Awareness and current knowledge of epilepsy
AbstractEpilepsy is a severe neural disorder that affects approximately fifty million individuals globally. Despite the fact that for most of the people with epilepsy, convulsions are better controlled by current accessible antiepileptic medicines, yet there are more than 30% of individuals affected with medically intractable epilepsy and around 30 –40% of all patients with epilepsy affected by many adverse reactions and convulsion resistance to the present antiepileptic drugs. Consequently, various scientists attempt to develop new strategies to treat epilepsy, for instance, to find out novel antiepileptic ingredien...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Down-regulation of ERMN expression in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis
AbstractMultiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing demyelination and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the exact etiology of MS is still unclear, both genetic and environmental elements are regarded as causative factors. Environmental factors can induce a cascade of events in immune system leading to neuronal death and nerve demyelination. This paper aims to compare the peripheral transcript levels ofErmin (ERMN) (a gene with putative role in cytoskeletal rearrangements during myelinogenesis) andListerin E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1 (LTN1) (a gene with functions in regu...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intrahippocampal miR-342-3p inhibition reduces β-amyloid plaques and ameliorates learning and memory in Alzheimer’s disease
AbstractAccumulation of extracellular amyloid- β (Aβ) in hippocampal subregions is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which promotes neuronal apoptosis, potentiates cognitive decline and play a causative role in AD pathogenesis. However, whether this process is controlled by distinct miRNAs at the posttranscriptional level remain fascin ating but poorly understood. Using post mortem hippocampal samples from human AD patients and 3xTg-AD mouse, we demonstrate that miR-342-3p expression was significantly induced during the AD development. With the aid of intrahippocampal injection of miR-342-3p antagomir...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Troxerutin exerts neuroprotection against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation through targeting SIRT1/SIRT3 signaling pathway
This study was conducted to clarify the potential mechanisms of Troxerutin neuroprotection against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation through targeting the SIRT1/SIRT3 signaling pathway. To establish a model, a single dose of LPS (500 μg/kg body weight) was injected to male Wistar rats intraperitoneally. Troxerutin (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally for 5 days after induction of the model. Cognitive and behavioral evaluations were performed using Y-maze, single-trial passive avoidance, and novel object reco gnition tests. The expression of inflammatory m...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Re-examining the role of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in motor activity and reinforcement by chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulation in mice
AbstractThe precise contributions of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons to reward-related behaviors are a longstanding hot topic of debate. Whether the activity of VTA DAergic neurons directly modulates rewarding behaviors remains uncertain. In the present study, we investigated the fundamental role of VTA DAergic neurons in reward-related movement and reinforcement by employing dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre transgenic mice expressing hM3Dq, hM4Di or channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) in VTA DAergic neurons through Cre-inducible adeno-associated viral vector transfection. On the one hand, locomotion was te...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disability in multiple sclerosis is associated with age and inflammatory, metabolic and oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers: results of multivariate and machine learning procedures
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the immune-inflammatory, metabolic, and nitro-oxidative stress (IM&NO) biomarkers as predictors of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 122 patients with MS were included; their disability was evaluated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and IM&NO biomarkers were evaluated in peripheral blood samples. Patients with EDSS ≥3 were older and showed higher homocysteine, uric acid, advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and higher rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS), while high-density lipo...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A single nucleotide polymorphism within Ninjurin 2 is associated with risk of multiple sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with loss of myelin sheaths. The role of Schwan cells in the remyelination of MS lesions has been documented. However, the detailed steps of this process are unknown.Ninjurin 2 (NINJ2) encodes an adhesion protein with high expression in Schwann cells adjoining the distal piece of injured nerve. Based on the role of this protein in neurite outgrowth, it might participate in the process of nerve regeneration after nerve damage. In the present study, we genotyped twoNINJ2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture ameliorates learning and memory deficits via hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors and the PKA signaling pathway in rats with ischemic stroke
