Mitochondrial genome variation in male LHON patients with the m.11778G   & gt;  A mutation
In this study, we use next generation sequencing to investigate the role of whole mtDNA variation in male Polish patients with LHON and m.11778G >  A, the most frequent LHON mutation. We present a possible association between mtDNA haplogroup K and variants in its background, a combination of m.3480A >  G, m.9055G >  A, m.11299 T >  C and m.14167C >  T, and LHON mutation. These variants may have a negative effect on m.11778G >  A increasing its penetrance and the risk of LHON in the Polish population. Surprisingly, we...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optimization of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin dose for the induction of neuroinflammation and memory impairments in rats
AbstractIntracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) is a well established procedure to induce neuroinflammation leading to dementia in experimental animals. However, the optimal dose of STZ has not been determined. In the present study, rats were ICV injected with 1.5, 3 and 6 mg of STZ per kg of body weight. After 21 days, neuroinflammatory markers i.e. TNF- α, IL-1β, ROS and nitrite were quantified in the hippocampus. Memory function was assessed by the radial arm maze test after 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 days following STZ injection. STZ treatment significantly increased neuroinflammatory markers ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Melatonin regulates neurodegenerative complications associated with NAFLD via enhanced neurotransmission and cellular integrity: a correlational study
This study was designed to investigate the impact of melatonin (MEL; 10  mg/kg) on overcoming the hepato and neuro-complications associated with high fat, high fructose (HFHF) diet induced-NAFLD in rats. NAFLD was induced by HFHF diet for 8 consecutive weeks. MEL was given orally for the last 10 days. Rats’ general behavior was assessed by; open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST). On biochemical level; serum levels of glucose, insulin, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase as well as the hepatic levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol were evaluated. Monoamines’ brain leve...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and promising therapeutics of Alzheimer disease through eIF2 α pathway and correspondent kinases
AbstractEukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2 α) pathway is overactivated in Alzheimer disease and is probably associated with synaptic and memory deficiencies. EIF2α protein is principally in charge of the regulation of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Four kinases responsible for eIF2α phosphorylation at ser-51 are: General control n on-derepressible-2 kinase (GCN2), double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI) are the four kinases. They lead to reduced levels of general translation and paradoxical increa...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A combination of an antioxidant with a prebiotic exerts greater efficacy than either as a monotherapy on cognitive improvement in castrated-obese male rats
AbstractPrevious studies by ourselves and others have demonstrated that both obesity and testosterone deprivation have been related to cognitive decline. We have also shown that a prebiotic and n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) improved cognitive dysfunction in obese rats and castrated-male rats. However, the effects of NAC, a prebiotic (inulin), and a combination of the two on cognition in castrated-obese rats has never been investigated. The hypothesis was that NAC and inulin attenuated cognitive decline in castrated-obese rats by improving gut dysbiosis, and decreasing oxidative stress, glial activation and apoptosis. Male Wistar...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Accelerated epigenetic aging in adolescents from low-income households is associated with altered development of brain structures
AbstractThe relationship between cognitive performance, macro and microstructural brain anatomy and accelerated aging as measured by a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the epigenetic clock in healthy adolescents has not been studied. Healthy adolescents enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort Study were studied cross sectionally. The Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array was used to generate DNA methylation data from the blood samples of 44 adolescents aged 9 to 12  years old. The epigenetic clock software and method was used to estimate two measures, epigenetic age accelera...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neonatal phenylalanine wash-out in phenylketonuria
AbstractPhenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inborn error of amino acids metabolism. PKU management aims to keep as soon as possible blood phenylalanine (Phe), a non-acutely neurotoxic metabolite, within safe ranges through a dietary Phe restriction tailored to individual dietary Phe tolerance. Information on initial neonatal management of PKU, when Phe tolerance is still unknown, is scanty.  We reviewed the metabolic data from 304 patients with PAH deficiency detected at newborn screening within the last 37 years. In keeping with the general neonatal management of intoxication-type inborn errors of metabolis...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Morin hydrate attenuates chronic stress-induced memory impairment and degeneration of hippocampal subfields in mice: The role of oxidative, nitrergic and neuroinflammatory pathways
AbstractMorin hydrate (MH) is the major flavonoid constituent ofMorus alba acclaimed to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress and neuroprotective properties. However, report on the effect of MH on memory performance and the underlying mechanism following chronic stress exposure is lacking. The current study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effect of MH on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced memory impairment in mice using the Y maze test. Mice were subjected to unpredicted stress for 14 days, during which MH (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p) or 25 mg/kg Ginseng was administered to them. On the 14th day, ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The role of lipid peroxidation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders
