Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent hospital admission and death at different time intervals since first dose of COVID-19 vaccine administration, Italy, 27 December 2020 to mid-April 2021
To assess the real-world impact of vaccines on COVID-19 related outcomes, we analysed data from over 7 million recipients of at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose in Italy. Taking 0–14 days post-first dose as reference, the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk subsequently decreased, reaching a reduction by 78% (incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.22; 95% CI: 0.21–0.24) 43–49 days post-first dose. Similarly, hospitalisation and death risks decreased, with 89% (IRR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.09–0.15) and 93% (IRR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.04...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alberto Mateo-Urdiales, Stefania Spila Alegiani, Massimo Fabiani, Patrizio Pezzotti, Antonietta Filia, Marco Massari, Flavia Riccardo, Marco Tallon, Valeria Proietti, Martina Del Manso, Maria Puopolo, Matteo Spuri, Cristina Morciano, Fortunato (Paolo) D Source Type: research

A community-acquired Legionnaires ’ disease outbreak caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2: an uncommon event, Italy, August to October 2018
In September 2018 in Brescia province, northern Italy, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) caused byLegionella pneumophila serogroup 2 (Lp2) occurred. The 33 cases (two fatal) resided in seven municipalities along the Chiese river. All cases were negative by urinary antigen test (UAT) and most were diagnosed by real-time PCR and serology. In only three cases, respiratory sample cultures were positive, andLp2 was identified and typed as sequence type (ST)1455. In another three cases, nested sequence-based typing was directly applied to respiratory samples, which provided allelic profiles highly similar to ST1455. An e...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Scaturro, Maria Cristina Rota, Maria Grazia Caporali, Antonietta Girolamo, Michele Magoni, Daria Barberis, Chiara Romano, Danilo Cereda, Maria Gramegna, Antonio Piro, Silvia Corbellini, Cinzia Giagulli, Giovanni Rezza, Arnaldo Caruso and Maria Luisa Source Type: research

HIV/HBV coinfection: temporal trends and patient characteristics, Spain, 2002 to 2018
BackgroundRecent and reliable estimates on the prevalence of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Europe are lacking.AimLeveraged on a study designed to assess HIV/HCV coinfection prevalence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection in Spain in 2018 and compared the results with five similar studies performed since 2002.MethodsThis cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in 43 centres, and patients were selected using simple random sampling. The reference population comprised 40,322 patients and the sample size were 1,690 patients.ResultsThe prevalence of HIV/...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leire P érez-Latorre, Juan Berenguer, Rafael Micán, Marta Montero, Carmen Cifuentes, Teresa Puig, José Sanz, Oscar L Ferrero, Belén De La Fuente, Carmen Rodríguez, Sergio Reus, José Hernández-Quero, Gabriel Gaspar, Laura Pérez-Martínez, Coral Gar Source Type: research

Provincial trends in Legionnaires ’ disease are not explained by population structure in Denmark, 2015 to 2018
ConclusionsThe relative differences in incidence between Danish provinces could not be explained by the age and sex distribution of the population, indicating that other factors must be responsible for the varying incidence across the country. These results may help inform trends in other countries in Europe also experiencing an unexplained high incidence of LD. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kelsie Cassell, Daniel Thomas-Lopez, Charlotte Kjels ø and Søren Uldum Source Type: research

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2021;26(16)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Time to regain lost ground: Tuberculosis in the COVID-19 era
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dominik Zenner Source Type: research

Increased transmissibility and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern as at June 2021
We present a global analysis of the spread of recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants and estimate changes in effective reproduction numbers at country-specific level using sequence data from GISAID. Nearly all investigated countries demonstrated rapid replacement of previously circulating lineages by the World Health Organization-designated variants of concern, with estimated transmissibility increases of 29% (95% CI: 24–33), 25% (95% CI: 20–30), 38% (95% CI: 29–48) and 97% (95% CI: 76–117), respectively, for B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and B.1.617.2. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Finlay Campbell, Brett Archer, Henry Laurenson-Schafer, Yuka Jinnai, Franck Konings, Neale Batra, Boris Pavlin, Katelijn Vandemaele, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Thibaut Jombart, Oliver Morgan and Olivier le Polain de Waroux Source Type: research