This study aimed to investigate whether PKA signaling mediated by 5-HT1A receptors was involved in the electroacupuncture (EA)-mediated learning and memory in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cognitive deficit (MICD). Compared to no treatment or non-acupoint EA treatment, EA at DU20 and DU24 acupoints improved the neurological deficit of scores, shortened escape latency and increased the frequency of crossing the platform in the Morris water maze test. T2-weighted imaging demonstrated that the MICD rat brain lesions were mainly located in the cortex and hippocampus, and injured volumes were reduced a...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predictive value of induced hyperammonaemia and neuropsychiatric profiling in relation to the occurrence of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy
In conclusion, baseline ammonia levels and both pre- and post-AAC neuropsychiatric indices hold promise in defining HE risk in TIPS candidates with no HE history. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil attenuates A β 1–42 -induced apoptosis via the ASK1/JNK signal pathway in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD), a chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common type of dementia. Beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregation and phosphorylated tau protein accumulation are considered as one of the causes for AD. Our previous studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of the Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil, but the mechanism remains elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fasudil on Aβ1 –42 aggregation and apoptosis and identified the intracellular signaling pathways involved in these actions in primary cultures of mouse hippocampal neur...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vitamin D supplementation ameliorates severity of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
This study investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) clinical symptoms and neurochemical biomarkers including serotonin, neopterin and kynurenine. Thirty male and female patients diagnosed with GAD and had vitamin D deficiency were recruited from the psychiatric clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and divided into two groups; one group of patients (n = 15) received standard of care (SOC) plus 50,000 IU vitamin D (once/week) for 3 months, while the other group (n = 15) received SOC alone. Biochemical parameters including serum v...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

N2L, a novel lipoic acid-niacin dimer protects HT22 cells against β-amyloid peptide-induced damage through attenuating apoptosis
Abstractβ-amyloid protein (Aβ) is thought to be the primary cause of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Niacin has been reported to have beneficial effects on AD. Previously, we synthesized a novel compound lipoicacid–niacin dimer (N2L) and revealed that it had potent blood-lipid regulation and antioxidative properties without aflushing effect. Given that lipid metabolism is also associated with AD, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of N2L on Aβ1 –42-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. We found that N2L significantly attenuated cell apoptosis, MDA...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - September 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Age-related difference in protective effect of early post-conditioning on ischemic brain injury: possible involvement of MAP-2/Synaptophysin role
AbstractBrain Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to the failure of the microtubules function and neuronal death. Ischemic post-conditioning is defined as a series of rapid alternating interruptions of blood flow in the first seconds of reperfusion. In the present study, the caspase-3, Microtubule-Associated Protein-2 (MAP-2), Protein Kinase C α (PKCα), c-fos, and synaptophysin were evaluated in the hippocampus of focal I/R post-conditioning model in a time -dependent study in aged and young rats. Adult and aged rats were subjected to right MCAO for 30 min and post-conditioned (10 s) for 3 cy...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Methyl jasmonate ameliorates rotenone-induced motor deficits in rats through its neuroprotective activity and increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive cells
This study examines the effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ), a neuroprotective bioactive compound isolated from jasminum grandiflorum, on motor functions, immunopositive cells of TH, dendritic neurons and dopamine contents in rotenone (Rot)-treated rats. Rats pretreated daily with MJ (100 mg/kg, i.p) for 21 days also received Rot (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min after each pretreatment for every 48 h for 21 days. Motor functions were assessed on day 22. The specific brain regions of the rats were processed for determination of dopamine contents, immunopositive cells of TH, neurona l cell morphology and de...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The role of non-coding RNAs in neuroprotection and angiogenesis following ischemic stroke