AbstractThe role of malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), an oxidized LDL, in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear. We studied association between MDA-LDL and behavioral symptoms in 11 individuals with ASD and 7 age -matched normal controls. Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklists (ABC). Because small sample size in this study, three measures were conducted: first, employment of adaptive Lasso for enhancing the accuracy of prediction and interpretability; second, calculation of coefficient of variation for an appropriate selection of plasma ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lower uric acid level may be associated with hemorrhagic transformation but not functional outcomes in patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular thrombectomy
AbstractTo determine the correlation of uric acid (UA) with hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and poor short-term functional outcomes in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients after endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). A retrospective analysis was conducted for anterior circulation AIS patients who underwent EVT at our hospital from 2015 to 2019. HT within 72  h was documented according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II Classification. Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data were compared between the HT and non-HT groups, and between patients with favorable and unfavorable outco...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Baicalin attenuates inflammatory pain associated depressive symptoms via Akt-mediated adult hippocampal neurogenesis
AbstractDepression is one of main symptoms accompanying thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia induced by inflammatory pain. On physiological level, depressive symptoms could be attenuated by sufficient level of hippocampal neural plasticity. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) plays critical roles in clearing panic memory, increasing psychiatric adaptability and preventing depressive emotion. Thus, targeting AHN is the applicable strategy to improve neural functions impaired and attenuate inflammatory pain. Previous reports indicate natural compound baicalin (BA) is one of the effective agents to promote AHN. In p...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

NMR-based metabolomics characterizes metabolic changes in different brain regions of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with cognitive decline
In this study, we analyzed the metabolic alterations in six different brain regions between streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice with cognitive decline (DM) and age-matched controls (CON) using a1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, to explore potential metabolic mechanisms underlying diabetes-induced cognitive decline. The results show that DM mice had a peculiar metabolic phenotype in all brain regions, mainly involving increased lactate level, decreased choline and energy metabolism as well as disrupted astrocyte-neuron metabolism. Furthermore, these metabolic changes exhibited a brain region-specific pattern. Colle...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Calorie restriction promotes remyelination in a Cuprizone-Induced demyelination mouse model of multiple sclerosis
In conclusion, CR regimen can promote remyelination potential in a CPZ-demyelinating mouse model of MS by increasing oligodendrocyte generation while decreasing their apoptosis. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Recent advances in tau-directed immunotherapy against Alzheimer ’s disease: an overview of pre-clinical and clinical development
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) has been a worldwide concern for many years now. This is due to the fact that AD is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects quality of life. Failure of some Phase II/III clinical trials in AD targeting accumulation of β-amyloid in the brain has led t o an increase in interest in studying alternative treatments against tubulin-associated unit (Tau) pathology. These alternative treatments include active and passive immunisation. Based on numerous studies, Tau is reported as a potential immunotherapeutic target for tauopathy-related diseases includ in...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Interleukin-13 ameliorates postischemic hepatic gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in rat model of stroke
AbstractHyperglycemia is a well-known indicator of stroke prognosis, and one-third of nondiabetic patients develop postischemic hyperglycemia during the acute phase of stroke; this is related to relatively poor prognosis, high mortality, and impaired neurological recovery. Interleukin-13 (IL-13), a member of the Th2 cytokine family, is involved in both the regulation of immune response and glucose metabolism. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of postischemic hyperglycemia and the role of IL-13 by using a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Our results indicated that postischemic hyperglycemia was...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evidence for inflammasome activation in the brain of mucopolysaccharidosis type II mice
AbstractHunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked recessive disease caused by the deficiency of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS), leading to storage of undegraded heparan and dermatan sulfate. Patients with the severe form present neurological abnormalities, but the mechanisms of such alterations are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the undegraded substances found in this disease could be recognized as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS), leading to activation of the inflammasome. Brains from 2 and 5  months normal and MPS II mice were studied. We observed an increase in cathepsin...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of metformin on traumatic brain injury in rats is associated with the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway
This study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of metformin through the energy balance reestablishment in acute severe brain injury after TBI and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. The veterinary coma scale (VCS) was used to assess short-term neurological deficits. Blood-Brain barrier (BBB) disruption was evaluated by Evans Blue method 6  h post-injury. Vestibulomotor function was evaluated by beam-walk and beam-balance methods. Brain water content and brain tissue phosphorylated and total AMPK were assessed by the wet/dry method and enzyme-linked ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

