Treatment of glenohumeral arthritis pain utilizing spinal cord stimulation.
Conclusion: Dorsal column stimulation of C3-T1 proved to be an effective alternative treatment for drug-resistant glenohumeral arthritis in an 84-year-old female with a complete loss of the joint space. PMID: 29576905 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 28, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Lower complication and reoperation rates for laminectomy rather than MI TLIF/other fusions for degenerative lumbar disease/spondylolisthesis: A review.
Conclusions: The spinal literature revealed lower complication and reoperation rates for lumbar laminectomy alone vs. higher rates for instrumented fusion, including MI TLIF, for degenerative lumbar disease with/without DS. PMID: 29576906 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 28, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Spinal case of the month with short perspective: How would you treat this L3-L4 synovial cyst?
Conclusions: Following an L2-L4 decompressive laminectomy without fusion (note the absence of motion intraoperatively at the L3-L4 level), the patient's symptoms resolved, and he regained normal function. How would you have managed this patient? PMID: 29576907 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 28, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Rare case of a rapidly enlarging symptomatic arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa in an infant: A case report and review of the literature.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the second successful case of surgical treatment of an enlarging symptomatic PFAC in an infant. Our surgical strategy for the treatment of this rare case can serve as a guide for surgeons in similar future cases. PMID: 29576908 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 28, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for Alzheimer's Disease: An update.
Conclusion: It is still premature to conclude that DBS can be used in the treatment of AD, and the field will wait for the results of ongoing and future clinical trials. PMID: 29576909 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 28, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Randomized clinical trials in carpal tunnel release: A double-edged sword.
Authors: Abou-Al-Shaar H, Mahan MA PMID: 29541483 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Acute-on-chronic subdural hematoma in a patient taking Red Clover herbal supplement: A case report.
Conclusion: This case highlights another risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage and the importance of a thorough drug history. The mechanism of Red Clover induced coagulopathy appears to be mediated through anti-platelet actions, which is consistent with in-vitro evidence reporting its role in preventing platelet adhesion. PMID: 29541484 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Should we still consider clips for basilar apex aneurysms? A critical appraisal of the literature.
Conclusions: Both microsurgical and endovascular approaches should be complementing each other to treat basilar apex aneurysms. Although endovascular therapy has taken a larger role in the treatment of basilar apex aneurysms, many indications still exist for the use of microsurgery. Advancements in microsurgical techniques and good case selection will allow for acceptably low morbidity after surgical treatment while maintaining its superior durability. PMID: 29541485 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Primary intracerebral INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor with CD34 immunopositivity in a young adult.
Conclusions: As an addition to the two cases of adult SMARCB1-deficient tumors recently described, we present a further adult case with a similar immunohistochemical profile but with an apparent intra-axial origin, questioning the necessary meningeal origin of this type of tumor. The prognosis of this adult INI1/SMARCB1-deficient tumor is to be determined, but may be better than the pediatric atypical/teratoid tumor (AT/RT). PMID: 29541486 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

PbtO2 monitoring in normobaric hyperoxia targeted therapy in acute subarachnoidal hemorrhage.
Conclusion: The use of PbtO2 monitoring may be useful for monitoring the local tissue values that are useful for induction of normobaric hyperoxia and optimizing the therapy toward more target-defined values. It is an important part of multimodal neuromonitoring, and is the gold standard for brain oxygenation monitoring that can lead to better patient outcome. PMID: 29541487 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

A case of a mobile choroid plexus cyst presenting with different types of obstructive hydrocephalus.
Conclusions: It seems quite unusual that shift of the CPC location in the ventricle systems could induce not only different types of hydrocephalus but also their own symptoms. We need to consider that the location of CPCs might change when patients present with fluctuating symptoms over time. PMID: 29541488 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid drains reduce risk of spinal cord injury for thoracic/thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery: A review.
Conclusions: By increasing blood flow to the spinal cord during/after T/TL-AAA/TEVAR surgery, CSFD reduces the incidence of permanent SCI from, up to 10-20% down to down to 2.3-10%. Nevertheless, major complications, including spinal/cranial subdural hematomas, still occur. PMID: 29541489 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

