Natural Host-Induced Gene Silencing Offers New Opportunities to Engineer Disease  Resistance.
Natural Host-Induced Gene Silencing Offers New Opportunities to Engineer Disease Resistance. Trends Microbiol. 2019 Oct 09;: Authors: Hou Y, Ma W Abstract RNA silencing is an essential gene-regulation mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. Guided by small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20-25 nt in length, RNA silencing broadly governs a wide range of biological processes. In addition to regulating endogenous gene expression and inhibiting viral infection, accumulating evidence suggests that sRNAs can also function as antimicrobial agents against nonviral pathogens and directly silence gene targets in invading patho...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hou Y, Ma W Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

The Case for Modeling Human Infection in Zebrafish.
Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae are widely recognized for studying host-pathogen interactions in vivo because of their optical transparency, genetic manipulability, and translational potential. The development of the zebrafish immune system is well understood, thereby use of larvae enables investigation solely in the context of innate immunity. As a result, infection of zebrafish with natural fish pathogens including Mycobacterium marinum has significantly advanced our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and vertebrate host defense. However, new work using a variety of human pathogens (bacterial, ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - October 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gomes MC, Mostowy S Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Species-Specific Host-Virus Interactions: Implications for Viral Host Range and Virulence.
Abstract A growing number of studies indicate that host species-specific and virus strain-specific interactions of viral molecules with the host innate immune system play a pivotal role in determining virus host range and virulence. Because interacting proteins are likely constrained in their evolution, mutations that are selected to improve virus replication in one species may, by chance, alter the ability of a viral antagonist to inhibit immune responses in hosts the virus has not yet encountered. Based on recent findings of host-species interactions of poxvirus, herpesvirus, and influenza virus proteins, w...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - October 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rothenburg S, Brennan G Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Vibrio vulnificus.
PMID: 31519331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - September 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baker-Austin C, Oliver JD Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

CRISPR-Cas, DNA Supercoiling, and Nucleoid-Associated Proteins.
ain N Abstract In this opinion article we highlight links between the H-NS nucleoid-associated protein, variable DNA topology, the regulation of CRISPR-cas locus expression, CRISPR-Cas activity, and the recruitment of novel genetic information by the CRISPR array. We propose that the requirement that the invading mobile genetic element be negatively supercoiled limits effective CRISPR action to a window in the bacterial growth cycle when DNA topology is optimal, and that this same window is used for the efficient integration of new spacer sequences at the CRISPR array. H-NS silences CRISPR promoters, and we propos...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dorman CJ, Ní Bhriain N Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

