Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation of eNOS in the Endothelium.

Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation of eNOS in the Endothelium. Adv Pharmacol. 2016;77:29-64 Authors: Fulton DJ Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical gas and these unique properties have been adapted for a surprising number of biological roles. In neurons, NO functions as a neurotransmitter; in immune cells, NO contributes to host defense; and in endothelial cells, NO is a major regulator of blood vessel homeostasis. In the vasculature, NO is synthesized on demand by a specific enzyme, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that is uniquely expressed in the endothelial cells that form the interface between the circulating blood and the various tissues of the body. NO regulates endothelial and blood vessel function via two distinct pathways, the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent signaling and the S-nitrosylation of proteins with reactive thiols (S-nitrosylation). The chemical properties of NO also serve to reduce oxidation and regulate mitochondrial function. Reduced synthesis and/or compromised biological activity of NO precede the development of cardiovascular disease and this has generated a high level of interest in the mechanisms controlling the synthesis and fate of NO in the endothelium. The amount of NO produced results from the expression level of eNOS, which is regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels as well as the acute posttranslational regulation of eNOS. T...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

Related Links:

AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid (A)β peptide accumulation and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. New hypotheses have suggested that AD involves neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. The present study evaluated the AuNP treatment on an AD model (okadaic acid, OA). Male Wistar rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with OA (100 μg); 24 h later they were treated with 20-nm AuNP (at a dose 2.5 mg/kg) every 48 h for 21 days. The following groups were separated (n&...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Physiology &BehaviorAuthor(s): Qingfeng Xiao, Ze Xiong, Chunan Yu, Jiafeng Zhou, Qichen Shen, Liangliang Wang, Xiaoxian Xie, Zhengwei FuAbstractDepression is the leading cause of mental health-related disease globally, and it affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide. However, its physiological causes are not fully understood. Since available antidepressants fail to achieve complete disease remission, treating diversification of depression may be a useful contribution. Crocin, one of the main glycosylated carotenoids of saffron, has been found to have nu...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, a polypharmacology approach of combining established, prolongevity drug inhibitors of specific nodes may be the most effective way to target the nutrient-sensing network to improve late-life health. Deletion of p38α in Neurons Slows Neural Stem Cell Decline and Loss of Cognitive Function in Mice https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/10/deletion-of-p38%ce%b1-in-neurons-slows-neural-stem-cell-decline-and-loss-of-cognitive-function-in-mice/ Researchers here provide evidence for p38α to be involved in the regulation of diminished neural stem cell activity with age. It is thought...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental MutagenesisAuthor(s): Tanmoy Mondal, Amit Nautiyal, Milee Agrawal, Deepanjan Mitra, Alpana Goel, Subrata Kumar DeyAbstract18F-FDG PET/CT imaging is used in the diagnosis of diseases, including cancers. The principal photons used for imaging are 511 keV gamma photons resulting from positron annihilation. The absorbed dose varies among body organs, depending on administered radioactivity and biological clearance. We have attempted to evaluate DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and toxicity induced in V79 lung f...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
MicroRNA-138 attenuates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibiting mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by targeting HIF1-α. Exp Ther Med. 2019 Nov;18(5):3325-3332 Authors: Liu Y, Zou J, Liu X, Zhang Q Abstract Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is considered to have a detrimental role in coronary heart disease, which is considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the progression of myocardial I/R injury is still unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the expression and function of microRNA (miR)-138 in the proce...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Jelle van den Ameele, Andy Y.Z. Li, Hansong Ma, Patrick F. ChinneryAbstractInheritance of the mitochondrial genome does not follow the rules of conventional Mendelian genetics. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in many copies per cell and is inherited through the maternal germline. In addition, mutations in the mtDNA will give rise to heteroplasmy, the coexistence of different mtDNA variants within a single cell, whose levels can vary considerably between cells, organs or organisms. The inheritance and sub...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Contributors : Mercedes D ávalos-Salas ; Sheren Al-Obaidi ; John MariadasonSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusHistone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) regulates the expression of lipid metabolism genes in multiple tissues, however its role in regulating lipid metabolism in the intestinal epithelium is unknown. Here we demonstrate that intestine-specific deletion of Hdac3 (Hdac3IKO) protects mice from diet induced obesity. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from Hdac3IKO mice display co-ordinate induction of genes and proteins involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal b-oxidation, have an increase...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Mus musculus Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 147Author(s): Xiaojiao Xu, Zhenfa Fu, Weidong LeAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases in the world. Unfortunately, most of the currently used clinical therapies against PD are symptomatic and there is still no remedy can stop disease progression. Collective evidence shows that various kinds of exercise may reduce the risk of PD and do have positive impacts on both motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD. Additionally, exercise can also ameliorate the side effects such as wearing-off and dyskinesia induced by...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, H9c2 cells a type of rat cardiac myoblasts, were used as model cardiac muscle cells. The use of a lipid composition used to prepare the β-MEND (where MEND denotes multifunctional envelope-type nano device) permitted the particles to be efficiently internalized by H9c2 cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry analyses. Intracellular observations by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the β-MEND efficiently accumulated in mitochondria of H9c2 cells. We also constructed an RP/β-MEND that contained a mitochondrial RNA aptamer to achieve mitochondrial delivery in H9c2 cells. The successful ...
Source: Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids - Category: Biochemistry Tags: Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe describe a unique and novel cellular model that provides insight into the mitochondrial abnormalities present in DCMA and identifies SS-31 as a potential therapeutic for this devastating disease.
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Chemistry | Drugs & Pharmacology | Health | Heart | Mitochondrial Disease | Neurology