Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Burden of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and listeriosis: a time series analysis, Belgium, 2012 to 2020
Salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and listeriosis are food-borne diseases. We estimated and forecasted the number of cases of these three diseases in Belgium from 2012 to 2020, and calculated the corresponding number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The salmonellosis time series was fitted with a Bai and Perron two-breakpoint model, while a dynamic linear model was used for campylobacteriosis and a Poisson autoregressive model for listeriosis. The average monthly number of cases of salmonellosis was 264 (standard deviation (SD): 86) in 2012 and predicted to be 212 (SD: 87) in 2020; campylobacteriosis case numbers...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Increase in Legionnaires' disease cases associated with travel to Dubai among travellers from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands, October 2016 to end August 2017
Between 1 October 2016 and 31 August 2017, 51 Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands were identified with associated travel to Dubai. Cases did not all stay in the same accommodation, indicating that no single accommodation could be the source for all these infections. While local investigations continue into other potential sources, clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of LD among travellers returning from Dubai with respiratory illness. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Note from the editors: Wave goodbye and say hello - Eurosurveillance to launch new website soon
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The European Medical Corps: first Public Health Team mission and future perspectives
The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa challenged traditional international mechanisms for public health team mobilisation to control outbreaks. Consequently, in February 2016, the European Union (EU) launched the European Medical Corps (EMC), a mechanism developed in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) to rapidly deploy teams and equipment in response to public health emergencies inside and outside the EU. Public Health Teams (PHTs), a component of the EMC, consist of experts in communicable disease prevention and control from participating countries and the European Centre for Disease Prevention a...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

First outbreak of Zika virus in the continental United States: a modelling analysis
Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread throughout Latin and Central America. This emerging infectious disease has been causing considerable public health concern because of severe neurological complications, especially in newborns after congenital infections. In July 2016, the first outbreak in the continental United States was identified in the Wynwood neighbourhood of Miami-Dade County, Florida. In this work, we investigated transmission dynamics using a mathematical model calibrated to observed data on mosquito abundance and symptomatic human infections. We found that, although ZIKV transmission was detected in July 2...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ongoing outbreak with well over 4,000 measles cases in Italy from January to end August 2017 ? what is making elimination so difficult?
We report an ongoing measles outbreak in Italy, with over 4,400 cases reported in 20 Regions from January to August 2017. Median age was 27 years, 88% of the cases were unvaccinated. The highest incidence was in infants below one year of age and 7% of cases occurred among healthcare workers. Three deaths occurred and two cases of encephalitis were reported. Wide immunity gaps and nosocomial transmission are major challenges to measles elimination in Italy. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(35)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Status, quality and specific needs of Zika virus (ZIKV) diagnostic capacity and capability in National Reference Laboratories for arboviruses in 30 EU/EEA countries, May 2016
With international travel, Zika virus (ZIKV) is introduced to Europe regularly. A country's ability to robustly detect ZIKV introduction and local transmission is important to minimise the risk for a ZIKV outbreak. Therefore, sufficient expertise and diagnostic capacity and capability are required in European laboratories. To assess the capacity, quality, operational specifics (guidelines and algorithms), technical and interpretation issues and other possible difficulties that were related to ZIKV diagnostics in European countries, a questionnaire was conducted among national reference laboratories in 30 countries in the E...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Recurrent seasonal outbreak of an emerging serotype of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O55:H7 Stx2a) in the south west of England, July 2014 to September 2015
The first documented British outbreak of Shiga toxin-producingEscherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 began in the county of Dorset, England, in July 2014. Since then, there have been a total of 31 cases of which 13 presented with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The outbreak strain had Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype 2a associated with an elevated risk of HUS. This strain had not previously been isolated from humans or animals in England. The only epidemiological link was living in or having close links to two areas in Dorset. Extensive investigations included testing of animals and household pets. Control measures included extended s...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Preliminary findings indicate nosocomial transmission and Roma population as most affected group in ongoing measles B3 genotype outbreak in Bulgaria, March to August 2017
From March to August 2017, 165 measles cases were reported from three regions in Bulgaria. The age range was 0?55 years and 66% of the cases were under 9 years. The Roma population was disproportionally affected (89% of cases), 41% cases were unvaccinated and in 24 cases there was nosocomial transmission mostly in paediatric departments. A child under 12 months of age died. Control measures have been taken and the investigation is still ongoing. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Surveillance of mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes in Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from an Italian Hospital
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 31, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Environmental surveillance during an outbreak of tularaemia in hares, the Netherlands, 2015
Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacteriumFrancisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster ofF. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from February to May 2015. No human cases were identified, including after active case finding. Presence ofF. tularensis was investigated in potential reservoirs and transmission routes, including common voles, arthropod vectors and surface waters.F. tularensis was not detected in common voles, mosquito larvae or adults, tabanids or ticks. ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 31, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The spatiotemporal characteristics of influenza A and B in the WHO European Region: can one define influenza transmission zones in Europe?
