Molecular Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis in India: Their Association with Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.

Molecular Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis in India: Their Association with Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 01;: Authors: Das S, Samajpati S, Roy I, Sankar S, Gaind R, Deb M, Kulkarni R, Kumar Paul D, Dutta S Abstract Molecular subtyping, and recently DNA sequencing based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, leads to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We included S. Typhi blood isolates (n=66) from India during 2007-14 for molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in association with antibiotic resistance profiles. Genotypic diversity was observed more in MLVA (Simpson's index of diversity, D value 0.997) than PFGE (D value 0.864). Two prevalent pulsotypes containing nalidixic acid-resistant (NAL(R)) and NAL(R)-ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP(R)) S. Typhi isolates circulated in India. Multidrug-resistant (MDR), NAL(R)-CIP(R) and majority of NAL(R) isolates were found to be clonal by PFGE. MLVA could differentiate the clonal isolates. Most of the MDR and NAL(R)-CIP(R) isolates showed variation in single or double VNTR loci, whereas NAL(R) isolates varied in more than two loci reflecting higher genetic di...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

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ConclusionThe current findings provide valuable data for understanding the multidrug resistance and pathogenic characteristics of clinical Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe current findings provide valuable data for understanding the multidrug resistance and pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella Paratyphi A in medicine.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion The present results demonstrated that Chilean salmon farms play an important role as reservoirs of sulfonamide- and trimethoprim-resistant bacteria. The prevalence of conjugative plasmids and integrons among sul-carrying bacteria suggests these bacteria, mainly belonging to the Pseudomonas genus may contribute to high spread of bacterial resistance to sulfonamides and other antibacterials in environments associated with Chilean salmon farms. This is the first study reporting the occurrence of transferable sul and dfr genes and integrons among the antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated with Chilean salmonid...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This report describes the dynamics of FQ-associated mutations in the highly resistant in FQ mutants in S. Enteritidis. In addition, we characterized a deletion in the ramRA integenic region, demonstrating that this frequent mutation in the highly resistant FQ mutants provide resistance or reduce susceptibility to multiple families of antibiotics. Introduction Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major zoonotic pathogen worldwide (Bangtrakulnonth et al., 2004; Scallan et al., 2011). Infections caused by this pathogen have been mainly associated with gastroenteritis, an acute self-limiting intestinal infection. Howeve...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Background &objectives: The temporal trends in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi in India have not been systematically reported. We aimed to systematically review the temporal AMR trends (phenotypic and molecular mechanisms) in bacterial isolates from patients with enteric fever over two decades in India. Methods: To identify trends in AMR in India, resistance patterns among 4611 individual S. Typhi isolates and 800 S. Paratyphi A isolates, reported from 1992 to 2017 in 40 publications, were analysed. Molecular resistance determinant...
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Enteric-fever is a major public-health problem in India. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, Nalidixic-acid resistant and extremely-drug resistant Salmonella mandates ongoing surveillance for targeted empirical therapy and containment of spread. Repeated epidemics call for water, sanitation, hygiene and vaccination strategies to sustain herd-immunity. PMID: 30664444 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Medica: Hradec Kralove - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) Source Type: research
Purpose of review Enteric fever remains a major global-health concern, estimated to be responsible for between 11.9 and 26.9 million cases annually. Long-term prevention of enteric fever will require improved access to safe drinking water combined with investment in sanitation and hygiene interventions. In the short-to-medium term, new control strategies for typhoid fever have arrived in the form of typhoid Vi-conjugate vaccines (TCVs), offering hope that disease control can be achieved in the near future. Recent findings The diagnosis of enteric fever is complicated by its nonspecific clinical presentation, coupled w...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by A Clinton White and Gagandeep Kang Source Type: research
We report a total of 17,387 S. Typhi-positive and 8,286 S. Paratyphi A and B-positive specimens from 798,137 blood cultures performed. The results suggest an overall decline in typhoid incidence as S. Typhi positivity rates declined from 6.42% in 1992 to 1.32% in 2015 and S. Paratyphi (A and B) from 1.29% to 0.39%. Subgroup analysis suggests higher S. Typhi prevalence in adults older than 18 years, whereas S. Paratyphi is greater in aged children 5-18 years. The relative contribution of S. Paratyphi to overall confirmed cases increased from 16.8% in 1992 to 23% in 2015. The analysis suggests high burden of fluoroquinolone ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract ObjectivesTyphoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture‐proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. MethodologyRetrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture‐confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Ban...
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
AbstractThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in the antimicrobial resistance of typhoidal salmonellae in children and adolescents at a pediatric tertiary care hospital in South India. Typhoidal salmonellae were isolated from 483 of the 77,713 blood cultures received during the ten-year study period (2007 –2016). Isolates were speciated by conventional biochemical reactions and serotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC)/European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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