Spontaneous chronic subdural hematomas in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with normal platelet count and no appreciable brain atrophy: Two case reports and review of literature.
CONCLUSION: It is important to include CSDHs in the differential diagnosis of HIV patients presenting with neurological deficits even without a history of trauma. PMID: 27308093 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 17, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Giant primary calvarial hemangioma over torcula: Radiological features and operative nuances.
CONCLUSION: Intra-osseous cavernous hemangiomas have classical radiological features and can be excised completely, even when lying above major venous drainage channels like torcula. PMID: 27308094 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 17, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Primary pericranial Ewing's sarcoma on the temporal bone: A case report.
CONCLUSION: We herein present an extremely rare case of primary pericranial Ewing's sarcoma that developed on the temporal bone. PMID: 27308095 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 17, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Erratum: Are there a guidelines for implantable spinal cord stimulator therapy in patients using chronic anticoagulation therapy? - A review of decision-making in the high-risk patient.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article on p. 33 in vol. 7, PMID: 27127698.]. PMID: 27280053 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 11, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Erratum: A rare intracranial tumor consisting of malignant anaplastic and papillary meningioma subtypes.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article on p. 21 in vol. 7, PMID: 26981322.]. PMID: 27280054 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 11, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Spontaneous shrinkage of vestibular schwannoma.
CONCLUSION: Early WWR management can be associated with spontaneous shrinkage of VS over time. Prospective clinical study of larger numbers of such cases using the UK VS database may help to identify predictive factors for the spontaneous regression of VS. PMID: 27280055 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 11, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

I slew the beast!
Authors: Mansfield JB PMID: 27280056 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 11, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

An aggressive multidisciplinary approach reduces mortality in rhinocerebral mucormycosis.
CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach to rhinocerebral mucormycosis with otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology, infectious disease and medical intensivists can help reduce mortality in an otherwise largely fatal disease. Even despite these measures, outcomes remain poor, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained in at-risk populations, in order to rapidly execute a multifaceted approach. PMID: 27280057 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 11, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Intracranial subdural empyema after surgery for lumbar lipomyelomeningocele: A rare complication.
CONCLUSION: Intracranial subdural empyema may occur after wound complications from detethering surgery despite early initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Possible etiology may be local wound infection that seeds the subdural space and travels to the cranium, leading to meningitis and subdural empyema. Such a scenario should prompt surveillance imaging of the head as undiagnosed subdural empyema may lead to devastating consequences. PMID: 27274400 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

A rare case of giant multiseptated thoracic myelomeningocele with segmental placode: Commentary.
Authors: Beuriat PA, Szathmari A, Di Rocco F, Mottolese C PMID: 27274401 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro obstruction: A review on terminology.
CONCLUSION: In unilateral FM obstruction hydrocephalus, an in-depth review on terminology application is critical to avoid mistakes that may compromise comparisons among different series. This terminology review suggests that Type B hydrocephalus, i.e., the hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle with no other sites of cerebrospinal fluid circulation blockage, are best described by the terms unilateral hydrocephalus (UH) and monoventricular hydrocephalus, the first being by far the most popular. Type A hydrocephalus is best represented in the literature by the terms uniloculated hydrocephalus and loculated ven...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Intracranial extra-axial hemangioma in a newborn: A case report and literature review.
CONCLUSION: Hemangioma is a rare differential diagnosis that must be considered in extra-axial intracranial tumors affecting infants and neonates. The radiological features are not helpful in differentiating from other tumors, and surgery is indicated when the diagnosis is uncertain or whenever there are signs of increased intracranial pressure. PMID: 27274403 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Pediatric knowledge update: Approach to the management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations in neonates.
Authors: Hansen D, Kan PT, Reddy GD, Mohan AC, Jea A, Lam S PMID: 27274404 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Large solitary osteochondroma of the thoracic spine: Case report and review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: Careful surgical planning is needed to determine the best approach for spinal cord decompression and resection of this tumor, especially taking into account the bony elements from which it arises. We present this case, to highlight the feasibility of a single-stage posterior approach to the ventral thoracic spine for the resection of a large solitary thoracic osteochondroma causing cord compression. PMID: 27274405 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