New Virulence Factors Identified in Pneumococcal Meningitis.
Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae causes bacterial meningitis with a high fatality rate globally. Patients who survive have a significant risk of lasting disabilities. Schmidt et al. have identified bacterial proteins that play a crucial role in pneumococcal meningitis: AliB, part of an oligopeptide transporter, and ComDE of the competence regulator. PMID: 31506191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - September 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hathaway LJ Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Maternal Vertical Transmission Affecting Early-life Microbiota Development.
Abstract The association of the human microbiome with health outcomes has attracted much interest toward its therapeutic manipulation. The likelihood of modulating the human microbiome in early life is high and offers great potential to exert profound effects on human development since the early microbiota shows more flexibility compared to that of adults. The human microbiota, being similar to human genetics, can be transmitted from mother to infant, providing insights into early microbiota acquisition, subsequent development, and potential opportunities for intervention. Here, we review adaptations of the matern...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - September 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang S, Ryan CA, Boyaval P, Dempsey EM, Ross RP, Stanton C Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiota in the First Decade of Life.
Abstract Appreciation of the importance of the gut microbiome is growing, and it is becoming increasingly relevant to identify preventive or therapeutic solutions targeting it. The composition and function of the gut microbiota are relatively well described for infants (less than 3 years) and adults, but have been largely overlooked in pre-school (3-6 years) and primary school-age (6-12 years) children, as well as teenagers (12-18 years). Early reports suggested that the infant microbiota would attain an adult-like structure at the age of 3 years, but recent studies have suggested that microbiota development may t...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Derrien M, Alvarez AS, de Vos WM Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Diversity of Bacterial Chemosensory Arrays.
Abstract Chemotaxis is crucial for the survival of bacteria, and the signaling systems associated with it exhibit a high level of evolutionary conservation. The architecture of the chemosensory array and the signal transduction mechanisms have been extensively studied in Escherichia coli. More recent studies have revealed a vast diversity of the chemosensory system among bacteria. Unlike E. coli, some bacteria assemble more than one chemosensory array and respond to a broader spectrum of environmental and internal stimuli. These chemosensory arrays exhibit a great variability in terms of protein composition, cellu...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang W, Briegel A Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Drivers, Diversity, and Functions of the Solitary-Bee Microbiota.
Abstract Accumulating reports of global bee declines have drawn much attention to the bee microbiota and its importance. Most research has focused on social bees, while solitary species have received scant attention despite their enormous biodiversity, ecological importance, and agroeconomic value. We review insights from several recent studies on diversity, function, and drivers of the solitary-bee microbiota, and compare these factors with those relevant to the social-bee microbiota. Despite basic similarities, the social-bee model, with host-specific core microbiota and social transmission, is not representativ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Voulgari-Kokota A, McFrederick QS, Steffan-Dewenter I, Keller A Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Host-Pathogen Interactions during Female Genital Tract Infections.
Abstract Dysbiosis in the female genital tract (FGT) is characterized by the overgrowth of pathogenic bacterial, fungal, or protozoan members of the microbiota, leading to symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. In this review, we discuss recent advances in studies dealing with molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity factors of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp., as well as their interactions with the host and microbiota in the various niches of the FGT. Taking a holistic app...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pekmezovic M, Mogavero S, Naglik JR, Hube B Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

For Viral Reservoir Studies, Timing Matters.
Abstract New strategies to eliminate persistent HIV-1 during therapy will benefit from animal models, such as non-human primates infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) or chimeras (SHIV). Understanding the genetic composition of SIV and SHIV reservoirs during therapy is therefore crucial for the future application of this model. PMID: 31431318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Horsburgh BA, Palmer S Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Genetic Circuit-Assisted Smart Microbial Engineering.
Abstract Rapid advances in DNA synthesis, genetic manipulation, and biosensors have greatly improved the ability to engineer microorganisms with complex functions. By accurately integrating quality biosensors and complex genetic circuits, recently emerged smart microorganisms have enabled exciting opportunities for dissecting complex signaling networks and making responses without artificial intervention. However, because of the lack of design principles, developing such smart microorganisms remains challenging. In this review, we propose the concept of smart microbial engineering (SME) and describe the general fe...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gao C, Xu P, Ye C, Chen X, Liu L Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial Amyloids: The Link between Bacterial Infections and Autoimmunity.
Ç Abstract Molecular mimicry is a common mechanism used by many bacteria to evade immune responses. In recent years, it has become evident that bacteria also decorate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of their biofilms with molecules that resemble those of the host. These molecules include amyloids and other proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA. Bacterial amyloids, like curli, and extracellular DNA are found in the biofilms of many species. Recent work demonstrated that curli and DNA form unique molecular structures that are recognized by the immune system, causing activation of autoimmune pathway...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nicastro L, Tükel Ç Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Imaging the Hepatitis B Virus: Broadcasting Live.
Abstract Although important breakthroughs in our understanding of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle have been made since the discovery of its main entry factor, the spatiotemporal dynamics of HBV-host interactions remains understudied. Here, we discuss recent advances and continuing challenges to image the HBV life cycle in live cells. PMID: 31421968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deffieu MS, Gaudin R Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Nanoparticle-Biofilm Interactions: The Role of the EPS Matrix.
Abstract The negative consequences of biofilms are widely reported. A defining feature of biofilms is the extracellular matrix, a complex mixture of biomacromolecules, termed EPS, which contributes to reduced antimicrobial susceptibility. EPS targeting is a promising, but underexploited, approach to biofilm control allowing disruption of the matrix and thereby increasing the susceptibility to antimicrobials. Nanoparticles (NPs) can play a very important role as 'carriers' of EPS matrix disruptors, and several approaches have recently been proposed. In this review, we discuss the application of nanoparticles as ant...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fulaz S, Vitale S, Quinn L, Casey E Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Cell Wall Deficiency as a Coping Strategy for Stress.
Abstract The cell wall is a surface layer located outside the cell membrane of almost all bacteria; it protects cells from environmental stresses and gives them their typical shape. The cell wall is highly conserved in bacteria and is the target for some of our best antibiotics. Surprisingly, some bacteria are able to shed their wall under the influence of stress, yielding cells that are cell-wall-deficient. Notably, wall-deficient cells are flexible and are able to maneuver through narrow spaces, insensitive to wall-targeting antibiotics, and capable of taking up and exchanging DNA. Moreover, given that wall-asso...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Claessen D, Errington J Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Scedosporium apiospermum.
PMID: 31378439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bouchara JP, Papon N Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