Effectiveness of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 hospitalisations and deaths in elderly long-term care facility residents, Spain, weeks 53 2020 to 13 2021
Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCF) experienced a large morbidity and mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain and were prioritised for early COVID-19 vaccination. We used the screening method and population-based data sources to obtain estimates of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness for elderly LTCF residents. The estimates were 71% (95% CI: 56–82%), 88% (95% CI: 75–95%), and 97% (95% CI: 92-99%), against SARS-CoV-2 infections (symptomatic and asymptomatic), and COVID-19 hospitalisations and deaths, respectively. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clara Mazagatos, Susana Monge, Carmen Olmedo, Lorena Vega, Pilar Gallego, Elisa Mart ín-Merino, María José Sierra, Aurora Limia, Amparo Larrauri and Working Group for the surveillance and control of COVID-19 in Spain Source Type: research

Isolation of clade 2.3.4.4b A(H5N8), a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, from a worker during an outbreak on a poultry farm, Russia, December 2020
This study presents the isolation of influenza A(H5N8) virus clade 2.3.4.4b from a poultry worker during an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) among chickens at a poultry farm in Astrakhan, Russia in December 2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from seven poultry workers were positive for influenza A(H5N8), as confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. The influenza A(H5N8) virus was isolated from one of the human specimens and characterised. Sporadic human influenza A(H5)2.3.4.4. infections represent a possible concern for public health. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Olga G Pyankova, Ivan M Susloparov, Anastasia A Moiseeva, Natalia P Kolosova, Galina S Onkhonova, Aleksey V Danilenko, Elena V Vakalova, Gennady L Shendo, Natalia N Nekeshina, Lyudmila N Noskova, Julia V Demina, Natalia V Frolova, Elena V Gavrilova, Rinat Source Type: research

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tuberculosis national reference laboratory services in the WHO European Region, March to November 2020
We assessed the impact of COVID-19 on diagnostic services for tuberculosis (TB) by national reference laboratories in the WHO European Region. Of 35 laboratories, 30 reported declines in TB sample numbers, amounting up to > 50% of the pre-COVID-19 volumes. Sixteen reported reagent or consumable shortages. Nineteen reallocated ressources to SARS-CoV-2 testing, resulting in an overall increase in workload, largely without a concomitant increase in personnel (n = 14). This poses a risk to meeting the 2025 milestones of the End TB Strategy. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Florian P Maurer, Natalia Shubladze, Gulmira Kalmambetova, Irina Felker, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Francis Drobniewski, Askar Yedilbayev, Soudeh Ehsani and The European Laboratory Initiative on TB, HIV and Viral Hepatitis Source Type: research

Early COVID-19 pandemic ’s toll on tuberculosis services, WHO European Region, January to June 2020
ConclusionA decrease in TB detection and enrolment to treatment may cause increases in TB burden and threatens the Region’s ability to reach the TB targets of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, still this might be mitigated with rapid restoration of TB services and the implementation of targeted interventions during periods with severe PHSM in place, such as those introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Masoud Dara, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Askar Yedilbayev, Ihor Perehinets, Tanja Schmidt, W. Leif Van Grinsven and Martin J. Boeree Source Type: research

The impact of pertussis in infants: insights from a hospital-based enhanced surveillance system, Lazio region, Italy, 2016 to 2019
ConclusionAn enhanced surveillance system showed a high incidence of pertussis among infants in the Lazio region, where the impact of this disease may still be underestimated. Increasing the coverage of pertussis immunisation among pregnant women and improving the capacity for early detection in primary care may contribute to reducing the impact of pertussis among infants. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Caterina Rizzo, Luisa Russo, Ilaria Campagna, Emanuela Carloni, Carlo Concato, Giulia Linardos, Alberto Villani, Sara Ciampini, Antonino Reale, Elena Boccuzzi, Fabio Midulla and Alberto E Tozzi Source Type: research