AbstractStroke is the leading cause of death and physical disability worldwide. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are endogenous molecules that play key roles in the pathophysiology and retrieval processes following ischemic stroke. The potential of ncRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in neuroprotection and angiogenesis highlights their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we document the miRNAs and lncRNAs that have been reported to exert regulatory actions in neuroprotective and angiogenic processes through different mechanisms involving their interaction with tar...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The effects of Cinnamaldehyde on early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits
AbstractThe neuroprotective and vasodilatory effects of cinnamaldehyde have been widely studied and documented. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that cinnamaldehyde exhibits therapeutic effects on subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm. Thirty-two adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of eight rabbits: control, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage + vehicle, and subarachnoid hemorrhage + cinnamaldehyde. An intraperitoneal dose of 50  mg/kg cinnamaldehyde was administered 5 min following an intracisternal blood inje...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adjuvant therapy with Astragalus membranaceus for post-stroke fatigue: a systematic review
In conclusions, adjuvant therapy with CHM-HQ may benefit in managing fatigue and quality of life in stroke patients. However, stronger evidence is needed for a promising conclusion and more rigorous designs of RCTs are merited in the future. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safranal, an active ingredient of saffron, attenuates cognitive deficits in amyloid β-induced rat model of Alzheimer’s disease: underlying mechanisms
In this study, the possible beneficial effect of safranal on cognitive deficits was evaluated in a rat model of AD induced by intrahippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ1 –40). Safranal was daily givenp.o. (0.025, 0.1, and 0.2  ml/kg) post-surgery for 1 week and finally learning and memory were evaluated in addition to assessment of the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Findings showed that safranal treatment of amyloid β-microinjected rats dose-dependently improved cognition in Y-maze, nove l-object discrimination, passive avoidance, and 8-arm radial arm maze tasks. Besides, saf...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prolactin, flupenthixol decanoate and first episode schizophrenia – clinical and laboratory correlates
In this study treatment with flupenthixol decanoate was associated with relatively low levels of hyperprolactinemia, likely owing to flupenthixol’s relatively atypical mode of action, as well as to the low doses u sed in our study. We found an inverse correlation between total PANSS scores and prolactin levels, which could support the suggested theory of prolactin having antipsychotic properties. Our study confirms the importance of gender on the prolactin raising effects of antipsychotic treatment. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High fat diet deteriorates the memory impairment induced by arsenic in mice: a sub chronic in vivo study
AbstractBoth arsenic (As) and obesity are associated with brain disorders. However, long term studies to evaluate their concomitant adverse effects on the brain functions are lacking. Present study was conducted to evaluate the long term co-exposure of As and high fat diet (HFD) on memory and brain mitochondrial function in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups fed with HFD or ordinary diet (OD) and instantaneously exposed to As (25 or 50  ppm) in drinking water for, 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. Step-down passive avoidance method was used for memory assessment and post exposure various parameters inclu...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Combination of schisandrin and nootkatone exerts neuroprotective effect in Alzheimer ’s disease mice model
In this study, the effects ofAlpinia oxyphylla —Schisandra chinensis herb pair (ASHP) as well as its bioactive components on cognitive deficiency and dementia were revealed via A β1 –42-induced AD in mouse. Morris water maze test showed that acute administration of ASHP and SCH  + NKT treatments had higher discrimination index in the object recognition task, more quadrant dwell time and shorter escape latency compared with those in the Morris water maze. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were decreased after ASHP and SCH + NKT treatment. The inflammatory respon se w...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the therapeutic effects of anti-PDL2 neutralizing antibody on stroke
AbstractInflammation involving migration of immune cells across the damaged blood –brain barrier (BBB), activation of resident innate microglia and production of inflammatory humoral mediators such as cytokines and chemokines play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Cell-cell signaling involved in the process also includes checkpoint interaction between prog rammed death receptor (PD1) and programmed death ligands, PDL1 and PDL2. Based on our previous studies showing reduced MCAO infarct volumes in PDL2 deficient mice, we evaluated the ability of anti-PDL2 mAb to treat MCAO in male and female C57B...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Metabolomic profiling on rat brain of prenatal malnutrition: implicated for oxidative stress and schizophrenia