The MSCRAMM Family of Cell-Wall-Anchored Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Cocci.
Abstract The microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) are a family of proteins that are defined by the presence of two adjacent IgG-like folded subdomains. These promote binding to ligands by mechanisms that involve major conformational changes exemplified by the binding to fibrinogen by the 'dock-lock-latch' mechanism or to collagen by the 'collagen hug'. Clumping factors A and B are two such MSCRAMMs that have several important roles in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. MSCRAMM architecture, ligand binding, and roles in infection and colonization are exami...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Foster TJ Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Peroxisome Plasticity at the Virus-Host Interface.
Abstract Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles with roles in cellular metabolism, cytotoxicity, and signaling. The plastic nature of these organelles allows them to respond to diverse biological processes, such as virus infections, by remodeling their biogenesis, morphology, and composition to enhance specific functions. During virus infections in humans, peroxisomes act as important immune signaling organelles, aiding the host by orchestrating antiviral signaling. However, more recently it was discovered that peroxisomes can also benefit the virus, facilitating virus-host interactions that rewire peroxisomes...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cook KC, Moreno JA, Jean Beltran PM, Cristea IM Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

How BspC from Streptococcus agalactiae Interacts with Host Vimentin during Meningitis.
eti G Abstract Streptococcus agalactiae meningitis is a frequent neonatal disease associated with high mortality and permanent neurological damage. Deng et al. (PLoS Pathog., 2019) now show that interactions between the bacterial protein BspC and host cell vimentin participate in the process of invasion of the meninges by this bacterial pathogen. PMID: 31324435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Beninati C, Famà A, Teti G Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Acid Fasting: Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism at Acidic pH.
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) senses and adapts to acidic host environments during the course of pathogenesis. Mutants defective in acidic pH-dependent adaptations are often attenuated during macrophage or animal infections, supporting that these pathways are essential for pathogenesis and represent important new targets for drug discovery. This review examines a confluence of findings supporting that Mtb has restricted metabolism at acidic pH that results in the slowing of bacterial growth and changes in redox homeostasis. It is proposed that induction of the PhoPR regulon and anaplerotic metabolism, ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baker JJ, Dechow SJ, Abramovitch RB Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Making the Most of Trait-Based Approaches for Microbial Ecology.
Abstract There is an increasing interest in applying trait-based approaches to microbial ecology, but the question of how and why to do it is still lagging behind. By anchoring our discussion of these questions in a framework derived from epistemology, we broaden the scope of trait-based approaches to microbial ecology from one oriented mostly around explanation towards one inclusive of the predictive and integrative potential of these approaches. We use case studies from macro-organismal ecology to concretely show how these goals for knowledge development can be fulfilled and propose clear directions, adapted to ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lajoie G, Kembel SW Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Bystander Selection for Antimicrobial Resistance: Implications for Patient Health.
Abstract Antimicrobial therapy promotes resistance emergence in target infections and in off-target microbiota. Off-target resistance emergence threatens patient health when off-target populations are a source of future infections, as they are for many important drug-resistant pathogens. However, the health risks of antimicrobial exposure in off-target populations remain largely unquantified, making rational antibiotic stewardship challenging. Here, we discuss the contribution of bystander antimicrobial exposure to the resistance crisis, the implications for antimicrobial stewardship, and some novel opportunities ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Morley VJ, Woods RJ, Read AF Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Fluidic Force Microscopy Captures Amyloid Bondsbetween Microbial Cells.
e YF Abstract Fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) is a recent force-controlled pipette technology that enables manipulation of single cells. FluidFM can be used for quantification of forces between single cells, and a novel mode of cell-cell adhesion was uncovered: amyloid-like interactions that mediate homophilic adhesion in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. PMID: 31272796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dehullu J, Vorholt JA, Lipke PN, Dufrêne YF Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanism of HIV-1 Entry.
Abstract HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein [Env; trimeric (gp160)3 cleaved to (gp120/gp41)3] attaches the virion to a susceptible cell and induces fusion of viral and cell membranes to initiate infection. It interacts with the primary receptor CD4 and coreceptor (e.g., chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4) to allow viral entry by triggering large structural rearrangements and unleashing the fusogenic potential of gp41 to induce membrane fusion. Recent advances in structural biology of HIV-1 Env and its complexes with the cellular receptors have revealed molecular details of HIV-1 entry and yielded new mechanistic insights. ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen B Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Currency, Exchange, and Inheritance in the Evolution of Symbiosis.