Case series of four secondary mucormycosis infections in COVID-19 patients, the Netherlands, December 2020 to May 2021
We describe four secondary fungal infections caused by Mucorales species in COVID-19 patients. Three COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in ICU, one outside ICU. All were men aged> 50 years, three died. Clinical presentations included pulmonary, rhino-orbital cerebral and disseminated infection. Infections occurred in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. CAM is an emerging disease and our observations underscore the need to be aware of invasive mucormycosis, including in COVID-19 patients without (poorly controlled) diabetes mellitus and outside ICU. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jochem B Buil, Arthur R H van Zanten, Robbert G Bentvelsen, Tom A Rijpstra, Bram Goorhuis, Sanne van der Voort, Linda J. Wammes, Jeroen A Janson, Max Melchers, Moniek Heusinkveld, Willem J G Melchers, Ed J Kuijper and Paul E Verweij Source Type: research

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 lineage (VOC β) is outgrowing the B.1.1.7 lineage (VOC α) in some French regions in April 2021
To assess SARS-CoV-2 variants spread, we analysed 36,590 variant-specific reverse-transcription-PCR tests performed on samples from 12 April–7 May 2021 in France. In this period, contrarily to January–March 2021, variants of concern (VOC)β (B.1.351 lineage) and/orγ (P.1 lineage) had a significant transmission advantage over VOCα (B.1.1.7 lineage) inÎle-de-France (15.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 15.5–16.2) and Hauts-de-France (17.3%; 95% CI: 15.9–18.7) regions. This is consistent with VOCβ’s immune evasion abilities and ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: B énédicte Roquebert, Sabine Trombert-Paolantoni, Stéphanie Haim-Boukobza, Emmanuel Lecorche, Laura Verdurme, Vincent Foulongne, Mircea T. Sofonea and Samuel Alizon Source Type: research

Minimum dataset for monitoring national human immunodeficiency virus pre-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PrEP) programmes: a five-nation consensus, 2019
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of antiretroviral medication to prevent HIV acquisition, is a highly effective biomedical prevention tool. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends PrEP for people at substantial risk of HIV infection, as part of combination prevention, and highlights the need for robust evaluation of PrEP programmes. Based on suggested WHO core indicators, we created a concise set of HIV PrEP-related dataset variables, to harmonise the monitoring and evaluation of PrEP programmes across five closely related nations (England, Northern Ireland, Ireland, Scotla...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John Saunders, O Noel Gill, Valerie Delpech, Claudia Estcourt and the Five Nations (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland) PrEP Minimum Dataset Working Group Source Type: research

Mortality review as a tool to assess the contribution of healthcare-associated infections to death: results of a multicentre validity and reproducibility study, 11 European Union countries, 2017 to 2018
ConclusionFeasibility, validity and reproducibility of these MR measures was acceptable for use in HAI surveillance. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tjallie van der Kooi, Alain Lepape, Pascal Astagneau, Carl Suetens, Mioara Alina Nicolaie, Sabine de Greeff, Ilma Lozoraitiene, Jacek Czepiel, M árta Patyi, Diamantis Plachouras and the HAI-Net Mortality review study group Source Type: research