AbstractSchizophrenia is a kind of neurodevelopmental disease. Epidemiological data associates schizophrenia with prenatal exposure to famine. Relevant prenatal protein deprivation (PPD) rodent models support this result by observing decreasing prepulse inhibition, altered hippocampal morphology and impaired memory in offspring. All these abnormalities are highly consistent with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We developed a prenatal famine rat model by restricting daily diet of the pregnant rat to 50% of low protein diet. A metabolomics study of prefrontal cortex was performed to integrate GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS. ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaf inhibits ethanol seeking behaviour in mice: involvement of antidopaminergic mechanism
AbstractIn the current study, the effect of methanolic extract ofMitragyna speciosa leaf (MMS) against the rewarding and reinforcing properties of ethanol using a mouse model of conditioned place preference (CPP) and runway model of drug self-administration was studied. Subsequently, the effect of MMS on dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the mouse brain was further investigated. From the data obtained, MMS (50 and 75  mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the ethanol-place preference in mice, which is similar to the effect observed in the reference drugs acamprosate (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and clozapine (1...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bioinformatics classification of mutations in patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA
In this study, we focused on three mutations (R74C, S66W, and R245H) based onin silico pathogenic, conservation, and stability prediction tool studies. The three mutations were further subjected to molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) analysis using GROMACS simulation software to observe the structural changes they induced, and all the mutants exhibited maximum deviation patterns compared with the native protein. Conformational changes were observed in the mutants based on various geometrical parameters, such as conformational stability, fluctuation, and compactness, followed by hydrogen bonding, physicochemical properties, ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Soya bean rich diet is associated with adult male rat aggressive behavior: relation to RF amide-related peptide 3-aromatase-neuroestrogen pathway in the brain
AbstractRelation between soya bean (SB) consumption and aggressive behavior has not been elucidated yet. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of large amount of SB consumption on adult male rats ’ aggressive behavior through investigating changes in the expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone/ RF amide-related peptide 3 (GnIH/RFRP3), neuropeptide FF receptor, cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (Cyp19A1), estrogen receptors α and β and the levels of neuroestroge n, dopamine, glutamate and testosterone as well as aromatase activity in the brain. Adult male rats w...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of lovastatin in the pilocarpine rat model of epilepsy according to the expression of neurotrophic factors
In this study, we examined the anti-apoptotic, anti-necrotic and regulatory effects of lovastatin on the expression of NTFs in the pilocarpine rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A total of 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 per group): i) normal; ii) non-treated epileptic group [intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 350–400 mg/kg pilocarpine]; iii) treatment group (pilocarpine-treated rats treated followed by 5 mg/kg lovastatin); and iv) vehicle epileptic rats treated with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Animals that had a behavioral score of 4–5 according to...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrical stimulation mPFC affects morphine addiction by changing glutamate concentration in the ventral tegmental area
AbstractMorphine addiction is known as a serious social problem. Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are two important sites of the brain that contribute to this type of addiction, and a complicated relation exists in between. In addition, neurotransmitters like glutamate and γ--Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) play an important role in the formation of these relations. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate these relations by evaluating the level of associated changes in the indicated neurotransmitters in the VTA, using HPLC method. This was performed after electrical stimulation...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Melatonin-pretreated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells efficeintly improved learning, memory, and cognition in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease
In this study, after isolating rat AD-MSCs from the epididymal white adipose tissues, the cells were pretreated with 5μM of MT for 24 hours. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to control, sham, amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, AD-MSCs and MT-pretreated ADMSCs groups. The novel object recognition, passive avoidan ce test, Morris water maze and open field test were performed two months following the cell transplantation. The rats were sacrificed 69 days following cell therapy. The brain tissues were removed for histopathological analysis and also immunohistochemistry was performed for two Aβ1-42 and Iba1 p...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Maple syrup urine disease mutation spectrum in a cohort of 40 consanguineous patients and insilico analysis of novel mutations
In this study, we selected two sets of STR markers linked to the four genes, that mutation in which can result in MSUD disease. The patients who had a homozygous haplotype for selected markers of the genes were sequenced. In current survey, we summarized our recent molecular genetic findings to illustrate the mutation spectrum of MSUD in our country. Ten novel mutations including c.484 A  >  G, c.834_836dup CAC, c.357del T, and c. (343 + 1_344–1) _ (742 + 1_743–1)del inBCKDHB, c.355 –356 ins 7 nt ACAAGGA, and c.703del T inBCKDHA, and c.363delCT/c.1238 &nbs...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Determination of neuroinflammatory biomarkers in autistic and neurotypical Saudi children
In conclusion, the present study highlights the usefulness of TGF-β2, HSP70, and H-PGDS as diagnostic tools to differentiate between ASD and neurotypical control children, but not among subgroups of ASD children exhibiting different severity levels of sensory dysfunction. The presented data also suggest the effectiveness of ROC as a powerful statistical tool, which precisely can measure a combined effect of neuroinflammatory biomarkers intended for d iagnostic purposes. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protective effect of gallic acid against arsenic-induced anxiety −/depression- like behaviors and memory impairment in male rats
AbstractThe purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gallic acid (GA) on sodium arsenite (iAS)-induced behavior deficits and memory alteration in male rats. Thirty six animals were divided in to 6 groups (six animals in each) (i) saline+saline; (ii) saline+GA (50  mg/kg); (iii) saline+ GA (100 mg/kg) (iv) iAS + saline; (v) iAS + GA(50 mg/kg); (vi) iAS + GA (100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with iAS (2.5 mg/kg/ml); GA (50 and 100 mg/kg/ml) and saline (0.9%; 1 ml/kg) for 4 weeks. Repeated administration of iAS increases immob...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Time-dependent impairments in learning and memory in Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats
AbstractThe sedentary lifestyle is responsible for the high prevalence of diabetes which also impairs cognition including learning and memory. Various studies have highlighted the learning and memory impairments in rodent models but data regarding the timeline of their development and their correlation to biochemical parameters are scarce. So, the present study was designed to investigate the type of memory which is more susceptible to hyperglycemia and its correlation with biochemical parameters such as inflammatory cytokines, cAMP response element binding (CREB) and protein kinase B (Akt) activation. Hyperglycemia was in...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exon 2 deletion represents a common mutation in Turkish patients with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
AbstractFructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of gluconeogenesis. We aimed to investigate clinical and biochemical findings and molecular genetic data in ten Turkish patients with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. Ten Turkish patients who were diagnosed with fructose-1,6-biphosphatase deficiency in a single center from 2013 to 2019 were included in this study. Their clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively. All patients were hospitalised in intensive care unit mostly after catabolic stress conditions such as infections, starvation and rarely fructose...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuronal damage and neuroinflammation markers in patients with autoimmune encephalitis and multiple sclerosis
AbstractInflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an important diagnostic consideration in patients with CNS inflammatory disorders; despite of a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms it should be diagnosed as soon as possible and the patient transferred to the neurologist. We studied a group of AE patients (n = 24) as compared to multiple sclerosis (MS,n = 61) and control (n = 19) groups. Detailed clinical pictures of patients are presented. We focused on relevant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Amyloid Beta 25 –35 induces blood-brain barrier disruption in vitro
AbstractThe amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by binding with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Previously, we demonstrated that the Aβ fraction 25–35 (Aβ25 –35) increases RAGE expression in the rat hippocampus, likely contributing to its neurotoxic effects. However, it is still debated if the interaction of A β with RAGE compromises the BBB function in Alzheimer’ disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the effects of Aβ25 –35 in an established in vitro model of the BBB. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Novel mutations in two unrelated Italian patients with SSADH deficiency
AbstractSuccinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) catabolism caused by mutations in the gene coding for succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH5A1). The abnormal levels of GHB detected in the brain and in all physiological fluids of SSADHD patients represent a diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease. Here we report on the clinical and molecular characterization of two unrelated Italian patients and the identification of two novel mutations: a 22  bp DNA duplication in exon 1, c.114_135dup, p.(C46AfsX97), and a non-sense m...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The faster-onset antidepressant effects of hypidone hydrochloride (YL-0919)
AbstractHypidone hydrochloride (YL-0919), is a novel structural antidepressant candidate as a triple selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT6 agonist. Here, we investigated the rapid onset antidepressant-like effects of YL-0919 and the possible mechanism in rats exposed to a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) paradigm. In the CUS rats, it was found that fluoxetine (FLX, 10  mg/kg) treatment exerted antidepressant actions on 20-22d, while YL-0919 or vilazodone (VLZ, a dual 5-HT1A partial agonist and SSRI) administrated once daily exerted faster antidepressant-like behaviors [4 &n...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genetic testing of Mucopolysaccharidoses disease using multiplex PCR- based panels of STR markers: in silico analysis of novel mutations
AbstractThe Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are group of inherited metabolic diseases caused by the deficiency of enzymes required to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the lysosomes. GAGs are sulfated polysaccharides involving repeating disaccharides, uronic acid and hexosamines including chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS) and keratan sulfate (KS). Hyaluronan is excluded in terms of being non-sulfated in the GAG family. Different types of mutations have been identified as the causative agent in all types of MPS. Herein, we planned to investigate the pathogenic mutations in different types ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The effect of hyperglycinemic treatment in captive-bred Vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops )
AbstractNonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a neuro-metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). A case of atypical late onset of NKH has been reported in a colony of captive-bred Vervet monkeys. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan in reducing glycine levels in hyperglycinemic monkeys. Twelve captive-bred Vervet monkeys were assigned into three groups consisting of four animals (control, valproate induced and cataract with spontaneous hyperglycinemia). Valproate was used to elevate glycine levels an...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Modulating effects of preconditioning exercise in the expression of ET-1 and BNP via HIF-1 α in ischemically injured brain
AbstractIt is well-known that in ischemia-induced hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor -1 α (HIF-1α) is critical in triggering expression of its downstream target genes to produce several products, such as erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nitric oxide synthesis (NOS), glucose transportor-1 (GLUT-1), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), which further promote erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation and capitalization of glucose to overcome hypoxia. Meanwhile, as the factors with opposite effects on blood vessels, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) also stand out s...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prophylactic neuroprotective propensity of Crocin, a carotenoid against rotenone induced neurotoxicity in mice: behavioural and biochemical evidence
AbstractPreviously we have demonstrated the potential neuroprotective propensity of saffron and Crocin (CR) employing aDrosophila model of Parkinsonism. Rotenone (ROT) has been extensively used as a model neurotoxin to induce Parkinson ’s disease (PD) like symptoms in mice. In the present study, as a proof of concept we evaluated the efficacy of CR prophylaxis (25 mg/ kg bw/d, 7d) to attenuate ROT(0.5 mg/Kg bw/d,7d) -induced neurotoxic effects in male mice focussing on neurobehavioural assessments and biochemical determinants in the striatum. CR prophylaxis significantly alleviated ROT-induced behavioural a...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Allicin ameliorates obesity comorbid depressive-like behaviors: involvement of the oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, autophagy, insulin resistance and NOX/Nrf2 imbalance in mice
AbstractThe increased prevalence of obesity has been a major medical and public health problem in the past decades. In obese status, insulin resistance and sustained oxidative stress damage might give rise to behavioral deficits. The anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects of allicin have been previously reported in peripheral tissues. In the present study, the functions and mechanisms of allicin involved in the prevention of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced depressive-like behaviors were investigated to better understand the pharmacological activities of allicin. Obese mice (five weeks of age) were treated with allicin (50, 100,...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes induced oxidative brain injury involves altered cerebellar neuronal integrity and elemental distribution, and exacerbated Nrf2 expression: therapeutic potential of raffia palm ( Raphia hookeri ) wine
