico Palli, Luca Mazzarella, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Paolo Vineis and Sara Gandini Source Type: research

Measuring the effectiveness of an automated text messaging active surveillance system for COVID-19 in the south of Ireland, March to April 2020
We report the effectiveness of automated text messaging for active surveillance of asymptomatic close contacts of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in the Cork/Kerry region of Ireland. In the first 7 weeks of the COVID-19 outbreak, 1,336 close contacts received 12,421 automated texts. Overall, 120 contacts (9.0%) reported symptoms which required referral for testing and 35 (2.6%) tested positive for COVID-19. Non-response was high (n = 2,121; 17.1%) and this required substantial clinical and administrative resources for follow-up. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter M Barrett, Niamh Bambury, Louise Kelly, Rosalind Condon, Janice Crompton, Anne Sheahan and on behalf of the regional Department of Public Health Source Type: research

Descriptive study of COVID-19 outbreak among passengers and crew on Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama Port, Japan, 20 January to 9 February 2020
An outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred on the Diamond Princess cruise ship making an international journey, which led to quarantine of the ship at Yokohama Port, Japan. A suspected COVID-19 case was defined as a passenger or crew member who developed a fever or respiratory symptoms, and a confirmed COVID-19 case had laboratory-confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Between 3 and 9 February 2020, 490 individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 172 were positive (152 passengers (median age: 70 years; interquartile range (IQR): 64–75; males: 45%) and 20 cre...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Takuya Yamagishi, Hajime Kamiya, Kensaku Kakimoto, Motoi Suzuki and Takaji Wakita Source Type: research

Utilising sigmoid models to predict the spread of antimicrobial resistance at the country level
ConclusionWe present a novel method of describing and predicting the spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Noga Fallach, Yaakov Dickstein, Erez Silberschein, John Turnidge, Elizabeth Temkin, Jonatan Almagor, Yehuda Carmeli and on behalf of the DRIVE-AB Consortium Source Type: research

Author ’s correction for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(10)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2-related paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, an epidemiological study, France, 1 March to 17 May 2020
End of April 2020, French clinicians observed an increase in cases presenting with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). Nationwide surveillance was set up and demonstrated temporospatial association with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic for 156 reported cases as at 17 May: 108 were classified as confirmed (n = 79), probable (n = 16) or possible (n = 13) post-COVID-19 PIMS cases. A continuum of clinical features from Kawasaki-like disease to myocarditis was observed, requiring intensive care in 67% of cases. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alexandre Belot, Denise Antona, Sylvain Renolleau, Etienne Javouhey, V éronique Hentgen, François Angoulvant, Christophe Delacourt, Xavier Iriart, Caroline Ovaert, Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Isabelle Kone-Paut and Daniel Levy-Bruhl Source Type: research

High impact of COVID-19 in long-term care facilities, suggestion for monitoring in the EU/EEA, May 2020
Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCF) are a vulnerable population group. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related deaths in LTCF residents represent 30–60% of all COVID-19 deaths in many European countries. This situation demands that countries implement local and national testing, infection prevention and control, and monitoring programmes for COVID-19 in LTCF in order to identify clusters early, decrease the spread within and between facilities and reduce the size and severity of outbreaks. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: ECDC Public Health Emergency Team, Kostas Danis, Laure Fonteneau, Scarlett Georges, C ôme Daniau, Sibylle Bernard-Stoecklin, Lisa Domegan, Joan O’Donnell, Siri Helene Hauge, Sara Dequeker, Eline Vandael, Johan Van der Heyden, Françoise Renard, Natalia Source Type: research

Infection prevention guidelines and considerations for paediatric risk groups when reopening primary schools during COVID-19 pandemic, Norway, April 2020
In response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, most countries implemented school closures. In Norway, schools closed on 13 March 2020. The evidence of effect on disease transmission was limited, while negative consequences were evident. Before reopening, risk-assessment for paediatric risk groups was performed, concluding that most children can attend school with few conditions requiring preventative homeschooling. We here present infection prevention and control guidelines for primary schools and recommendations for paediatric risk groups. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tone Bjordal Johansen, Elisabeth Astrup, Solveig Jore, Hege Nilssen, Bente Barton Dahlberg, Claus Klingenberg, Are Stuwitz Berg and Margrethe Greve-Isdahl Source Type: research