Lockdown as a last resort option in case of COVID-19 epidemic rebound: a modelling study
ConclusionsWe provide simple indicators and triggers to decide if and when a last-resort lockdown should be implemented to avoid saturation of ICU. These metrics can support the planning and real-time management of successive COVID-19 pandemic waves. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C écile Tran Kiem, Pascal Crépey, Paolo Bosetti, Daniel Levy Bruhl, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Henrik Salje, Pierre-Yves Boëlle and Simon Cauchemez Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing data used for surveillance of Campylobacter infections: detection of a large continuous outbreak, Denmark, 2019
ConclusionOur WGS-based surveillance has contributed to an improved understanding of the dynamics of the occurrence ofCampylobacter strains in chicken meat and the correlation to clusters of human cases. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katrine Grimstrup Joensen, Susanne Schj ørring, Mette Rørbæk Gantzhorn, Camilla Thougaard Vester, Hans Linde Nielsen, Jørgen Harald Engberg, Hanne Marie Holt, Steen Ethelberg, Luise Müller, Gudrun Sandø and Eva Møller Nielsen Source Type: research

Abrupt termination of the 2019/20 influenza season following preventive measures against COVID-19 in Denmark, Norway and Sweden
ConclusionsThe PHSM against SARS-CoV-2 were followed by a dramatic reduction in influenza cases, indicating a wider public health effect of the implemented measures. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hanne-Dorthe Emborg, AnnaSara Carnahan, Karoline Bragstad, Ramona Trebbien, Mia Brytting, Olav Hungnes, Emma Bystr öm and Lasse S Vestergaard Source Type: research

Diagnostic challenges and pockets of susceptibility identified during a measles outbreak, Luxembourg, 2019
Luxembourg was among the first countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region documenting interruption of endemic measles transmission, but an increased incidence was registered in spring 2019. The outbreak started with an unvaccinated student who had been to a winter sports resort in a neighbouring country, where a measles outbreak was ongoing. Subsequently, 12 secondary and two tertiary cases were confirmed among students from the same school, relatives and healthcare workers, as well as six probably unrelated cases. Only 11 cases initially fulfilled the WHO definition for suspected measles cases. Fourt...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Michel Kohnen, Patrick Hoffmann, Caroline Frisch, Emilie Charpentier, Aur élie Sausy and Judith M Hübschen Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2020;25(47)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation, Navarre, Spain, January to April 2021
COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness was evaluated in close contacts of cases diagnosed during January–April 2021. Among 20,961 contacts, 7,240 SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed, with 5,467 being symptomatic and 559 leading to hospitalisations. Non-brand-specific one and two dose vaccine effectiveness were respectively, 35% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25 to 44) and 66% (95% CI: 57 to 74) against infections, 42% (95% CI: 31 to 52) and 82% (95% CI: 74 to 88) against symptomatic inf...
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Iv án Martínez-Baz, Ana Miqueleiz, Itziar Casado, Ana Navascués, Camino Trobajo-Sanmartín, Cristina Burgui, Marcela Guevara, Carmen Ezpeleta, Jesús Castilla and Working Group for the Study of COVID-19 in Navarra Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 susceptibility and infectiousness of children and adults deduced from investigations of childcare centre outbreaks, Germany, 2021
We investigated three SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 childcare centre and related household outbreaks. Despite group cohorting, cases occurred in almost all groups, i.e. also among persons without close contact. Children’s secondary attack rates (SAR) were similar to adults (childcare centres: 23% vs 30%; p = 0.15; households: 32% vs 39%; p = 0.27); child- and adult-induced household outbreaks also led to similar SAR. With the advent of B.1.1.7, susceptibility and infectiousness of children and adults seem to converge. Public health measures should be revisited accordingly. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anna Loenenbach, Inessa Markus, Ann-Sophie Lehfeld, Matthias an der Heiden, Walter Haas, Maya Kiegele, Andr é Ponzi, Barbara Unger-Goldinger, Cornelius Weidenauer, Helen Schlosser, Alexander Beile and Udo Buchholz Source Type: research

Outbreak of OXA-48-producing Enterobacterales in a haematological ward associated with an uncommon environmental reservoir, France, 2016 to 2019
This study highlights that toilets can be a possible source of transmission of OXA-48 CPE. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah Jolivet, Jeanne Couturier, Xavier Vuillemin, Cyril Gouot, Didier Nesa, Marine Adam, Eolia Brissot, Mohamad Mohty, R émy A Bonnin, Laurent Dortet and Frédéric Barbut Source Type: research