In this study, the effect of T2D on neuronal integrity and elemental distribution in the cerebellar cortex, as well as the therapeutic effect of Raffia Palm(Raphia hookeri) wine (RPW) were investigated in male albino rats. T2D was induced in 4 groups of rats using fructose and streptozotocin. One group served as negative control which was administered water, the second and third group were administered 150 and 300  mg/kg bodyweight of RPW, while the fourth was administered metformin (200 mg/kg bodyweight). Two other groups of normal rats were administered distilled water (control) and of RPW (300 mg/kg bodyw...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Laboratory diagnosis of the Niemann-Pick type C disease: an inherited neurodegenerative disorder of cholesterol metabolism
AbstractNiemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a genetically determined neurodegenerative metabolic disease resulting from the mutations in theNPC1 orNPC2 genes. It belongs to the lysosomal storage diseases and its main cause is impaired cholesterol transport in late endosomes or lysosomes. NPC is inherited in an autosomal recessive trait. Due to the wide range in age of onset, often unspecific clinical picture and varying dynamics of disease progression, the diagnosis is very difficult and long-lasting. The most characteristic visceral symptoms are hepato- or hepatosplenomegaly, which may appear independently of neurologica...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine from Cordyceps cicadae attenuates hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells
AbstractN6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA), is one of the active molecule found inCordyceps cicadae. The protective effect of HEA against H2O2 induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells and the mechanism of action was investigated. The cells were exposed to varying concentrations of HEA (5 –40 μM) for a period of 24 h and further incubated with 100 μM of H2O2 for an another 12  h. Cell viability, LDH release, MMP collapse, Ca2+ overload, antioxidant parameters (reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), inflammat...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced brain and hippocampus apoptosis decrease through modulation of caspase activity, Ca 2+ influx and inflammatory cytokine molecular pathways in the docetaxel-treated mice by melatonin and selenium treatments
AbstractDocetaxel (DOCE) is widely used to treat several types of glioblastoma. Adverse effects DOCE seriously limit its clinical use in several tissues. Its side effects on brain cortex and hippocampus have not been clarified yet. Limited data indicated a protective effect of melatonin (MLT) and selenium (SELEN) on DOCE-induced apoptosis, Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several tissues except brain and hippocampus. The purpose of this study is to discover the protective effect of MLT and SELEN on DOCE-induced brain and hippocampus oxidative toxicity in mice. MLT and SELEN pretreatments signi...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bipolar limbic expression of auto-immune thyroid targets: thyroglobulin and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor
AbstractThe associations between thyroid auto-immunity and neuro-psychiatric disorders are well-documented. However, there exists limited literature specifically linking auto-immune thyroid disease (AITD) to bipolar disorder (BD). Thus, we investigated the likely association between Hashimoto ’s disease and BD through the extra-thyroidal localisation of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) and thyroglobulin (TG) in limbic regions of normal and bipolar human adult brain. Further, we hypothesised that changes in thyroid expression in bipolar limbic cortex may contribute to mood d ysregulation associated with BD...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expression analysis of vitamin D receptor-associated lncRNAs in epileptic patients
AbstractVitamin D has been vastly acknowledged as a neuroactive steroid controlling neurodevelopment. As it exerts its functions through activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR), several studies have assessed the role of VDR in brain function. More recently, a number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized that alter expression of VDR. In the current study, we evaluated expression of fourVDR-related lncRNAs (LINC00511,LINC00346,SNHG6 andSNHG16) in peripheral blood of 40 epileptic patients and 39 healthy subjects using quantitative real time PCR method. The relative expression levels ofSNHG16 andLINC00511 were ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contribution of serotonergic and nitrergic pathways, as well as monoamine oxidase-a and Na + , K + -ATPase enzymes in antidepressant-like action of ((4- tert -butylcyclohexylidene) methyl) (4-methoxystyryl) sulfide (BMMS)
In conclusion, BMMS exerted an antidepressant-like effect in mice and serotonergic and nitrergic systems are involved in the antidepressant-like action of compound. BMMS modulated MAO-A and Na+, K+- ATPase activities in prefrontal cortex of mice. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research