Abstract Symbiotic interactions between eukaryotes and prokaryotes are widespread in nature. Here we offer a conceptual framework to study the evolutionary origins and ecological circumstances of species in beneficial symbiosis. We posit that mutual symbiotic interactions are well described by three elements: a currency, the mechanism of currency exchange, and mechanisms of symbiont inheritance. Each of these elements may be at the origin of symbiosis, with the other elements developing with time. The identity of currency in symbiosis depends on the ecological context of the symbiosis, while the specificity of the...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wein T, Romero Picazo D, Blow F, Woehle C, Jami E, Reusch TBH, Martin WF, Dagan T Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Making the Best of Aggression: The Many Dimensions of Bacterial Toxin Regulation.
Abstract Most bacteria use toxins to exclude competitors. As the synthesis and delivery of these molecules entail considerable costs for the producers, their expression is tightly regulated, often by molecular systems detecting physiological stresses or environment-specific cues. However, the ecological connection between such systems and competitive behaviors is not always clear. Here, we review the regulation of antibacterial toxins and propose a conceptual framework organizing the decision-making processes controlling toxin production. As bacteria are unable to precisely identify their competitors, we argue tha...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gonzalez D, Mavridou DAI Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Structures Unveil the Invasion Mechanism of Chikungunya Virus.
Abstract Structures of the multiple arthritogenic alphavirus receptor MXRA8 as well as MXRA8 in complex with chikungunya virus (Song et al., Cell, 2019; Basore et al., Cell, 2019) have revealed the mechanism underlying viral invasion and could facilitate the development of novel vaccines and entry inhibitors. PMID: 31221449 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun Q, Du X, Cheng W Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

RNA-Targeted Antiviral Immunity: More Than Just RNA Silencing.
Abstract RNA silencing is a fundamental, evolutionarily conserved mechanism that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes. It also functions as a primary immune defense in microbes, such as viruses in plants. In addition to RNA silencing, RNA decay and RNA quality-control pathways are also two ancestral forms of intrinsic antiviral immunity, and the three RNA-targeted pathways may operate cooperatively for their antiviral function. Plant viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to suppress RNA silencing and facilitate virus infection. In response, plants may activate a counter-counter-defense mechan...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li F, Wang A Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Type IV Pili as a Therapeutic Target.
nil G Abstract In the age of antibiotic resistance, strategies targeting virulence traits of bacteria are the focus of intense study. Two such studies came out independently a week apart showing that bacterial type IV pili are a promising therapeutic target. PMID: 31182345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Duménil G Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Surveying Gut Microbiome Research in Africans: Toward Improved Diversity and Representation.
Abstract Descriptive and translational investigations into the human gut microbiome (GM) are rapidly expanding; however, studies are largely restricted to industrialized populations in the USA and Europe. Little is known about microbial variability and its implications for health and disease in other parts of the world. Populations in Africa are particularly underrepresented. What limited research has been performed has focused on a few subject domains, including the impact of long-term lifestyle and dietary factors on GM ecology, its maturation during infancy, and the interrelationships between the microbiome, in...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brewster R, Tamburini FB, Asiimwe E, Oduaran O, Hazelhurst S, Bhatt AS Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Tolerance and Metabolic Adaptations in Microbial Biofilms.
We describe the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, metabolism-stimulating metabolites, and alternative strategies to redirect bacterial metabolism towards an antibiotic-susceptible phenotype. PMID: 31178124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Crabbé A, Jensen PØ, Bjarnsholt T, Coenye T Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Resistance Reversed in KatG Mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract A peptidomimetic containing a thiazolo ring-fused 2-pyridone (C10) has now been reported to inhibit hypoxia-induced tolerance to isoniazid (INH) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Flentie et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2019). The C10 compound could also potentiate the bactericidal activity in aerobically grown bacilli, prevented selection of drug-resistant strains, and reversed INH resistance in katG (catalase-peroxidase) mutants. PMID: 31176512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Machado P, Bizarro CV, Basso LA Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