Risk factors for acquisition of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and expansion of a colistin-resistant ST307 epidemic clone in hospitals in Marseille, France, 2014 to 2017
BackgroundFrance is a low prevalence country for colistin resistance. Molecular and epidemiological events contributing to the emergence of resistance to colistin, one of the 'last-resort' antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, are important to investigate.AimThis retrospective (2014 to 2017) observational study aimed to identify risk factors associated with acquisition of colistin-resistantKlebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in hospitals in Marseille, France, and to molecularly characterise clinical isolates.MethodsTo identify risk factors for CRKP, a matched-case–control (1:2) study was perform...
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sophie Alexandra Baron, Nadim Cassir, Mouna Hamel, Linda Hadjadj, Nadia Saidani, Gregory Dubourg and Jean-Marc Rolain Source Type: research

Correction for Euro Surveill. 2020;26(19)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Hepatitis A outbreak associated with consumption of dates, England and Wales, January 2021 to April 2021
We report a national hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak linked to the consumption of Medjool dates. Twenty-nine cases of three genetically related sequences have been identified. Epidemiological investigations identified a suspected product (adjusted odds ratio: 47.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.79–1,256.07; p = 0.021). Microbiological testing has confirmed the presence of HAV on dates recovered from two cases and the product has been recalled. Date consumption is currently likely to be increased in connection with Ramadan, with potential ongoing contamination risk. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tatiana Garcia Vilaplana, David Leeman, Koye Balogun, Siew Lin Ngui, Emily Phipps, Wazirzada M Khan, Incident Team and Sooria Balasegaram Source Type: research

The potential for vaccination-induced herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant
We assess the feasibility of reaching the herd immunity threshold against SARS-CoV-2 through vaccination, considering vaccine effectiveness (VE), transmissibility of the virus and the level of pre-existing immunity in populations, as well as their age structure. If highly transmissible variants of concern become dominant in areas with low levels of naturally-acquired immunity and/or in populations with large proportions of 
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: David Hodgson, Stefan Flasche, Mark Jit, Adam J Kucharski and CMMID COVID-19 Working Group Source Type: research

Epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 cases: mortality inequalities by socio-economic status, Barcelona, Spain, 24 February to 4 May 2020
ConclusionsCOVID-19 outcomes varied markedly across SES, underscoring the need to implement effective preventive strategies for vulnerable populations. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Julieta Politi, Mario Mart ín-Sánchez, Lilas Mercuriali, Blanca Borras-Bermejo, Joaquín Lopez-Contreras, Anna Vilella, Judit Villar, COVID-19 Surveillance Working Group of Barcelona, Angels Orcau, Patricia Garcia de Olalla and Cristina Rius Source Type: research

Pitfalls of rubella serology while on the brink of elimination: evaluation of national data, Belgium, 2017
ConclusionThis retrospective analysis shows that rubella serology results may differ considerably according to the assay used. It is therefore important to use the same test when comparing results or performing follow-up testing. The number of anti-rubella IgM analyses was very high. Incorrect use of IgM for screening women of childbearing age can lead to unwarranted anxiety and overuse of confirmation tests. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sofie Colman, Kris Vernelen, Bernard China, Dorien Van den Bossche, Laura Cornelissen, Marie-Luce Delforge, Marijke Reynders, Mario Berth, Melissa Depypere, Natasja Van Gasse, Sara Vijgen, Jos Van Acker, An Boel and Elizaveta Padalko Source Type: research