β-Asarone improves learning and memory in Aβ 1-42 -induced Alzheimer’s disease rats by regulating PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy
In this study, AD model rats i nduced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 were randomly divided into nine groups, and medical intervention was applied to the animals for 30  days. Subsequently, spatial learning and memory were evaluated by the water maze test. Bcl-2 levels in the hippocampus were determined by western blotting (WB). The protein expression of Aβ1-42, Beclin-1, p62, PINK1, and Parkin was assessed by WB and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The data showed that after β-asarone treatment, the learning and memory of the AD rats were clearly improved compared with those of the model grou...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuromodulatory effects of green coffee bean extract against brain damage in male albino rats with experimentally induced diabetes
AbstractDiabetes mellitus is an increasing metabolic disease worldwide associated with central nervous system disorders. Coffee is a widely consumed beverage that enriched with antioxidants with numerous medicinal applications. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of orally administered green coffee bean water extract (GCBWE) against cortical damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) followed by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Metformin (Met) was used as standard antidiabetic drug. Animals were allocated into six groups: control, GCBWE (100  mg/kg), HFD/STZ (40&...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Amelioration of motor and non-motor deficits and increased striatal APoE levels highlight the beneficial role of pistachio supplementation in rotenone-induced rat model of PD
AbstractPistachio contains polyphenolic compounds including flavonoids and anthocyanins which have antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity. Present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of pistachio on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in rats with Parkinson ’s disease (PD). Animal model of PD was induced by the injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 8 days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks in both pre- and post-treatment. At the end of treatment brain was dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neur ochemical analysis. Memory was assessed by ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

GAA gene mutation detection following clinical evaluation and enzyme activity analysis in Azeri Turkish patients with Pompe disease
AbstractPompe disease (PD) is a rare autosomal recessive multi-systemic lysosomal storage disorder, caused by mutations in the acid alpha-glucosidase(GAA) gene located on 17q25.2-q25.3. It is one of about 50 rare genetic diseases categorized as lysosomal storage disorders. This disease is characterized by a range of different symptoms related to acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency. Mutation recognition in theGAA gene can be very significant for purposes such as therapeutic interference, early diagnosis and genotype-phenotype relationship. In the current study, peripheral blood samples were gathered from patients with PD and ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognition-tracking-based strategies for diagnosis and treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy
AbstractMinimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), which shows mild cognitive impairment, is a subtle complication of cirrhosis that has been shown to affect daily functioning and quality of life. However, until 2014, relevant guidelines do not give much attention to the diagnosis and treatment of MHE, resulting in patients being ignored and denied the benefits of treatment. In this review, we summarize recent cognition-based research about (1) alteration of nerve cells, including astrocytes, microglial cells and neurons, in mild cognitive impairment in MHE; (2) comparison of methods in detecting cognitive impairment in MHE; an...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association study of a single nucleotide polymorphism in brain cytoplasmic 200 long-noncoding RNA and psychiatric disorders
AbstractTheBrain cytoplasmic 200 RNA (BC200 RNA) is neuron-specific lncRNA with putative roles in normal aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease. Its role in the neuron plasticity has also been documented. In the current study, we genotyped a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within this lncRNA (rs4404327) in a population of Iranian patients with diverse neuropsychiatric conditions including substance addiction (n = 315), attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) (n = 53), bipolar 1 (BP1) (n = 131), bipolar 2 (BP2) (n = 68), major depressive...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cedrol protects against chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation
AbstractInjured somatosensory nervous system cause neuropathic pain which is quite difficult to treat using current approaches. It is therefore important to find new therapeutic options. We have analyzed cedrol effect on chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced neuropathic pain in rats. The mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were evaluated using the von Frey filament, radiant heat and acetone drop methods. The changes in the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress including malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol (SH), as well as inflammatory mediators including Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF- α) and Interleu...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Role of PUMA in the methamphetamine-induced migration of microglia
In the original publication of this article, wrong western blot images were inadvertently included in Fig.  2 and Fig. 3. The corrected figures are shown below. The authors declare that these amendments do not change the results or conclusions of their paper, and apologize for this oversight. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The role of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 in patients with bipolar disorder