We aimed to assess the epidemiology and spatiotemporal patterns of influenza in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region and evaluate the validity of partitioning the Region into five influenza transmission zones (ITZs) as proposed by the WHO. We used the FluNet database and included over 650,000 influenza cases from 2000 to 2015. We analysed the data by country and season (from July to the following June). We calculated the median proportion of cases caused by each virus type in a season, compared the timing of the primary peak between countries and used a range of cluster analysis methods to assess the degree ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 31, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ongoing mumps outbreak in Israel, January to August 2017
In Israel, 262 mumps cases were registered between 1 January and 28 August 2017 despite a vaccine coverage of ??96%. The majority (56.5%) of cases were adolescents and young adults between 10 and 24 years of age. Nearly twice as many cases were reported in males than in females. Sequence information identified genotype G and suggested specific transmission chains in different religious communities, with the Muslim population in Jerusalem being most severely affected. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 31, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(31)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Author's correction for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(32)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalisations of elderly individuals in two influenza seasons: a multicentre case-control study, Spain, 2013/14 and 2014/15
Influenza vaccination may limit the impact of influenza in the community. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalisation in individuals aged???65 years in Spain. A multicentre case-control study was conducted in 20 Spanish hospitals during 2013/14 and 2014/15. Patients aged???65 years who were hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed influenza were matched with controls according to sex, age and date of hospitalisation. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. A total of 728 cases and 1,826 matched control...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Large measles outbreak introduced by asylum seekers and spread among the insufficiently vaccinated resident population, Berlin, October 2014 to August 2015
The largest measles outbreak in Berlin since 2001 occurred from October 2014 to August 2015. Overall, 1,344 cases were ascertained, 86% (with available information) unvaccinated, including 146 (12%) asylum seekers. Median age was 17 years (interquartile range: 4-29 years), 26% were hospitalised and a 1-year-old child died. Measles virus genotyping uniformly revealed the variant 'D8-Rostov-Don' and descendants. The virus was likely introduced by and initially spread among asylum seekers before affecting Berlin's resident population. Among Berlin residents, the highest incidence was in children aged?