False-positive inflammatory change mimicking glioblastoma multiforme under 5-aminolevulinic acid-guided surgery: A case report.
Conclusion: Neurosurgeons should be aware of false-positive lesions mimicking GBM under 5-ALA guided surgery. PMID: 29541490 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

IDH1, ATRX, and BRAFV600E mutation in astrocytic tumors and their significance in patient outcome in north Indian population.
Conclusions: IDH1 and ATRX mutations are very common in diffuse astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma, while they are rare in pilocytic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Immunohistochemistry for IDH1 and ATRX can successfully characterize the diffuse gliomas into molecularly defined groups in majority of the cases. BRAF V600E mutation is rare in astrocytic tumors in Indian population. PMID: 29527387 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Enlargement of an incidental internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded in pituitary adenoma associated with medical shrinkage of the tumor: Case report.
Conclusions: This case report is an illustration for physicians to be conscientious about the potential danger posed by the coexistence of an intratumoral aneurysm in the setting of a pituitary adenoma. Special attention should be given to recognition of an intrinsic flow void signal on the presurgical imaging of the tumor, and if observed, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) should be performed for preoperative planning. If MRA is not performed routinely, detailed review of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging is recommended to detect any flow artifacts suggestive of an aneurysm. PMID: 29527388 [PubMed] (Source...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

A case of adult anaplastic cerebellar ganglioglioma.
Conclusions: Although rare, our case demonstrates that anaplastic ganglioglioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infratentorial tumors in adult patients. PMID: 29527389 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

The posterior nasoseptal flap: A novel technique for closure after endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas.
Conclusions: The posterior nasoseptal flap provides adequate coverage of the surgical defect and is nearly always successful in preventing postoperative CSF leak following endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas. The flap is raised from mucoperiosteum lining the posterior nasal septum, which is otherwise resected during posterior septectomy. Because the anterior septal cartilage is not denuded, raising such flaps avoids the postoperative morbidity associated with the larger Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. PMID: 29527390 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Neurenteric cyst of the conus medullaris.
Conclusions: NECs are rare congenital legions that involve the spine. Here, an L1 intradural extramedullay neuroenteric cyst of the conus medullaris was resected without complications. PMID: 29527391 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Adult hemispheric cerebellar medulloblastoma.
Conclusion: This article briefly discusses the newest points in classification, diagnosis, and treatment of medulloblastoma. This case illustrates the diagnostic workup and treatment of a rare tumor in adults showing the importance of molecular and histological studies for the treatment and counseling of the patient. Medulloblastoma has different prognosis depending on the histological and molecular feature. Accessing these different features is essential to better plan the treatment as well as inform the patient regarding the disease and its prognosis. PMID: 29527392 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Treatment of cervical radiculopathy: A review of the evolution and economics.
Conclusion: PCF/PCM for radiculopathy are safe and more cost-effective vs. ACDF, and have similar clinical outcomes. PMID: 29527393 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Combined microsurgical and endoscopic technique for removal of extensive intracranial epidermoids.
Conclusion: We recommend combined microsurgical and endoscopic approach to achieve complete/maximum resection of extensive intracranial epidermoid tumors. PMID: 29527394 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Falcine meningioma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease: An unusual association.
Conclusion: The only case in the literature of falcine meningioma in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau disease, discovered during radiological follow-up, is described and a surgical management is proposed. PMID: 29527395 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