AbstractBipolar disorders are known as chronic, recurrent, and heterogenic diseases. Regarding, diagnosis and treatment of them are very complex. The molecular mechanism and pathophysiology of bipolar disorder are slightly known. Accordingly, long noncoding RNAs are considered as one of the main factors that are dysfunctional in many diseases such as the nervous system diseases. Hence, we aim to investigate the expression of two long non coding RNAs, MALAT1 and UCA1, in patients in bipolar disorder. The levels of MALAT1 and UCA1 lncRNA were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 50 bipolar patients and ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Combination therapy of the granulocyte colony stimulating factor and intravenous lipid emulsion protect the hippocampus after global ischemia in rat: focusing on CA1 region
This study investigated the combined therapy of the Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). These neuroprotective agents play a role in the regeneration of neurons. They improve the learning ability and memory in rats induced global ischemia. We divided 35 rats into five groups. The groups were sham group, ischemia group, G-CSF group, ILE group, and G-CSF plus ILE group. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid about 10  min. The drugs applied on days 1, 3 and 7. The treated groups received subcutaneous injection of 20 μg/kg G-CSF an...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of genetic variants of ABCA1 with susceptibility to dementia: (SADEM study)
AbstractBecause of the importance of cholesterol metabolism in the physiopathogenesis of dementia, and knowing the function of ATP-binding cassette A1 transporter (ABCA1) as a cholesterol flow pump at the cellular and cerebral level, it has been noted that the ABCA1 gene may be a good candidate for disease study. In order to evaluate the relationship between ABCA1 genetic variants and the risk of Alzheimer ’s disease and other dementia in Mexican individuals, we examined three ABCA1 polymorphisms located in the exonic region (rs2230808, rs2066718, rs2230806) and two in the promoter region (rs1800977, rs2422493) in a ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Metabolomic analysis of animal models of depression
ConclusionsThis study provides important clues for the metabolic characteristics of the PFC in depression. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Kolaviron ameliorates behavioural deficit and injury to striatal dopaminergic terminals via modulation of oxidative burden, DJ-1 depletion and CD45R + cells infiltration in MPTP-model of Parkinson ’s disease
In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of kolaviron, a natural antioxi dant and anti-inflammatory biflavonoid fromGarcinia kola seed, on behavioural impairment, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in an acute MPTP-induced PD model. Kolaviron mitigated the frequently interrupted MPTP-associated hyperkinesia, inefficient gait, immobility, inability to pay attention to sizable holes on walking path, habitual clockwise rotations characterized with minimal diversion of movements and impaired balance. Also, kolaviron suppressed MPTP-mediated striatal oxidative stress, depletion as well as deg...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Improvement of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by daucosterol palmitate-induced neuronal apoptosis inhibition via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway
In this study, we aim to investigate the therapeutic potential of daucosterol palmitate against ischemia stroke, as well as its neuro-protective mechanism. The dose-response effects of daucosterol palmitate in the protection from brain damage were evaluated in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model. The correlation of neuro-protective effects of daucosterol palmitate with apoptosis inhibition was examined and the possible signaling targets were identified. Our findings revealed that daucosterol palmitate treatment after 2  h’ ischemia significantly lowered brain damage, and neuronal cell apoptosis cause...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Does glitazone treatment have a role on the prevention of Parkinson ’s disease in adult diabetic population? A systematic review
AbstractLately, focus on the relation between Parkinson ’s disease (PD) and Diabetes has risen greatly, as neuroprotective properties have been attributed to insulin use. Several studies have assessed the effect of glitazones, an insulin-sensitizing agent, in diabetic population on PD future risk. However, reports on the effect of their use have been h eterogeneous. We aimed to synthesize the available scientific evidence which assesses the effect of glitazone use in type 2 diabetes patients on PD incidence. A systematic review was performed on multiple electronic databases. Considered for inclusion were studies that...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of AmyTrap, an amyloid- β binding drug, on Aβ induced mitochondrial dysfunction and tau phosphorylation in cultured neuroblastoma cells
AbstractAlzheimer ’s Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, affecting 25 million people worldwide. Accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) in the mitochondria has been shown to adversely affect key enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). Accumulation of Aβ is also believed to increase Tau expression and pathology. Tau, in its toxic state, results in synaptic damage causing memory and cognitive dysfunction. We are developing a drug to treat AD namely AmyTrap. The active pharmacological ingredient is a retro inverso, Aβ-bin...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A novel hippocampus metabolite signature in diabetes mellitus rat model of diabetic encephalopathy
In this study, we have made an attempt to investigate the metabolic changes associated with the streptozocin (STZ)-induced cognitive dysfunction in the hippocampus of the rat model, a classical rodent model for DE, with the help of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-based method. The STZ injections led to the rise of mean blood glucose levels in the diabetes mellitus (DM) group of rats as compared to the control (CON) group of rats throughout the experiment. However, we did not find any significant difference between the blood glucose levels of the DM& the CON groups of rats before the STZ injection. The results indi...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Body mass and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with altered brain metabolism
AbstractMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy provides measures of brain chemistry that are sensitive to cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. The concentration of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA) is of interest because it is a marker of neuronal integrity. The ratio of NAA to creatine, a standard reference metabolite, has been shown to correlate with measures of both cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. However, previous studies have explored these effects in isolation, making it impossible to know which of these highly correlated measures drive the correlations with NAA/Cr. As a result, the mechanisms underlyi...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Post-mortem tissue analyses in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD). I. Metabolomic outcomes
Upon publication, it was noted that five of the on-line supplementary figures had incorrect figure: figure legend associations. These were supplementary Figs.  6, 7, 14, 15, and 23. (Source: Metabolic Brain Disease)
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mechanisms in blood-brain barrier opening and metabolism-challenged cerebrovascular ischemia with emphasis on ischemic stroke
AbstractStroke is the leading cause of disability among adults as well as the 2nd leading cause of death globally. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 85% of strokes, and currently, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), whose therapeutic window is limited to up to 4.5 h for the appropriate population, is the only FDA approved drug in practice and medicine. After a stroke, a cascade of pathophysiological events results in the opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) through which further complications, disabilities, and mortality are likely to threaten the patient ’s health. Strikingly, tPA administration in eligible pat...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association study between genetic variants in vitamin D metabolism related genes and childhood autism spectrum disorder
This study recruited 249 children with ASD and 353 healthy controls. The G/A genotype (P = 0.0112) or the G allele (P = 0.0117) of CYP24A1 rs17219315, and the G/A genotype of CYP27B1 rs4646536 (P = 0.0341) were significantly associated with an increased risk of ASD. In addition, multivariate analysis found that A allele of both CYP2R1 rs12794714 (P = 0.0159) and CYP27B1 rs4646536 (P = 0.0268) were significantly associated with the severity of ASD. Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism related enzymes are associated with the risk of childhood ASD ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress and DNA damage of rats subjected to a chemically induced chronic model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease
In this study, we aimed at investigating the potential neuroprotective effect of melatonin treatment in a MSUD experimental model. Infant rats (7 day old) received twice daily subcutaneous injections of a BCAA pool (0.21472 g/kg, 190 mmol/L leucine, 59 mmol/L isoleucine and 69 mmol/L valine in saline solution (15.8 µL/g per weight/injection) or saline alone, and supplemented with melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) for 21 days. Oxidative stress parameters, i.e. antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive species production and damage to lipids and proteins, were asse ssed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association between chronic kidney disease and Alzheimer ’s disease: an update
AbstractIt has been accepted that kidney function is connected with brain activity. In clinical studies, chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have been found to be prone to suffering cognitive decline and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). The cognitive function of CKD patients may improve after kidney transplantation. All these indicators show a possible link between kidney function and dementia. However, little is known about the mechanism behind the relation of CKD and AD. This review discusses the associations b etween CKD and AD from the perspective of the pathophysiology of the kidney and complications and/or concomit...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Paeoniflorin attenuates early brain injury through reducing oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats
This study explores the effect of paeoniflorin on early brain injury (EBI) using rat SAH model. We found that paeoniflorin significantly improves neurological deficits, attenuates brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 72 h after SAH. Paeoniflorin attenuates the oxidative stress following SAH as evidenced by decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-Nitrotyrosine, and 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OHDG) level, increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase activity, and up-regulates the nuclear factor erythroid ‑related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme ox...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The metabolic changes in the hippocampus of an atherosclerotic rat model and the regulation of aerobic training
AbstractAtherosclerosis has been associated with the progression of cognitive impairment and the effect of metabolic changes in the brain on cognitive function may be pronounced. The aim is to reveal the metabolic changes during atherosclerosis and clarify the possible role of exercise in regulating hippocampal metabolism. Hence, A rat model of atherosclerosis was established by high-fat diet feeding in combination with vitamin D3 intraperitoneal injection, then 4  weeks of aerobic exercise was conducted. Metabolomics based on GC-MS was applied to detect small molecules metabolites and western blot was used to detect ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Molecular and biochemical study of glutaric aciduria type 1 in 49 Russian families: nine novel mutations in the GCDH gene
AbstractGlutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1, deficiency of glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase, glutaric acidemia type 1) (ICD-10 code: E72.3; MIM 231670) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). Herein, we present the biochemical and molecular genetic characteristics of 51 patients diagnosed with GA1 from 49 unrelated families in Russia. We identified a total of 21 variants, 9 of which were novel: c.127  + 1G >  T, с.471_473delCGA, c.161 T >  C (p.Leu54Pro), c.531C >  A (р.Phe177Leu), c....