Unprecedented increase of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, Spain, summer 2020
Cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Spain increased in summer 2020. Here we report on this increase and the local, regional and national public health measures taken in response. We analysed data from regional surveillance networks and the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network, both for human and animal West Nile virus (WNV) infection. During the 2020 season, a total of 77 human cases of WNV infection (median age 65 years; 60% males) were detected in the south-west of Spain; 72 (94%) of these cases developed WNND, presenting as meningoencephalitis, seven of which were fatal. In the previous two decad...
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luc ía García San Miguel Rodríguez-Alarcón, Beatriz Fernández-Martínez, María José Sierra Moros, Ana Vázquez, Paula Julián Pachés, Elena García Villacieros, María Belén Gómez Martín, Jordi Figuerola Borras, Nicola Lorusso, Julian Mauro Ram Source Type: research

Epidemiology of human West Nile virus infections in the European Union and European Union enlargement countries, 2010 to 2018
ConclusionReal-time surveillance of WNV infections is key to ensuring that clinicians and public health authorities receive early warning about the occurrence of cases and potential unusual seasonal patterns. Human cases may appear shortly after first detection of animal cases. Therefore, public health authorities should develop preparedness plans before the occurrence of human or animal WNV infections. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johanna J Young, Joana M Haussig, Stephan W Aberle, Danai Pervanidou, Flavia Riccardo, Neboj ša Sekulić, Tamás Bakonyi and Céline M Gossner Source Type: research

Mosquito surveillance of West Nile and Usutu viruses in four territorial units of Slovakia and description of a confirmed autochthonous human case of West Nile fever, 2018 to 2019
ConclusionThe entomological survey results and case report increase current understanding of the WNV and USUV situation in Slovakia. They underline the importance of vector surveillance to assess public health risks posed by these viruses. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vikt ória Čabanová, Elena Tichá, Richard Stewart Bradbury, Dana Zubriková, Daniela Valentová, Gabriela Chovancová, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Bronislava Víchová, Silvie Šikutová, Tomáš Csank, Zuzana Hurníková, Martina Miterpáková and Ivo Ru Source Type: research

Note from the editors: Eurosurveillance, 1996 to 2021 – 25 years of public health impact
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Case series of four re-infections with a SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 variant, Luxembourg, February 2021
We describe four SARS-CoV-2 re-infections with a B.1.351 variant in 2021, in healthcare workers (HCWs) previously infected in 2020, before detection of this variant in Europe. Cases live in France, near the border with Luxembourg, where variants B.1.351 and B.1.1.7 circulated. All work in the same hospital unit where a cluster of COVID 19 with B1.351 variant occurred, affecting patients and HCWs. Before the cluster onset, HCWs used surgical masks, as per recommendations. After cluster onset, HCWs used FFP2 masks. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Th érèse Staub, Vic Arendt, Esther Calvo Lasso de la Vega, Pierre Braquet, Christian Michaux, Michel Kohnen, Chantal Tsobo, Tamir Abdelrahman, Anke Wienecke-Baldacchino and Jean-Hugues Francois Source Type: research

The silent epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum inside the COVID-19 pandemic in Madrid, Spain, March 2020 to February 2021
Despite social distancing measures implemented in Madrid to prevent the propagation of SARS-CoV-2, a significant increase (57.1%; 28.5 to 38.5 cases/month) in cases of lymphogranuloma venereum was detected during the COVID-19 pandemic. This unusual scenario might have accelerated a shift inChlamydia trachomatis (CT) epidemiology towards a higher proportion of L genotypes compared with non-L genotypes in CT-positive samples. Our data underscore the importance of surveillance of sexually transmitted infections during the pandemic, in particular among vulnerable populations. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Laura Mart ínez-García, Mario Rodríguez-Domínguez, Clara Lejarraga, María Concepción Rodríguez-Jiménez, José María González-Alba, Teresa Puerta, Matilde Sánchez-Conde, José Manuel Hermida, Beatriz Romero-Hernández and Juan Carlos Galán Source Type: research