How to avoid perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: The best way to avoid POVL following prone spine surgery is to prevent it. Routine use of an arterial line, intraoperative monitoring, a 3-pin head holder, and elevation of the head 10° from the horizontal should limit the risk of encountering POVL after spinal procedures performed in the prone position. PMID: 27274406 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Low reoperation rate following 336 multilevel lumbar laminectomies with noninstrumented fusions.
CONCLUSIONS: Only 9 (2.7%) of 336 patients required reoperations (including for ASD) consisting of multilevel laminectomies with noninstrumented fusions for recurrent/new stenosis even with instability; these older patients were not typically unstable, or were likely already fused, and did not require instrumentation. Alternatively, reoperation rates following instrumented fusions in other series approached 80% at 5 postoperative years. Therefore, we as spinal surgeons should realize that older patients even with instability rarely require instrumentation and that the practice of performing instrumented fusions in everyone...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

A review: Reduced reoperation rate for multilevel lumbar laminectomies with noninstrumented versus instrumented fusions.
CONCLUSIONS: Many studies document no benefit for adding instrumentation to laminectomies performed for degenerative disease, including spondylolisthesis. Reoperation rates for laminectomy alone/laminectomy with noninstrumented fusions vary from 1.3% to 5.6% whereas reoperation rates for ASD after instrumented PLIF was 80% at 5 postoperative years. This review should prompt spinal surgeons to reexamine when, why, and whether instrumentation is really necessary, particularly for treating degenerative lumbar disease. PMID: 27274408 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Perioperative visual loss following prone spinal surgery: A review.
CONCLUSIONS: The best way to avoid POVL is to recognize its multiple etiologies and limit the various risk factors that contribute to this devastating complication of prone spinal surgery. Furthermore, routinely utilizing a 3-pin head holder will completely avoid ophthalmic compression, while maintaining the neck in a neutral posture, largely avoiding the risk of jugular vein and/or carotid artery compromise and thus avoiding increasing IOP. PMID: 27274409 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Imaging characteristic analysis of metastatic spine lesions from breast, prostate, lung, and renal cell carcinomas for surgical planning: Osteolytic versus osteoblastic.
CONCLUSIONS: To improve surgical planning, we advocate the use of CT prior to surgery to evaluate whether spine metastases are osteolytic or osteoblastic. In cases of osteolytic lesions, the concern is of segmental instability requiring reconstruction and the risk for screw pull out should instrumentation be considered. In cases of osteoblastic lesions, surgeons should consider debulking dense bone. PMID: 27274410 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Traumatic spondyloptosis at the cervico-thoracic junction without neurological deficits.
CONCLUSION: Traumatic cervical spondyloptosis without neurological compromise is a rare and challenging scenario. There is a concern for neurologic compromise with preoperative traction, but if specific posterior elements are fractured, the spinal canal may be wide enough where the concern for disc migration is minimal. For patients who have not been reduced preoperatively, a posterior approach with initial decompression to widen the canal, before reduction, appears safe. This scheme may avoid an initial anterior approach for decompression, necessitating a 3-stage procedure if circumferential stabilization is pursued. ...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Chondromyxoid fibroma of the sacrum: A case report and literature review.
Authors: Minasian T, Claus C, Hariri OR, Piao Z, Quadri SA, Yuhan R, Leong D, Tashjian V Abstract BACKGROUND: Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is an extremely rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that makes up
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis arising from papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report and review of literature.
CONCLUSION: In an extensive literature review (pubmed), IMSCM metastasis from PTC primary is confirmed as a rarity and this may be the fourth documented case. Moreover, this may be the first report of a case of PTC metastatic neurological deterioration "even before the treatment of the primary was undertaken." Early diagnosis and microsurgical resection can result in improvement of neurological deficits and in the quality of life of patients with IMSCM. PMID: 27274413 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - June 10, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location.
CONCLUSIONS: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID: 27217965 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 26, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Socioeconomic status does not affect prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.
Authors: Kasl RA, Brinson PR, Chambless LB Abstract BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy, but there is marked heterogeneity in survival time. Health care disparities have demonstrated significance in oncologic outcomes but have not been clearly examined in this patient population. We investigated the role of sociodemographic variables in the prognosis of adult patients diagnosed with GBM. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of GBM, who underwent resection or biopsy at a single institution from 2000 to 2014. Socioeconom...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 26, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