At the Heart of Bacterial Cytokinesis: The Z Ring.
Abstract Bacterial cell division is mediated by the divisome which is organized by the Z ring, a cytoskeletal element formed by the polymerization of the tubulin homologue FtsZ. Despite billions of years of bacterial evolution, the Z ring is nearly universal among bacteria that have a cell wall and divide by binary fission. Recent studies have revealed the mechanism of cooperative assembly of FtsZ and that the Z ring consists of patches of FtsZ filaments tethered to the membrane that treadmill to distribute the septal biosynthetic machinery. Here, we summarize these advances and discuss questions raised by these n...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Du S, Lutkenhaus J Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Salmonella enterica.
PMID: 31160162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Knodler LA, Elfenbein JR Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Ebola Virus Replication Stands Out.
Abstract A recent study by Deflubé et al. (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2019;116:8535-8543) reported that Ebola virus genomes have variable 3' terminal nucleotides. This finding is a departure from other nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA viruses (NNSVs) that have been studied to date and has broad implications for filoviral replication and innate immune evasion. PMID: 31155428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang W, Wu C, Amarasinghe GK, Leung DW Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Trophic Regulations of the Soil Microbiome.
Abstract The soil microbiome regulates vital ecosystem functions ranging from primary production to soil carbon sequestration. Yet, we have only begun to understand the factors regulating the soil microbiome. While the importance of abiotic factors is increasingly recognized, the roles of trophic regulations in driving the structure and function of the soil microbiome remain less explored. Here, we review the current understanding of how and when microbial and top predators of the soil shape the community structure and function of the soil microbiome via both direct and indirect effects. We finally highlight that ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thakur MP, Geisen S Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Classification of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors: Is CagA a Toxin or Not?
Abstract Since its discovery, Helicobacter pylori has been identified as the causative agent of various gastric diseases. H. pylori produces myriads of disease-associated virulence factors. These bacterial determinants can be distinguished as cell-binding factors, immunoregulatory components, survival factors, toxins, and effector proteins. For most of these factors there is consensus about their classification. However, there is a strong dispute in the literature as to whether one of the best-studied factors, CagA, represents a toxin or not. CagA displays unique functions that are clearly different from conventio...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Knorr J, Ricci V, Hatakeyama M, Backert S Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Elucidating Peptidoglycan Structure: An Analytical Toolset: (Trends in Microbiology 27, xxx-xxx; 2019).
adi P PMID: 31130494 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Porfírio S, Carlson RW, Azadi P Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Big Impact of the Tiny: Bacteriophage-Bacteria Interactions in Biofilms.
slash;lle M Abstract Bacteriophages (phages) have been shaping bacterial ecology and evolution for millions of years, for example, by selecting for defence strategies. Evidence supports that bacterial biofilm formation is one such strategy and that biofilm-mediated protection against phage infection depends on maturation and composition of the extracellular matrix. Interestingly, studies have revealed that phages can induce and strengthen biofilms. Here we review interactions between bacteria and phages in biofilms, discuss the underlying mechanisms, the potential of phage therapy for biofilm control, and emphasiz...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hansen MF, Svenningsen SL, Røder HL, Middelboe M, Burmølle M Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans.
PMID: 31128929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Farrer RA Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacteriophage's Dualism in Therapy.
Abstract Careful selection of bacteriophages for phage therapy is needed to avoid undesirable consequences. Different approaches to phage therapy are compared: from the use of multispecies industrially produced phage mixtures with wide range of antibacterial activity to the 'magistral phage' approach in which bacteriophages are selected for treating individual patients. PMID: 31126841 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Krylov VN, Bourkaltseva MV, Pleteneva EA Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Contribution of the Mucosal Microbiota to Bovine Respiratory Health.
Abstract Recognizing the respiratory tract as a dynamic and complex ecosystem has enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). There is widespread evidence showing that disease-predisposing factors often disrupt the respiratory microbial ecosystem, provoking atypical colonization patterns and a progressive dysbiosis. The ecological factors that shape the respiratory microbiota, and the influence of these complex communities on bovine respiratory health, are a rich area for research exploration. Here, we review the current status of understanding of the bovine respiratory m...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zeineldin M, Lowe J, Aldridge B Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Early-Life Microbiota Perturbations and Behavioral Effects.
Abstract The maternal environment, during the prenatal and postnatal periods, is a determinant of offspring development and health. Perturbations during these periods can affect maternal behaviors and maternal-infant bonding, and also impair transmission of maternal microbiota to the offspring. Impaired microbiota has been associated with alterations of offspring cognitive development and behavior. PMID: 31103277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Francis AP, Dominguez-Bello MG Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