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Persistent detection of dengue virus RNA in vaginal secretion of a woman returning from Sri Lanka to Italy, April 2017
We describe the dynamics of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a woman in her mid-30s who developed fever after returning from Sri Lanka to Italy in April 2017. Laboratory testing demonstrated detectable DENV-RNA in plasma, urine, saliva, vaginal secretion. Persistent shedding of DENV-RNA was demonstrated in vaginal secretion, and DENV-RNA was detectable in the pelleted fraction up to 18 days from symptom onset. These findings give new insights into DENV vaginal shedding and vertical transmission. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection from Oman to Thailand, June 2015
Thailand reported the first Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case on 18 June 2015 (day 4) in an Omani patient with heart condition who was diagnosed with pneumonia on hospital admission on 15 June 2015 (day 1). Two false negative RT-PCR on upper respiratory tract samples on days 2 and 3 led to a 48-hour diagnosis delay and a decision to transfer the patient out of the negative pressure unit (NPU). Subsequent examination of sputum later on day 3 confirmed MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. The patient was immediately moved back into the NPU and then transferred to Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute. Over...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A nosocomial measles outbreak in Italy, February-April 2017
We describe a nosocomial outbreak of measles that occurred in an Italian hospital during the first months of 2017, involving 35 persons and including healthcare workers, support personnel working in the hospital, visitors and community contacts. Late diagnosis of the first case, support personnel not being promptly recognised as hospital workers and diffusion of the infection in the emergency department had a major role in sustaining this outbreak. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ongoing large measles outbreak with nosocomial transmission in Milan, northern Italy, March-August 2017
A large measles outbreak has been ongoing in Milan and surrounding areas. From 1 March to 30 June 2017, 203 measles cases were laboratory-confirmed (108 sporadic cases and 95 related to 47 clusters). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the co-circulation of two different genotypes, D8 and B3. Both genotypes caused nosocomial clusters in two hospitals. The rapid analysis of epidemiological and phylogenetic data allowed effective surveillance and tracking of transmission pathways. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A cluster of measles linked to an imported case, Finland, 2017
One imported and five secondary cases of measles were detected in Finland between June and August 2017. The measles sequences available for four laboratory-confirmed cases were identical and belonged to serotype D8. The large number of potentially exposed Finnish and foreign individuals called for close cooperation of national and international public health authorities and other stakeholders. Raising awareness among healthcare providers and ensuring universally high vaccination coverage is crucial to prevent future clusters and outbreaks. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancies at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evidence for more cost-effective surveillance options for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in Great Britain
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are an important public health concern. Since the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the 1980s and its link with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, active surveillance has been a key element of the European Union's TSE control strategy. Success of this strategy means that now, very few cases are detected compared with the number of animals tested. Refining surveillance strategies would enable resources to be redirected towards other public health priorities. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on several alternative strategies involving reducing t...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Improving regional influenza surveillance through a combination of automated outbreak detection methods: the 2015/16 season in France
The 2014/15 influenza epidemic caused a work overload for healthcare facilities in France. The French national public health agency announced the start of the epidemic - based on indicators aggregated at the national level - too late for many hospitals to prepare. It was therefore decided to improve the influenza alert procedure through (i) the introduction of a pre-epidemic alert level to better anticipate future outbreaks, (ii) the regionalisation of surveillance so that healthcare structures can be informed of the arrival of epidemics in their region, (iii) the standardised use of data sources and statistical methods ac...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Reoccurrence of botulinum neurotoxin subtype A3 inducing food-borne botulism, Slovakia, 2015
A case of food-borne botulism occurred in Slovakia in 2015.Clostridium botulinum type A was isolated from three nearly empty commercial hummus tubes. The product, which was sold in Slovakia and the Czech Republic, was withdrawn from the market and a warning was issued immediately through the European Commission's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). Further investigation revealed the presence of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) subtype BoNT/A3, a very rare subtype implicated in only one previous outbreak (Loch Maree in Scotland, 1922). It is the most divergent subtype of BoNT/A with 15.4% difference at the amino acid l...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cyclosporiasis in travellers returning to the United Kingdom from Mexico in summer 2017: lessons from the recent past to inform the future