The possibility of seeding vestibular schwannomas through surgery: Limited experience with two cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Surgical seeding of VSs is a rare complication but can occur despite benign histology and generous irrigation during surgery. PMID: 27217967 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 26, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of carmustine (BCNU) wafers for metastatic brain tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: BCNU wafers are a safe and a potentially efficacious adjunct to surgery and radiation for improving local disease control in metastatic brain tumors. Larger studies, however, are needed to examine overall efficacy and tumor specific efficacy. PMID: 27217968 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 26, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Reproductive implications of human head transplantation.
Authors: Cuoco JA PMID: 27213102 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Sex in heaven.
Authors: Canavero S PMID: 27213103 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Straight sinus thrombosis during neurosurgical operation.
CONCLUSION: The possibility of straight sinus thrombosis should be considered in postoperative patients with unexplained postoperative deficits when MRI demonstrates hyperintensity in the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami on FLAIR signal images. PMID: 27213104 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia through a microasterional approach: A case series.
CONCLUSIONS: GPN is a rare entity, and secondary causes should be discarded. MVD through a retractorless microasterional approach is a safe and effective technique. Our series demonstrated an excellent clinical outcome with pain remission in 92.9%. PMID: 27213105 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Dural-based infantile hemangioma of the posterior fossa: Case report.
CONCLUSION: Although hemangiomas are benign entities, our patient's lesion was in the posterior fossa causing compression and hydrocephalus that necessitated resection. We encourage others to consider the possibility of hemangioma in the differential diagnosis of dural-based posterior fossa lesions in infants. PMID: 27213106 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Nasal cavity epithelioid hemangioendothelioma invading the anterior skull base.
CONCLUSIONS: To date, four cases of EHE in the nasal cavity were reported. This is the first case in which EHE demonstrated invasive potentials with intracranial extension. Radical surgical resection plays an important role for better management of invasive paranasal EHE. PMID: 27213107 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

A tale of two acute extradural hematomas.
CONCLUSIONS: In most low-resourced health systems of the developing countries, a significant proportion of potentially salvageable cases of AEDH still perish from this disease condition. PMID: 27213108 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Epidural hematoma after routine epidural steroid injection.
CONCLUSION: Early detection was the key to our case, and avoiding sedation allowed the patient to recognize the onset of a new neurological deficit, and lead to prompt diagnosis as well as surgical decompression of the resultant hematoma. PMID: 27213109 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Firearm bullet settling into the lumbar spinal canal without causing neurological deficit: A report of two cases.
CONCLUSION: Bullet settling into the lumbar spinal canal without causing neurological deficit may require surgical intervention. Removal of bullets provided not only pain relief in both the cases but also prevented future complications such as migration of the bullets, plumbism, and neuropathic pain and instability. PMID: 27213110 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Bilateral posterior fossa chronic subdural hematoma treated with craniectomy: Case report and review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: This experience demonstrates the risk of blind surgical therapy in patients with pCSH. In such patients, posterior fossa craniectomy may be preferable in terms of diagnosis and safe treatment. PMID: 27213111 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Self-inflicted nail-gun injury with cranial penetration and use of intraoperative computed tomography.
CONCLUSIONS: This method may aid in early detection of hemorrhage and prevention of consequential neurological deterioration or emergent need for secondary surgery. PMID: 27213112 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Post-traumatic anosmia in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): A systematic and illustrated review.
CONCLUSION: According to our search results, we conclude that OD is a prevalent but underdiagnosed problem in mTBI. Because OD is associated with a significant decrease in quality of life, we think that neurosurgical teams need to asses olfactory function in mTBI patients when they report to clinics. To illustrate this scenario, we include two distinct cases of patients with anosmia after mTBI in this review. Finally, we suggest a treatment algorithm for patients with mTBI so that a possible OD can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. PMID: 27213113 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Vertex epidural hematoma: A rare cause of post-traumatic headache and a diagnostic challenge.
CONCLUSION: Multiple trauma patients with progressive and refractory headache should have their head CT thoroughly reviewed and, if necessary, be investigated with MRI. PMID: 27213114 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 24, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Composite split cord malformation associated with a dermal sinus tract, dermoid cyst, and epidural abscess: A case report and review of literature.
CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, the combination of a composite SCM with a DST and dermoid cyst with associated epidural abscess has rarely been reported in literature. PMID: 27168946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Isolated neurosarcoidosis presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsies.
CONCLUSIONS: Isolated neurosarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose. Successful diagnosis requires compatible clinical findings, histological demonstration of noncaseating granulomas, and exclusion of other granulomatous diseases. Isolated neurosarcoidosis has a relatively good clinical prognosis, which could be characteristic of the disease. PMID: 27168947 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Spontaneous obliteration highlights the dynamic nature of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: A case report and review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: In our center's 20-year experience of treatment of cerebral AVMs (approximately 600 cases), this is the only case that has been aborted due to spontaneous obliteration leading us to infer that the incidence of spontaneous AVM obliteration is
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

