Intra-cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows affected with bovine dilated cardiomyopathy

Abstract Three Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, aged 5 1/3 to 12 years, showed a history of heart failure and were euthanized on separate days. Commonly observed postmortem findings included edema in many sites of the body, dilatation and hypertrophy of the right cardiac ventricle, hepatic congestion, and swollen pale kidneys. Histopathologically, myocardial lesions were comprised of a variety of degenerative changes in cardiomyocytes and interstitial fibrosis, consistent with those described previously in cases of bovine dilated cardiomyopathy in Holstein-Friesian cattle. Additionally, in one of these three cows, unmyelinated nerve fibers of many intra-cardiac nerve bundles that probably were postganglionic fibers exhibited multifocal segmental degeneration of axons. Degenerated axons were closely associated with Schwann cell pathology, indicating an intimate involvement of axon-Schwann cell interaction. Such an intra-cardiac autonomic neuropathy might have had an adverse effect on the regulation of heart activity. It is not possible to determine if this intra-cardiac autonomic neuropathy was primary or secondary to the dilated cardiomyopathy.
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Related Links:

In this study, we investigated the role of miR-223-3p in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). We found that miR-223-3p expression was significantly lower in EAM mice than that in normal mice. miR-223-3p inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome expression, promoting the polarization of dendritic cells (DCs) towards a tolerogenic DC phenotype. miR-223-3p effectively induced regulatory T cell (Treg) generation by inhibiting the function of antigen-presenting DCs. Transfer of miR-223-3p-overexpressing DCs protected mice against the development of EAM. Our findings suggest that miR-223-3p is involved in the induction of the tolerogen...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study provides a new strategy for research on DCM or other diseases. Furthermore, lncRNA-miRNA pairs may be regarded as candidate diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets of DCM.
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
We investigated a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) mutation (F764L) in human β-cardiac myosin by determining its motor properties in the presence and absence of the heart failure drug omecamtive mecarbil (OM). The mutation is located in the converter domain, a key region of communication between the catalytic motor and lever arm in myosins, and is nearby but not directly in the OM-binding site. We expressed and purified human β-cardiac myosin subfragment 1 (M2β-S1) containing the F764L mutation, and compared it to WT with in vitro motility as well as steady-state and transient kinetics measurements. In the absen...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Enzymology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions in the plasma of patients with DCM and ICM and analyzed the different lncRNA profile between the two groups. The microarray analysis identified 3,222 and 1,911 significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs between DCM and ICM group. The most enriched upregulated functional terms included positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB signaling and regulation of cellular localization, while the top 10 downregulated genes mainly consisted of acid secretion and myosin heavy chain binding. Furthermore, t...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions: In conclusion, non-expert providers can achieve a high level of proficiency for the categorization of heart failure using handheld TTE in low-resource settings and use of telemedicine and remote mentorship may improve performance and feasibility. The addition of TTE resulted in substantial improvement in etiological specificity. Further study is needed to understand implications of this strategy on healthcare utilization, long-term patient outcomes, and cost. PMID: 31694487 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Global Health Action - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Glob Health Action Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In BIOSTAT-CHF, patients with HF of an ischemic etiology, and those with worsening HF precipitated by renal failure (irrespective of the underlying HF etiology), had the highest rates of death and HF hospitalization, but still benefited equally from treatment up-titration. PMID: 31708361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research
AbstractThe enhanced activity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists might explain the reversal of chronic heart failure (CHF) –mediated endothelial dysfunction. We studied baseline circulating EPC numbers in patients with heart failure and clarified the effect of fenofibrate on both circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) and late EPC activity. The numbers of circulating EPCs in CHF patients were quantified by flow cytometry. Blood-derived mononuclear cells were cultured, and CAC and late EPC functions, including fibronectin adhesion, tube formation, and migration, were eval...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
AbstractLeft ventricular assist device is a well-established therapy in heart failure adults, but less in children. A 13-year-old-boy with severe left ventricular dysfunction did not improve under medical treatment. A HeartMate 3 (HM3) was implanted as a bridge to transplantation. Despite the size limitation, the HM3 shows promising results and our case supports its feasibility in children.
Source: Mammalian Genome - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionsMitral valve surgery might be indicated in selected patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Source: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2019Source: Journal of Cardiology CasesAuthor(s): Masanobu Taya, Eisuke Amiya, Masaru Hatano, Hisataka Maki, Yumiko Hosoya, Junichi Ishida, Chie Bujo, Masaki Tsuji, Yuto Konishi, Kazuhiko Yokota, Nobuhiko Haga, Issei KomuroAbstractRespiratory muscle weakness is often complicated in patients with heart failure. Its presence further worsens the clinical course of heart failure. However, the effect and appropriate method of inspiratory muscle training has not previously been elucidated.A 55-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy was admitted for intractable heart failure. His he...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
More News: Cardiology | Cardiomyopathy | Dilated Cardiomyopathy | Heart | Heart Failure | Neurology | Pathology | Urology & Nephrology