During the summers of 2015 and 2016, the United Kingdom experienced large outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in travellers returning from Mexico. As the source of the outbreaks was not identified, there is the potential for a similar outbreak to occur in 2017; indeed 78 cases had already been reported as at 27 July 2017. Early communication and international collaboration is essential to provide a better understanding of the source and extent of this recurring situation. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evolving beta-lactamase epidemiology in Enterobacteriaceae from Italian nationwide surveillance, October 2013: KPC-carbapenemase spreading among outpatients
This study investigated the presence of these resistance mechanisms in consecutive non-replicate isolates ofEscherichia coli (n?=?2,352),Klebsiella pneumoniae (n?=?697), andProteus mirabilis (n?=?275) from an Italian nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out in October 2013. Overall, 15.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins but susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaS), while 4.3% were also non-susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaR). ESCR-carbaS isolates were contributed by all three species, with higher proportions among isolates from inpatients (20.3%) but remarkable proportions als...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mcr-4 gene in Salmonella and Escherichia coli, Italy 2013, Spain and Belgium, 2015 to 2016
A novelmcr colistin resistance gene was identified in a strain ofSalmonella enterica, monophasic variant of serovar Typhimurium (4,5,12:i:-?), isolated from a pig at slaughter in Italy in 2013, and inEscherichia coli strains collected during routine diagnostic of post-weaning diarrhoea in pigs from Spain and Belgium in 2015 and 2016. Immediate implementation ofmcr-screening including this novel gene variant is required forSalmonella andE. coli from humans and food-producing animals in Europe. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Co-occurrence of colistin-resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-3 among multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, Spain, September 2015
Colistin resistance genesmcr-3 andmcr-1 have been detected in anEscherichia coli isolate from cattle faeces in a Spanish slaughterhouse in 2015. The sequences of both genes hybridised to same plasmid band of ca?250 kb, although colistin resistance was non-mobilisable. The isolate was producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and belonged to serotype O9:H10 and sequence type ST533. Here we report anmcr-3 gene detected in Europe following earlier reports from Asia and the United States. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-3 in Salmonella isolates from human infections, Denmark, 2009-17
This report describes one Salmonella isolate harbouring bothmcr-1 andmcr-3. We also found nine other Salmonella isolates positive for the plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene,mcr-3. The strains were isolated from patients in Denmark between 2009 and 2017 and five of the patients had travelled to Asia. In addition tomcr-3, all strains were found positive forblaTEM-1,strA,strB,sul2 andtet(A) ortet(B), and most strains were positive forblaCTX-M-55 andqnrS. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Novel mcr-3 variant, encoding mobile colistin resistance, in an ST131 Escherichia coli isolate from bloodstream infection, Denmark, 2014
A novel variant of the plasmid-borne colistin resistance genemcr-3 was detected on an IncHI2 plasmid in an ST131 CTX-M-55-producingEscherichia coli isolate from a Danish patient with bloodstream infection in 2014. The discovery of novel plasmid-borne genes conferring resistance to colistin is of special interest since colistin has reemerged as an important drug in the treatment of infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Plasmid-encoded colistin resistance: mcr-one, two, three and counting
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence and prevalence of chronic infection in the adult population in Ireland: a study of residual sera, April 2014 to February 2016
Robust data on hepatitis C virus (HCV) population prevalence are essential to inform national HCV services. In 2016, we undertook a survey to estimate HCV prevalence among the adult population in Ireland. We used anonymised residual sera available at the National Virus Reference Laboratory. We selected a random sample comprising persons???18 years with probability proportional to the general population age-sex distribution. Anti-HCV and HCV Ag were determined using the Architect anti-HCV and HCV Ag assays. Fifty-three of 3,795 specimens were seropositive (age-sex-area weighted seroprevalence 0.98% (95% confidence interval ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Severe liver disease related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection in treatment-naive patients: epidemiological characteristics and associated factors at first expert centre visit, France, 2000 to 2007 and 2010 to 2014
Given recent profound improvements in the effectiveness of antiviral treatment for chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we aimed to describe the characteristics of patients referred to hepatology expert centres in France from 2000 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2014, and to identify factors associated with severe liver disease at their first visit for evaluation. We analysed data from two sources covering all of France: the former hepatitis C surveillance network, which included patients between 2000 and 2007, and the ANRS CO22 HEPATHER multi-centre cohort, which included patients between 2012 and 2014. Severe liver diseas...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

2015/16 seasonal vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B among elderly people in Europe: results from the I-MOVE+ project
We conducted a multicentre test-negative case-control study in 27 hospitals of 11 European countries to measure 2015/16 influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against hospitalised influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B among people aged???65 years. Patients swabbed?within 7 days after onset of symptoms compatible with severe acute respiratory infection were included. Information on demographics, vaccination and underlying conditions was collected. Using logistic regression, we measured IVE adjusted for potential confounders. We included 355 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases, 110 influenza B cases, and 1,274 controls. Adjusted IVE against ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outbreak of intestinal amoebiasis among men who have sex with men, Barcelona (Spain), October 2016 and January 2017