Surveillance data for human leishmaniasis indicate the need for a sustainable action plan for its management and control, Greece, 2004 to 2018
We present surveillance data for visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis for the period 2004 to 2018 in Greece to assess their public health importance.MethodsWe extracted data from the mandatory notification system to analyse separately imported and domestic cases of VL and CL. A case was defined by clinical manifestations compatible with VL or CL and laboratory confirmation.ResultsBetween 2004 and 2018, 881 VL (862 domestic, 19 imported) and 58 CL cases (24 domestic, 34 imported) were recorded. The mean annual notification rate of domestic VL was 0.5 per 100,000 (range: 0.12–1.43/100,000) with a statisticall...
Source: Eurosurveillance - May 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Myrsini Tzani, Alicia Barrasa, Annita Vakali, Theano Georgakopoulou, Kassiani Mellou and Danai Pervanidou Source Type: research

No country or continent is on its own in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kari Johansen and Hanna Nohynek Source Type: research

Effectiveness of the Comirnaty (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccine in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers, Treviso province, Veneto region, Italy, 27 December 2020 to 24 March 2021
Data on effectiveness of the BioNTech­/Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine in real-world settings are limited. In a study of 6,423 healthcare workers in Treviso Province, Italy, we estimated that, within the time intervals of 14–21 days from the first and at least 7 days from the second dose, vaccine effectiveness in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection was 84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 40–96) and 95% (95% CI: 62–99), respectively. These results could support the ongoing vaccination campaigns by providing evidence for targeted communication. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Massimo Fabiani, Mauro Ramigni, Valentina Gobbetto, Alberto Mateo-Urdiales, Patrizio Pezzotti and Cinzia Piovesan Source Type: research

National routine adult immunisation programmes among World Health Organization Member States: an assessment of health systems to deploy COVID-19 vaccines
We described existing programmes and used multivariable regression to identify independent factors associated with having them.ResultsOf 194 WHO Member States, 120 (62%) reported having at least one adult immunisation programme. The Americas and Europe had the highest proportions of adult immunisation programmes, most commonly for hepatitis B and influenza vaccines (> 47% and > 91% of countries, respectively), while Africa and South-East Asia had the lowest proportions, with 
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah R Williams, Amanda J Driscoll, Hanna M LeBuhn, Wilbur H Chen, Kathleen M Neuzil and Justin R Ortiz Source Type: research

Immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases among paediatric healthcare workers in Denmark, 2019
ConclusionThe immunity gaps found primarily in young HCW indicate a need for a screening and vaccination strategy for this group. Considering the poor correlation between self-reported immunity and seropositivity, efforts should be made to check HCW’s immune status in order to identify those who would benefit from vaccination. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marie-Louise von Linstow, Alex Yde Nielsen, Nikolai Kirkby, Anna Eltvedt, Thilde Nordmann Winther, Allan Bybeck Nielsen, Didi Bang and Anja Poulsen Source Type: research

Socioeconomic deprivation is inversely associated with measles incidence:  a longitudinal small-area analysis, Germany, 2001 to 2017
ConclusionSocioeconomic deprivation in Germany, one of Europe’s most populated countries, is inversely associated with measles incidence. This association persists after demographic and spatiotemporal factors are considered. The social, spatial and temporal patterns of elevated risk require targeted public health action and policy to address the complexity underlying measles epidemiology. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sven Rohleder, Christian Stock and Kayvan Bozorgmehr Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Detection of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 in five SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen tests (RATs), Germany, March 2021
SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) should not escape molecular surveillance. We investigated if SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen tests (RATs) could detect B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 VOCs in certain laboratory conditions. Infectious cell culture supernatants containing B.1.1.7, B.1.351 or non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 were respectively diluted both in DMEM and saliva. Dilutions were analysed with Roche, Siemens, Abbott, nal von minden and RapiGEN RATs. While further studies with appropriate real-life clinical samples are warranted, all RATs detected B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, generally comparable to non-VOC strain. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sabrina Jungnick, Bernhard Hobmaier, Lena Mautner, Mona Hoyos, Maren Haase, Armin Baiker, Heidi Lahne, Ute Eberle, Clara Wimmer, Sabrina Hepner, Annika Sprenger, Carola Berger, Alexandra Dangel, Manfred Wildner, Bernhard Liebl, Nikolaus Ackermann, Andreas Source Type: research

Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern B.1.1.7, B.1.351 or P.1: data from seven EU/EEA countries, weeks 38/2020 to 10/2021
We compared 19,207 cases of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7/S gene target failure (SGTF), 436 B.1.351 and 352 P.1 to non-variant cases reported by seven European countries. COVID-19 cases with these variants had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for hospitalisation (B.1.1.7/SGTF: 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–2.9; B.1.351: 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1–6.2; P.1: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–4.8) and B.1.1.7/SGTF and P.1 cases also for intensive care admission (B.1.1.7/SGTF: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.5; P.1: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8). (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tjede Funk, Anastasia Pharris, Gianfranco Spiteri, Nick Bundle, Angeliki Melidou, Michael Carr, Gabriel Gonzalez, Alejandro Garcia-Leon, Fiona Crispie, Lois O ’Connor, Niamh Murphy, Joël Mossong, Anne Vergison, Anke K. Wienecke-Baldacchino, Tamir Abdel Source Type: research

Correction for Euro Surveill. 2020;26(11)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Source Type: research

Impact of January 2021 curfew measures on SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 circulation in France
Following the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant, social distancing was strengthened in France in January 2021. Using a two-strain mathematical model calibrated on genomic surveillance, we estimated that curfew measures allowed hospitalisations to plateau by decreasing transmission of the historical strains while B.1.1.7 continued to grow. School holidays appear to have further slowed down progression in February. Without progressively strengthened social distancing, a rapid surge of hospitalisations is expected, despite the foreseen increase in vaccination rhythm. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Laura Di Domenico, Chiara E Sabbatini, Giulia Pullano, Daniel L évy-Bruhl and Vittoria Colizza Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools in a northern French city: a retrospective serological cohort study in an area of high transmission, France, January to April 2020
BackgroundChildren’s role in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology remains unclear. We investigated an initially unnoticed SARS-CoV-2 outbreak linked to schools in northern France, beginning as early as mid-January 2020.AimsThis retrospective observational study documents the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, linked to an affected high school (n = 664 participants) and primary schools (n = 1,340 study participants), in the context of unsuspected SARS-CoV-2 circulation and limited control measures.MethodsBetween 30 March and 30 April 2020, all school staff, as well as pupils and their parents and relati...
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arnaud Fontanet, Laura Tondeur, Rebecca Grant, Sarah Temmam, Yoann Madec, Thomas Bigot, Ludivine Grzelak, Isabelle Cailleau, Camille Besombes, Marie-No ëlle Ungeheuer, Charlotte Renaudat, Blanca Liliana Perlaza, Laurence Arowas, Nathalie Jolly, Sandrine Source Type: research

Temporal and regional incidence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales, Switzerland, 2013 to 2018
ConclusionsIn a first continuous surveillance of CPE in Switzerland, we found that the epidemiological situation aggravated nationwide and that regional patterns of CPE genotypes mirrored the situation in neighbouring European countries. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alban Ramette, Michael Gasser, Patrice Nordmann, Reinhard Zbinden, Jacques Schrenzel, Damir Perisa and Andreas Kronenberg Source Type: research

Determining the communicable period of SARS-CoV-2: A rapid review of the literature, March to September 2020
The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the current literature and compare the reported periods of positive SARS-CoV-2 detection from studies that conducted RT-PCR testing in addition to experiments isolating whole virus.MethodsUsing a rapid review approach, studies reporting empirical data on the duration of positive RT-PCR results and/or successful viral isolation following SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans were identified through searches of peer-reviewed and pre-print health sciences literature. Articles were screened for relevance, then data were extracted, analysed, and synthesised.ResultsOf the 160 ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mina Park, Colleen Pawliuk, Tribesty Nguyen, Amanda Griffitt, Linda Dix-Cooper, Nadia Fourik and Martin Dawes Source Type: research