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - April 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective roles of total flavones of Camellia on early brain injury andcognitive dysfunction following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats
AbstractThe present study was undertaken to explore the role of total flavones of Camellia (TFC) on cerebral injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. We showed that the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in brain tissues, leakages of neuron-specifc enolase (NSE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from brain tissues to serum at 48 h after SAH were significantly blocked by TFC treatment. Besides, TFC treatment could reduce brain edema and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in hippocampal tissues at mRNA and protein levels at 48 h after SAH. In addition, and the reduction of neurological scores at 7d after SAH were signific...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of boron nitride nanoparticles in the experimental Parkinson ’s disease model against MPP+ induced apoptosis
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is one of the most aggressive neurodegenerative diseases and characterized by the loss of dopamine-sensitive neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. There is no any definitive treatment to completely cure PD and existing treatments can only ease the symptoms of the dis ease. Boron nitride nanoparticles have been extensively studied in nano-biological studies and researches showed that it can be a promising candidate for PD treatment with its biologically active unique properties. In the present study, it was aimed to investigate ameliorative effects of hexagonal b oron n...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The therapeutic potential of bilobalide on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice
AbstractInflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Besides MS disease-modifying therapy, targeting myelin sheath protection/regeneration is currently a hot spot in the treatment of MS. Here, we attempt to explore the therapeutic potential of Bilobalide (BB) for the myelin protection/regeneration in EAE model. The results showed that BB treatment effectively prevented worsening and demyelination of EAE, accompanied by the inhibition of neuroinflammation that should be closely related to T cell ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Histomorphological evaluations on the frontal cortex extrapyramidal cell layer following administration of N-Acetyl cysteine in aluminum induced neurodegeneration rat model
This study was aimed to demonstrate the in vivo neuroprotective effect of NAC against aluminum (Al3+)-induced neuro-degeneration in rats (a model for AD). Twenty- five (25) adult male Wistar rats used for this study were divided into 5 groups: Group A  = Control, B = Aluminum chloride (200 mg/kg), C = 1000 mg/kg of NAC + Aluminum chloride (200 mg/kg), D = 1000 mg/kg of NAC, E = Aluminum chloride (200 mg/kg) was orally administered daily for 3 weeks and discontinued for one week. Frontal Cortex harvested fo...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Beneficial consequences of Lupeol on middle cerebral artery-induced cerebral ischemia in the rat involves Nrf2 and P38 MAPK modulation
AbstractLupeol has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities in many diseases, but its potential effects in cerebral ischemia injury have not been studied to date. In this work we present evidence for a beneficial effect of lupeol in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion (MCAO/R) injury and provide some histological and biochemical evidence for its mechanism of action. A cerebral MCAO rat model was established by vascular occlusion for 2  h, followed by 24 h reperfusion period. The infarct volume, neurological deficits, and brain water content we...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Han Chinese population
This study aimed to investigate the association of phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit1 (PIK3R1) gene rs3756668 and rs3730089 polymorphisms with SCZ and BD risks and determine the expression levels ofPIK3R1. A total of 548 SCZ cases, 512 BD cases, and 598 healthy controls were included in this study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted to examine the mRNA expression ofPIK3R1. The genotypic distribution of rs3756668 in the BD group was significantly different from that in the healt...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neostigmine treatment induces neuroprotection against oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of asthmatic mice
AbstractDuring chronic inflammatory disease, such asthma, leukocytes can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and together with CNS-resident cells, generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as disbalance in the antioxidant system, causing oxidative stress, which contributes a large part to neuroinflammation. In this sense, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of treatment with neostigmine, known for the ability to control lung inflammation, on oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of asthmatic mice. Female BALB/cJ mice were submitted to asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA). ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - March 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research