In Brief News at a glance
In science news around the world, the critically endangered saiga antelope faces a new threat from a livestock virus in Mongolia, the Bill &Melinda Gates Foundation gives a global health trends institute at the University of Washington a big financial boost, Russia's health ministry decides the country cannot afford to spend $1.2 billion to ramp up the response to its burgeoning HIV/AIDS epidemic, a new Pew Research Center poll reveals that 82% of Americans think the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine should be required for public school entry, and more. Also, scientists remind U.S. President Donald Trump that torture doesn't work, the Doomsday Clock ticks closer to midnight, and more from Trump's first week in office. And Science chats with evolutionary biologist Michael Eisen, who last week announced he will run for a Senate seat to bring greater attention to the need for scientific advice in policymaking.
New treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antivirals provide an extraordinary cure rate. A recent Article by Xavier Forns and colleagues1 shows an outstanding 99% sustained virological response among all viral genotypes. Because HCV infection is now a curable disease, attention should be focused towards HCV-related complications and indirect effects. Multiple studies in the past have shown that individuals infected with HCV mount a poor response to vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV).
On Jan 3, 2018, WHO announced the prequalification of a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) manufactured by the Indian firm Bharat Biotech. The decision was expected after last year's endorsement by WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunisation, which recommended that the TCV be introduced for infants and children older than 6 months in typhoid-endemic countries.
Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that a significant number of children lose preexisting humoral immunity against MMR and hepatitis B after completion of chemotherapy.
An experimental oral rotavirus vaccine, when given at birth and in two subsequent doses, can reduce the rate of severe and potentially deadly diarrhea by 75%, according to new study conducted among Indonesian babies.Reuters Health Information
HIV diagnoses analyzed by age groups revealed striking differences in rates of diagnosis of HIV infection between ages 13 –21 years. During 2010–2014, HIV infection diagnosis rates per 100,000 population varied substantially with increasing age among persons aged 13–15 years (0.7), 16–17 years (4.5), 18–19 years (16.5), and 20–21 years (28.6). HIV diagnosis rates were higher, but less variable, among person s aged 22–23 years (34.0), 24–25 years (33.8), 26–27 years (31.3), and 28–29 years (28.7).
After a two-year hiatus, the nasal flu vaccine is set to return to doctors’ offices next year. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted 12 to 2 on Wednesday to return the nasal spray to the CDC’s list of recommended vaccines for the 2018-2019 flu season. Pending final approval from the CDC director, the vote would greenlight the spray for widespread use and compel insurance companies to cover it. The committee stopped short of explicitly recommending the nasal spray, however, and will instead let providers and patients decide if they’ll use it instead of traditional flu shots. There ...
Authors: Moon SW, Sun Y, Warther D, Huffman K, Freeman WR, Sailor MJ, Cheng L Abstract Blinding retinal diseases become more epidemic as the population ages. These diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema, are of chronic nature and require protracted drug presence at the disease site. A sustained intravitreal porous silicon delivery system with dexamethasone (pSiO2-COO-DEX) was evaluated in a new rabbit model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in a real treatment design. In contrast to the pretreatment design model, pSiO2-COO-DEX was intravitreally injected into the eyes with active inflammati...
(MedPage Today) -- Ultra-rare genetic aging syndrome offers clues to'epidemic'condition
Conclusions: Improvements of speech recognition in noise and reduced listening effort indicate that adult hearing aid users can receive benefit from nonlinear frequency compression in a noisy environment, with the amount of benefit varying across individuals and across outcome measures. Evidence supports individualized selection of nonlinear frequency compression, with results suggesting benefits in speech recognition for individuals with steeply sloping hearing losses and in listening effort for younger individuals. Future research is indicated with a larger data set on the dual-task paradigm as a potential cognitive outcome measure.
Conclusions: Bilateral CI listeners have abnormally broad fusion, similar to hearing aid and bimodal CI listeners. This broad fusion may explain the variability of binaural benefits for speech perception in quiet and in noise in bilateral CI users.