The orbitozygomatic stich: A technical modification of the lateral supraorbital approach.
CONCLUSION: LSO provides adequate access to vascular and neoplastic lesions of the anterior cranial fossa, by drilling approximately 6.8 mm (1.7-22 mm) of the lateral orbital wall and sphenoid wing. This enhances surgical exposure and trajectory. An additional trick while performing an LSO is to place a single or multiple stiches (orbitozygomatic stich) at the base of the dura once opened, eliminating the dead space between the dura and anterior skull base. PMID: 27168949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Intracranial pressure monitoring during adult spinal deformity correction in a patient with critical venous occlusive disease and superior vena cava syndrome: A technical note.
Authors: Ozpinar A, Liu JJ, Tempel ZJ, Choi PA, Hart RA, Hamilton DK Abstract BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is not routinely used during complex spinal deformity correction surgery. The authors report a 66-year-old male who during thoracolumbar deformity surgery required the placement of an ICP monitor due to the underlying history of a superior vena cava syndrome (e.g., s/p right jugular stent). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old male with multiple prior lumbar spinal procedures presented with lower back and bilateral lower extremity pain, paresthesias, and weakness. He had a history of chron...
Source: Surgical Neurology International - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Programming for physicians: A free online course.
This article is an introduction for clinical readers into programming and computational thinking using the programming language Python. Exercises can be done completely online without any need for installation of software. Participants will be taught the fundamentals of programming, which are necessarily independent of the sort of application (stand-alone, web, mobile, engineering, and statistical/machine learning) that is to be developed afterward. PMID: 27127694 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - April 30, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

The double massa intermedia.
CONCLUSION: The surgeon should be aware of the possibility of a double MI to avoid confusion during third ventricle surgery. PMID: 27127695 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - April 30, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

A rare case of solitary brain Langerhans cell histiocytosis with intratumoral hemorrhage in a patient affected by Turner syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical, neuroradiological, and intraoperative findings are presented, along with a review of the literature. Although rare, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a scalp lesion occurs with a progressive growing. PMID: 27127696 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - April 30, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Pathological correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging features in a classical case of lipomatous meningioma.
Authors: Savardekar AR, Verma A, Narayan V, Mahadevan A, Rao MB PMID: 27127697 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - April 30, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Are there a guidelines for implantable spinal cord stimulator therapy in patients using chronic anticoagulation therapy? - A review of decision-making in the high-risk patient.
CONCLUSION: Our literature search did not reveal any evidence of SCS therapy among patients with chronic anticoagulation. This case illustrated a complicated clinical case scenario wherein a percutaneous SCS implantation would normally be contraindicated due to severe thoracic spinal stenosis and chronic anticoagulation which could lead to possible paralysis or even a lethal consequences associated with the possible formation of a thoracic epidural hematoma. PMID: 27127698 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - April 30, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Bioethics - Part 2: Is it compassion, personal autonomy, or ulterior utilitarian motives at heart?
Authors: Faria MA PMID: 27127699 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - April 30, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research