How to perform the Wiltse posterolateral spinal approach: Technical note.
Conclusion: The classical approach described by Wiltse is essentially minimally invasive, sparing both the muscle planes and soft tissues, allowing for ample far lateral lumbar decompression, including discectomy and fusion, with a low complication rate. PMID: 29527396 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Wolf in Sheep's clothing: Intracranial actinomycosis masquerading as en-plaque meningioma.
Conclusion: Adequate knowledge along with clinical suspicion are the pillars to treating this unfortunate disease. Cheek swelling with bone involvement should be actively sought as risk factors. This case presents a unique opportunity to identify the fox among the sheep by elucidating the characteristic imaging findings and intraoperative view of this rare entity. PMID: 29527397 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Axial and oblique C2 pedicle diameters and feasibility of C2 pedicle screw placement: Technical note.
Conclusions: The oblique screen widths of the C2 pedicles better predict the feasibility of C2 pedicle screw placement vs. their axial screen width as measured with a regular ruler. PMID: 29527398 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Nursing review of spinal meningiomas.
Conclusions: The majority of benign spinal cord tumors are meningiomas (40%) that are predominantly found in the thoracic spine in middle-aged females. Tumor levels (e.g. in descending order cervical, thoracic, lumbar), and their location (e.g. anterior/anterolateral 30%; dorsal/dorsolateral 70%) best determine whether nonoperative, operative, and/or operative intervention combined with routine vs. stereotactic radiosurgery are warranted. PMID: 29527399 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa treated by suboccipital craniotomy.
Conclusion: Although the optimal treatment for CSDH of the posterior fossa remains unclear because of the limited number of previous reports, direct decompression of the posterior fossa via suboccipital craniotomy should be considered, especially when CSDH exists primarily at the cerebellopontine angle and strongly compresses the brain stem. PMID: 29492322 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Commentary on: Neuropathic pain in low back-related leg pain patients: What is the evidence of prevalence, characteristics, and prognosis in primary care? A systematic review of the literature.
Authors: Brown JA PMID: 29492323 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

The integral neurosurgeon: A tribute.
Authors: de la Espriella RB PMID: 29492324 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Management of concomitant metabolic encephalopathy and meningioma with vasogenic edema and impending herniation.
Conclusions: Management of concomitant metabolic encephalopathy and meningioma with vasogenic edema and impending herniation can be challenging. Correction of the encephalopathy is crucial to minimize perioperative morbidity and mortality. Awareness of metabolic causes of acute decompensation is critical for perioperative management, so a high index of clinical suspicion can make an important timely diagnosis for treatment initiation. Severely hypothyroid patients are sensitive to anesthetic agents and are at a high risk for perioperative complications. Prompt treatment prior to surgical intervention can help minimize peri...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Diagnosis of demyelinating brain lesion simulating brain tumors on fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition magnetic resonance imaging.
Conclusion: Reticulate or broad-line-like intralesional structures on FIESTA may, therefore, be suggestive of IDD rather than indicate a brain tumor. PMID: 29492326 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Is it time to perform the first human head transplant? Comment on the CSA (cephalosomatic anastomosis) paper by Ren, Canavero, and colleagues.
Authors: Ausman JI PMID: 29492327 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Is it time to perform the first human head transplant? Comment on the CSA (CephaloSomatic Ansatomisis) paper by Ren, Canavero, and colleagues.
Authors: Ausman JI PMID: 29492328 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Erratum: Aplasia cutis congenita: Two case reports and discussion of the literature.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article on p. 273 in vol. 8, PMID: 29204308.]. PMID: 29493657 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Erratum: Spinal cord herniation after brachial plexus injury.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article on p. 305 in vol. 8, PMID: 29404192.]. PMID: 29493664 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

C1-C2 arthrodesis after spontaneous Propionibacterium acnes spondylodiscitis: Case report and literature analysis.
Conclusions: Clinical knowledge of P. acnes virulence in spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis allows early diagnosis, which is necessary to prevent or reduce complications such as cervical deformity with myelopathy or mediastinitis. PMID: 29497567 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Suprasellar keratinous cyst: A case report and review on its radiological features and treatment outcome.
Conclusion: Chronic endocrine disturbances can be the presenting complaints of a suprasellar EC, whose T1-weighted MRI appearance can be non-specific, mimicking other differential diagnoses, such as a Rathke's cleft cyst. However, the T2-weighted MRI appearances of ECs are generally hyper-intense and lesions show diffusion restriction. Treatment is surgical and yields good outcomes in most cases reported. PMID: 29497568 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Benefits of spinal meningioma resection.
Conclusion: Patients with advanced neurological deficits/myelopathy (Grades III or IV on the McCormick Scale) improved following surgical resection of spinal meningiomas. PMID: 29497569 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Diagnostic efficacy of clinical tests for lumbar spinal instability.
Conclusion: Dynamic radiography was more reliable than any of the clinical tests in diagnosing LSI. Among the latter, PLE had the highest diagnostic value for establishing LSI. PMID: 29497570 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Gamma knife radiosurgery in the management of endolymphatic sac tumors.
Conclusion: In the present case, GKRS was effective in the management of a recurrent ELST over the course of 20 months. Because of ELSTs recurrence potential, long-term follow up is required. The present case as well as previous reports might suggest a possible salvage/adjunctive role of radiosurgery in the management of ELST. Further studies are deemed necessary. PMID: 29497571 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Engraftment, neuroglial transdifferentiation and behavioral recovery after complete spinal cord transection in rats.
Authors: Sabino L, Maria CA, Luca L, Valerio V, Edda F, Giacomo R, Gloria I, Juan GR, Antonio C Abstract Background: Proof of the efficacy and safety of a xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplant for spinal cord injury (SCI) may theoretically widen the spectrum of possible grafts for neuroregeneration. Methods: Twenty rats were submitted to complete spinal cord transection. Ovine bone marrow MSCs, retrovirally transfected with red fluorescent protein and not previously induced for neuroglial differentiation, were applied in 10 study rats (MSCG). Fibrin glue was injected in 10 control rats (FGG). All r...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - March 3, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