RNA Packaging in HIV.
Abstract Successful replication of the AIDS retrovirus, HIV, requires that its genomic RNA be packaged in assembling virus particles with high fidelity. However, cellular mRNAs can also be packaged under some conditions. Viral RNA (vRNA) contains a 'packaging signal' (ψ) and is packaged as a dimer, with two vRNA monomers joined by a limited number of base pairs. It has two conformers, only one of which is capable of dimerization and packaging. Recent years have seen important progress on the 3D structure of dimeric ψ. Gag, the protein that assembles into the virus particle, interacts specifically with &psi...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rein A Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Archaeal Histone Contributions to the Origin of Eukaryotes.
Abstract The eukaryotic lineage arose from bacterial and archaeal cells that underwent a symbiotic merger. At the origin of the eukaryote lineage, the bacterial partner contributed genes, metabolic energy, and the building blocks of the endomembrane system. What did the archaeal partner donate that made the eukaryotic experiment a success? The archaeal partner provided the potential for complex information processing. Archaeal histones were crucial in that regard by providing the basic functional unit with which eukaryotes organize DNA into nucleosomes, exert epigenetic control of gene expression, transcribe genes...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brunk CF, Martin WF Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Host Genetics, Diet, and Microbiome: The Role of AMY1.
ros S Abstract Host gene variants selected by diet adaptation have been associated with the microbiome. Poole et al. (Cell Host Microbe 2019;25;553-564.E7) reported that AMY1 copy number, associated with obesity, also impacts microbiome composition and function. Complex genetics-diet-microbiome interactions and their effect on obesity could eventually translate into personalized nutrition. PMID: 31056302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Morán-Ramos S, Villarreal-Molina MT, Canizales-Quinteros S Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

The Macroalgal Holobiont in a Changing Sea.
les J Abstract When studying the effects of climate change on eukaryotic organisms we often oversee a major ecological process: the interaction with microbes. Eukaryotic hosts and microbes form functional units, termed holobionts, where microbes play crucial roles in host functioning. Environmental stress may disturb these complex mutualistic relations. Macroalgae form the foundation of coastal ecosystems worldwide and provide important ecosystem services - services they could likely not provide without their microbial associates. Still, today we do not know how environmental stress will affect the macroalgal holo...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - May 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: van der Loos LM, Eriksson BK, Falcão Salles J Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

What career advice do you give your grad students or postdocs?
Authors: PMID: 31031091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - April 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research