ELISA versus LUMINEX assay for measuring mouse metabolic hormones and cytokines: sharing the lessons I have learned.
Authors: Mountjoy KG Abstract Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has long been the standard for quantitative analysis of metabolic hormones and cytokines. LUMINEX multiplex bead array assays were developed as cost- and time-effective alternatives to ELISA, but they are the only cost- and time-effective if they provide informative data. Here, I show that using half-volume of reagents for an adiponectin single-plex LUMINEX assay and a 6-plex LUMINEX xMAP mouse metabolic bead assay, produces reliable data and increases assay cost-effectiveness. I provide direct comparisons between LUMINEX assay and ELISA for qu...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 29, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Hepatitis B virus infection among Nigerian pediatric population.
Authors: Adetunji SO, Ajite A, Adetunji BI, Olaniran OB, Donbraye E Abstract Hepatitis B infection has continued to be a growing global health concern in spite of the discovery and administration of hepatitis B vaccines over the years. The focus of this study was to evaluate the burden of this infection among asymptomatic pediatric population. Children, who visited the hospital between March and August 2018, were recruited into this study. Blood samples were collected after obtaining informed consent. The samples were processed and screened for HBsAg. Data were analyzed using chi-square statistic. Six (2.9%) of the...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 28, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Patho-morphological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of fibrous tissue pulmonary hamartoma in young buffaloes.
Authors: Kamdi B, Singh R, Singh V, Singh S, Kashyap G Abstract Hamartoma is a developmental disorder characterized by the presence of well-differentiated tissue, of multiple types, in excess at its normal location. The present study describes a fibrous tissue pulmonary hamartoma in two buffaloes. Grossly, there were large pale white masses present on the left diaphragmatic lobe in both cases. Microscopic examination of the lungs revealed that the bronchioles were dilated and showed many terminal respiratory bronchioles lined by a single layer of cuboidal epithelium supported by thick bands of collagenous tissue. A...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 25, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

IInteraction of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos with alpha-2-macroglobulin: Biophysical and molecular docking approach.
Authors: Dixit S, Zia MK, Siddiqui T, Ahsan H, Khan FH Abstract Organophosphate class of pesticides causes neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. Once inside the human body, these pesticides often interact with plasma proteins, such as alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) which is the key anti-proteinase. Our work focuses on the structural and functional alteration of α2M by chlorpyrifos (CPF), a member of organophosphates. We explored the binding interaction between alpha-2-macroglobulin and CPF by using UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy (steady state and synchronous), circular dichroism and mol...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

The bumpy road to achieve herd immunity in COVID-19.
Authors: Neagu M Abstract Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection that is offered to the community when a large proportion of individuals contained in the community are immune to a certain infection. This immunity can be due to vaccination or to the recovery post-disease. Effective herd immunity in SARS-CoV-2 infection has several hurdles upon achievement. Herd immunity cannot be obtained concomitantly in many geographical areas because the areas have different population density and the societal measures to contain the spreading are different. A proportion of 50-66% of the population needs to be immunized n...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of probiotics bacteria on animal model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine: A behavioral, biochemical, and histological study.
Authors: Alipour Nosrani E, Tamtaji OR, Alibolandi Z, Sarkar P, Ghazanfari M, Azami Tameh A, Taghizadeh M, Banikazemi Z, Hadavi R, Naderi Taheri M Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated, progressive, and common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysbiosis in PD has been confirmed and probiotics also have the ability to regulate the mentioned mechanisms. Here, we assessed probiotics supplementation effects on experimental model of PD. Thirty Male Wistar rats w...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Evaluation of three commercially available ELISA kits for the determination of chromogranin A.
Authors: Eeckhout K, Van Cotthem K, Guerti K Abstract Chromogranin A (CgA) is currently the most valuable tumor biomarker for diagnostic work-up, management and follow-up of neuro-endocrine tumors (NET). The aim of our study was to compare three different commercially available CgA ELISA kits and to evaluate their analytical and clinical performance. CgA was measured with three different commercial ELISA kits on leftover sera from 40 patients: Chromoa R assay (Cis), Hu chromogranin A ELISA (Dia), and Neolisa chromogranin A (Euro). Analytical and clinical performance was evaluated by measuring precision, area under ...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 13, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

High seroprevalence of viral hepatitis among animal handlers in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
This study aimed at determining the prevalence of Hepatitis B, C, and E viruses among animal handlers in Abeokuta, southwestern Nigerian. A total of 156 subjects were recruited for the study. Sociodemographic and risks factors data were fetched from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected via venepuncture and tested for HCV, HBV, and HEV using ELISA technique. Results were analyzed using SPSS software version 21.0 and P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HEV were 46 (29.5%), 20 (12.8%), and 4 (2.6%) respectively while 6 (3.8%), 1 (0.6%), a...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 13, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