[Minimally invasive extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion].
The objective of the present study was to determine the indications, surgical technique, results, and complications of minimally invasive extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF). Introduction: ELIF is characterized as removal of the superior articular process (SAP) to access the intra-canalicular root and disc through Kambin's triangle. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 40 patients operated upon between 2013 and 2015. Patients with low back pain or root pain due to degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis grade 1 and 2, recurrent disc herniation, and recess-foraminal stenosis were included. ...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 14, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

[Adult Grisel Syndrome and Cervical Skull instability. Transnasal endoscopic odontoidectomy and occipito-cervical fusion. Case report and literature review].
Conclusion: Until a few years ago, the only option to address this pathology was the transoral pathway with microsurgical technique. Nowadays, endoscopy offers many technical advantages. This is an option to be considered when planning approaches to craniocervical junction. PMID: 29430326 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 14, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

[Mild head injury].
Conclusions: In this study, the presence of a neurological focus on clinical examination, the existence of a fracture on plain radiographs, advanced age and the presence of a coagulation disorder were associated with the increased likelihood of intracranial complications and a poor prognosis. The Glasgow Coma Scale was deficient predicting patient outcomes, because it failed to account for concussion-related symptoms like amnesia and loss of consciousness, both very common in patients with mild TBI. PMID: 29430327 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 14, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

[Invasive sinonasal papilloma with intracranial invasion: Case report and bibliographic review].
Conclusions: Intracranial invasion of this pathology is extremely uncommon. When it exists, the tumor has a high potential for local recurrence. Consequently, complete excision of the lesion determines the patient's prognosis. PMID: 29430328 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 14, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

[Spino-pelvic sagittal parameters in an asymptomatic population in Argentina].
Conclusions: In this prospective series of 100 adult volunteers, normal values for spinal and pelvic sagittal parameters were determined in Argentinian adults. PMID: 29430329 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 14, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Giant vertebral aneurysm: A case report detailing successful treatment with combined stenting and surgery.
Conclusions: The variability of VA thrombosed giant aneurysms implies a customized therapeutic strategy. Combined endovascular techniques and surgical clipping allow safe and successful trapping and aneurysmectomy. This case highlights the benefits of treating similar pathologies with a combination of both techniques. PMID: 29416903 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Vasospasm in the setting of traumatic bilateral carotid-cavernous fistulas and its effect on treatment.
Conclusion: This case illustrates the challenges in managing bilateral CCFs as well as the changes in collateral circulation because of cerebral vasospasm which affected our treatment paradigm. PMID: 29416904 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Man-in-the-barrel syndrome: Case report of ventral epidural abscess and review of the literature.
Conclusion: Establishing the correct diagnosis via clinical examination and proceeding with appropriate management of MBS attributed to a cervical epidural abscess is critical to achieve a good outcome. PMID: 29416905 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Space-brain: The negative effects of space exposure on the central nervous system.
Authors: Jandial R, Hoshide R, Waters JD, Limoli CL Abstract Journey to Mars will be a large milestone for all humankind. Throughout history, we have learned lessons about the health dangers associated with exploratory voyages to expand our frontiers. Travelling through deep space, the final frontier, is planned for the 2030s by NASA. The lessons learned from the adverse health effects of space exposure have been encountered from previous, less-lengthy missions. Prolonged multiyear deep space travel to Mars could be encumbered by significant adverse health effects, which could critically affect the safety of the mi...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research