Marek ’s disease in chickens: a review with focus on immunology

AbstractMarek ’s disease (MD), caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of t he important research goals for avian immunologists today. MDV shares very close genomic functional and structural characteristics to most mammalian herpes viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV). MD also provides an excellent T cell lymphoma model for gaining insights into other herpesvirus-indu ced oncogenesis in mammals and birds. For these reasons, we need to develop an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the host-viral interaction and host immunity against MD. Similarly, the underlying genetic variation within different chicken lines has a major impact on the outcome of infection. I n this review article, we aim to investigate the pathogenesis of MDV infection, host immunity to MD and discuss areas of research that need to be further explored.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a type of subunit vaccine which resembles viruses but do not contain any genetic material so that they are not infectious. VLPs maintain the same antigenic conformation to the original virus, and they could be a better vaccine candidate than live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines. In addition, compared to other subunit vaccines such as soluble protein, VLPs can stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses effectively and safely against several pathogens by the closer morphology to its native virus. They have already been licensed as vaccines against Hepatitis B vir...
Source: AIDS Reviews - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research
ConclusionThe recognition of pSS underlying an ILD can be challenging in seronegative patients with no or mild sicca symptoms. A complete diagnostic assessment, including minor salivary glands and, in some cases, lung biopsy, should be performed on all patients at risk. A better recognition of the clinical or serological markers of ILD progression in these patients is warranted to drive the physicians to an early diagnosis and an effective treatment.
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Progress in NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Vijaykumar Yogesh Muley, Carlos Javier López-Victorio, Jorge Tonatiuh Ayala-Sumuano, Adriana González-Gallardo, Leopoldo González-Santos, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Gregory Wray, Maribel Hernández, Alfredo Varela-EchavarríaAbstractThe mammalian and the avian telencephalon are nearly indistinguishable at early embryonic vesicle stages but differ substantially in form and function at their adult stage. We sequenced and analyzed RNA populations present in mouse and chick during the early stages of embryo...
Source: Progress in Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Hallmann-Szelińska E, Łuniewska K, Szymański K, Kowalczyk D, Sałamatin R, Masny A, Brydak LB Abstract The World Health Organization estimates that influenza virus infects 3-5 million people worldwide every year, of whom 290,000 to 650,000 die. In the 2016/2017 epidemic season in Poland, the incidence of influenza was 1,692 per 100,000 population. The influenza A virus, subtype A/H3N2/, was the predominant one in that season. However, in the most recent 2017/2018 epidemic season, the incidence exceeded 1,782 per 100,000 already by August of 2018. In this season, influenza B virus predominated, while the...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
In this study, we isolated a wild-type FIPV HRB-17 epidemic strain from the blood sample of household pet cat exhibiting the characteristic wet-form FIP symptoms, which has been confirmed further by animal infection. Further, we developed an EvaGreen-based real-time RT-PCR assay for the accurate detection of FCoV based on the amplification of the highly conserved FIPV N gene. Then, using a combination of the real-time RT-PCR approach and a serum chemistry assay, we performed an epidemiological survey of FIPV infection in cats living in Harbin City, Northeast China. The results indicated that the EvaGreen-based real-time RT...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, rfbD gene deleted mutant S19 was developed. The mutant strain designated S19ΔR displayed rough LPS phenotype, which was confirmed by acriflavine dye-agglutination and LPS-SDS-PAGE analysis. The virulence was amply reduced as suggested by increased sensitivity to complement killing; reduction in splenic-bacterial load and the recovery time RT50 as validated in mice model. Anti-brucella humoral response was significantly lower as compared to S19 immunization. The minimal induction of Brucella specific IgG1, IgG2a &IgG2b, and IgG3 resulted in no apparent reactivity to RBPT antigen. S19ΔR showed ...
Source: Biologicals - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Reactive and Functional PolymersAuthor(s): Sevda Şenel
Source: Reactive and Functional Polymers - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Authors: Nowlan M, Murfitt D, Turner N Abstract Presented is a synopsis of the 5th New Zealand Influenza Symposium, which focused on both uptake of the influenza vaccine and the long-term consequences of influenza. Particularly highlighted were the advantages of influenza vaccination for older adults in reducing declines in cognitive and physical health. Research findings from influenza surveillance, future of influenza vaccines and the influenza promotional campaign presented at the symposium are summarised. PMID: 31830020 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
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Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle SurgeryAuthor(s): Shahin Sheibani-Rad, Cameron FarsarAbstractHerpes zoster has an incidence of 350,000 cases per year in the United States. The involvement of the foot and ankle is rare. Most surgeons are not aware of this disease as a cause of extremity pain, its manifestation, and the treatment options. Post-herpetic neuralgia is a common sequela of herpes zoster and can be prevented with prompt treatment. In this article, we present a case of a 53-year-old female with right heel pain secondary to herpes zoster.
Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
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