The effect of temozolomide in combination with doxorubicin in glioblastoma cells in vitro.
CONCLUSION: While the results may be discouraging, they present an interesting prospect into how certain drug interactions can impact treatment response. PMID: 33021886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - October 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Serological evidence of HIV, Hepatitis B, C, and E viruses among liver disease patients attending tertiary hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria.
Authors: Oluremi AS, Opaleye OO, Ogbolu DO, Alli OAT, Ashiru FT, Alaka OO, Suleiman IE, Enitan SS, Adelakun AA, Adediji IO, Olowoyeye EA, Adewumi OO, Ayodele TO, Ogunleke OA Abstract Hepatitis infection in HIV positive individuals with liver diseases causes high mortality worldwide. HIV worsens the pathological effect of hepatitis viruses and potentiates reactivation of latent hepatitis infections due to reduced immunity. This research therefore aimed to study the occurrence of HIV and hepatitis viruses among liver diseases patients (LVDP) attending tertiary hospitals in Osun State, southwestern Nigeria. A total of...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - September 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Intranasal Peste des petits ruminants virus vaccination of goats using Irvingia gabonensis gum as delivery system: hematological and humoral immune responses.
Authors: Ezeasor C, Shoyinka S, Emikpe B, Bodjo C PMID: 32970525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - September 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Competitive immunochromatographic test strips for the rapid semi-quantitative analysis of the biologically active bitter glycoside, amarogentin.
Authors: Nuntawong P, Lohseethong K, Juengwatanatrakul T, Yusakul G, Putalun W, Tanaka H, Sakamoto S, Morimoto S Abstract Amarogentin (AG), a biologically active secoiridoid glycoside, is responsible for the efficacy of Gentianaceae based medications. Thus, qualitative and quantitative analyses of AG are of significance for batch to batch quality control purposes. By conjugating colloidal gold nanoparticles with the AG-specific monoclonal antibody, MAb 1E9, we were able to develop a single-step competitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for simple quantification of the AG content in plant samples. With a limit o...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - September 9, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Design and evaluation of scFv-RTX-A as a novel immunotoxin for breast cancer treatment: an in silico approach.
Authors: Samavarchi Tehrani S, Gharibi S, Movahedpour A, Goodarzi G, Jamali Z, Khatami SH, Maniati M, Ranjbar M, Shabaninejad Z, Savardashtaki A, Taheri-Anganeh M Abstract Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in breast cancer (BC) patients. Hence, immunotherapy is a proper treatment option for HER2-positive BC patients. Accumulating evidence has indicated that immunotoxin therapy is a novel approach to improve the potency of targeted therapy. Immunotoxins are antibodies or antibody fragments coupled with a toxin. We designed an immunotoxin. The physicochemical properties were evaluated u...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 29, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

High Viral Hepatitis Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital Ibadan (AMTHI) Oyo State, Nigeria.
This study aimed to determine the viral hepatitis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, AMTHI. Informed consent questionnaire was administered before blood collection via venipuncture. a total of 904 pregnant women plasma samples were tested for HBV, HCV, and HEV using ELISA kit. Data was analyzed using packages within SPSS software and P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Out of 904 samples analyzed, the overall prevalence of hepatitis infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in AMTHI was 66(7.3%). High prevalence of the hepatitis infections was found among young women within the age grou...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

β-arrestin 1 transfection induced cell death in high grade glioma in vitro.
In conclusion, we showed that β-arr 1 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation in the 18 cell line but only has a very modest effect on treatment response with the alkylating agent TMZ. PMID: 32807003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Peripheral blood hematology, plasma biochemistry, and the optimization of an in vitro immune-based assay in the brown watersnake (Nerodia taxispilota).
Authors: Haskins DL, Brown MK, Meichner K, Tuberville TD, Gogal RM Abstract Reptiles represent a phylogenetic lineage that provides a unique link between ectothermic anamniotes and endothermic amniotes. Compared to mammalian and avian species, our understanding of the reptilian immune system is greatly lacking. This gap in knowledge is largely due to an absence of established immune-based assays or specific reagents for these species. In the present study, brown watersnakes (Nerodia taxispilota) were live-captured in the wild, sexed, weighed, measured, bled via the caudal vein, and released. At 24 hr post-coll...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

The effect of smoking on latent tuberculosis infection susceptibility in high risk individuals in Iran.
This study is the first to analyze the relationship between smoking in patients with respiratory diseases and LTBI susceptibility in Iran by IGRAs, which proposes cigarette smoking as a powerful risk factor for LTBI. PMID: 32799615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 19, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