Entamoeba histolytica has been recently recognised as an emerging sexually transmissible pathogen in men who have sex with men (MSM), causing sporadic outbreaks in countries where it is not endemic. Here we report two closed clusters of invasive amoebiasis occurring in Barcelona, Spain, in October 2016 (four cases) and in January 2017 (four cases). (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Human myiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly, Hypoderma tarandi, case series from Norway, 2011 to 2016
We report a series of 39 human myiasis cases caused byH. tarandi in Norway from 2011 to 2016. Thirty-two were residents of Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway, one a visitor to Finnmark, and six lived in other counties of Norway where reindeer live. Clinical manifestations involved migratory dermal swellings of the face and head, enlargement of regional lymph nodes, and periorbital oedema, with or without eosinophilia. Most cases of human myiasis are seen in tropical and subtropical countries, and in tourists returning from such areas. Our findings demonstrate that myiasis caused byH. tarandi is more common than pr...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Are pertussis cases reported too late for public health interventions? Retrospective analysis of cases in London and South East England, 2010 to 2015
In the United Kingdom, pertussis guidance recommends prophylaxis for household contacts within 21 days of case symptom onset if the household includes a vulnerable contact. The aim of our study was to identify characteristics associated with cases reported late for public health action. We reviewed the epidemiology of cases reported in London and South East England for the period 2010 to 2015. We characterised risk factors associated with late reporting of cases and described public health actions taken on timely reported cases. From 2010 to 2015, 9,163 cases of pertussis were reported to health protection teams. Only 11% ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ongoing hepatitis A among men who have sex with men (MSM) linked to outbreaks in Europe in Tel Aviv area, Israel, December 2016 - June 2017
Between December 2016 and June 2017, 19 Hepatitis A virus (HAV)-positive cases, 17 of which were among men who have sex with men (MSM) were identified in the Tel Aviv area. Seven of the 15 sewage samples collected between January and June 2017 were also HAV-positive. All sequences clustered with two of the three strains identified in the current European HAV outbreak. We demonstrate that despite an efficient vaccination programme, HAV can still be transmitted to an unvaccinated high-risk population. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pertussis surveillance and control: exploring variations and delays in testing, laboratory diagnostics and public health service notifications, the Netherlands, 2010 to 2013
Pertussis is most severe among unvaccinated infants (
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

International risk of yellow fever spread from the ongoing outbreak in Brazil, December 2016 to May 2017
States in south-eastern Brazil were recently affected by the largest Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak seen in a decade in Latin America. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of the risk of travel-related international spread of YF indicating that the United States, Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, Italy and Germany may have received at least one travel-related YF case capable of seeding local transmission. Mitigating the risk of imported YF cases seeding local transmission requires heightened surveillance globally. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of a widely used culture-based method for detection of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Denmark and Norway, 2014 to 2016
We evaluated a widely used culture-based method for detection of livestock-associated meticillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in samples collected from pigs and the environment inside pig stables in Denmark and Norway. Selective enrichment in tryptic soy broth containing cefoxitin and aztreonam led to a high ratio of false-negative results (26%; 57/221). On this basis, we recommend reconsidering the use of selective enrichment for detection of LA-MRSA in animal and environmental samples. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A cluster of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W among university students, France, February to May 2017
Between February and May 2017, two cases of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a new, rapidly expanding serogroup W meningococci variant were reported among students of an international university in Paris. Bacteriological investigations showed that isolates shared identical genotypic formula (W:P1.5,2:F1-1:cc11) and belonged to the South American/UK lineage. A vaccination campaign was organised that aimed at preventing new cases linked to potential persistence of the circulation of the bacteria in the students. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Trends in tuberculosis notification rates by country of origin in the metropolitan area of Rome, 2010 to 2015
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythem...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Legionnaires' disease in Europe, 2011 to 2015
Under the coordination of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the European Legionnaires' disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) conducts surveillance of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in Europe. Between 2011 and 2015, 29 countries reported 30,532 LD cases to ECDC (28,188 (92.3%) confirmed and 2,344 (7.7%) probable). Four countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) accounted for 70.3% of all reported cases, although their combined populations represented only 49.9% of the study population. The age-standardised rate of all cases increased from 0.97 cases/100,000 population in 2011 to 1.30 cases/100,00...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research