An enzyme immunoassay for determining albumin in human urine samples using an ultra-microanalytical system.
Authors: Del Valle R, Cazanave Mora JM, Carrazana San Martín NL, Hernández Pérez L, Legrá Torres ME, López Cisneros R, Ordaz Ramos RP, Rodríguez AM, Valdivia Álvarez I Abstract Microalbuminuria is a term to describe a moderate increase in the level of albumin in urine. It is an important prognostic marker for kidney damage in diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. A simple sandwich-type ultramicroELISA assay (UMELISA) has been developed for the measurement of albumin in human urine samples. Strips coated with a high affinity monoclonal antibody directed...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 19, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis based on recombinant antigens B8/1 and B8/2 of Echinococcus granulosus.
CONCLUSION: Simultaneous usage of AgB8/1 and AgB8/2 increased the test sensitivity for the diagnosis of CE. Furthermore, the specificity of AgB8/1 and AgB8/2 combination was more than AgB8/1 and equal to AgB8/2 alone. The findings revealed that the simultaneous usage of AgB8/1 and AgB8/2 could be a suitable approach for the diagnosis of CE. PMID: 32795213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 17, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

A possible risk of environmental exposure to HEV in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Authors: Olayinka A, Ifeorah IM, Omotosho O, Faleye TOC, Odukaye O, Bolaji O, Ibitoye I, Ope-Ewe O, Adewumi MO, Adeniji JA Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is both a major public health concern and emerging global health concern, with a documented incidence of 20 million, 3.4 million clinical cases, 70,000 deaths, and 3,000 stillbirths. The aetiologic agent, HEV is a primarily enterally transmitted hepatotropic virus. Fecal samples were collected from three selected pig farms across Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. Randomly picked samples were pooled per unit pen and fecal suspensions prepared were subjected t...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - August 14, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical expression of BCAP 31 in chronic plaque psoriasis.
Authors: Abdou AG, Diab A, Marae A Abstract Psoriasis is a common chronic skin inflammatory disease characterized by an exaggerated proliferation of keratinocytes. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BCAP 31) plays critical roles in induction of proliferation and apoptosis. The current study aimed at evaluation of the immunohistochemical localization of BCAP 31 in psoriatic skin compared to normal skin in addition of correlating BCAP31 expression with the clinical and pathological parameters of psoriasis. The present study was carried out on skin biopsies from 30 psoriatic patients and 10 normal skin (control gr...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - July 3, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Evaluation of two (02) platforms for chemiluminescence-based detection of anti-rubella IgG antibodies in a sub-Saharan country, C ôte d'Ivoire.
This study aimed to evaluate two chemiluminescence platforms, Architect i2000SR and Maglumi 800 for rubella biological diagnosis in Côte d'Ivoire. Blood samples were taken from 113 pregnant women aged 15 to 30 in prenatal care. Samples were analyzed for Rubella IgG detection at the NBTS laboratory on the evaluated platforms and the Cobas e601 used as a reference. The majority of women were in their second trimester of pregnancy. Among them, only 13.3% were vaccinated against rubella. The evaluated platforms showed good precision with coefficients of variation>10%. Regarding analytical performances, sensitivities w...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - July 1, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Classifying multiple lung cancers using morphological features: a meta-analysis.
Authors: Mlika M, Zorgati M, Mezni FE Abstract Multiple lung cancers may be intrapulmonary metastases or multiple primaries. Management and prognosis of both entities are different and make the pathologist's role challenging. In fact, distinguishing both entities may be difficult especially when the tumors present the same microscopic subtype. The microscopic diagnoses of these tumors have been improved based on the 2015 WHO classification. The aim of the authors was to assess the diagnostic value of morphologic features in comparison to the gold standard test represented by molecular testing in the distinction bet...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - June 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Bilirubin binding affects the structure and function of alpha-2-macroglobulin.
Authors: Ali SS, Zia MK, Siddiqui T, Ahsan H, Khan FH Abstract Bilirubin is an endogenous antioxidant that is a metabolite of the heme in red blood cells (RBC). In blood, bilirubin is associated with albumin to form a water-soluble complex, known as unconjugated bilirubin. Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) is a proteinase inhibitor found in the plasma of vertebrates. In the present study, we have investigated the interaction of photo-illuminated bilirubin with serum α2M using various biophysical and thermodynamic techniques. The binding of bilirubin to α2M leads to various functional and structural chan...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - June 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices antigens in the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ELISA in the diagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis (CE), using parasite protoscolices antigens. Liver hydatid cysts were isolated from sheep infected with hydatid cysts and the protoscolices were isolated from the hydatid cyst fluid. Protoscolices crude antigen was prepared by mechanical disruption, plus freeze-thawing and sonication methods. Thirty sera samples of confirmed hydatid cyst patients, 30 samples of healthy individuals, and 30 samples of people with other infections were collected and the samples were evaluated in an ELISA system, using the crude protoscolices ant...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - June 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Dominant IgM synthesis against the soluble form of the prevailing variant surface glycoprotein from TeAp-N/D1 Trypanosoma equiperdum throughout the experimental acute infections of horses with non-tsetse transmitted Trypanozoon parasites.
Authors: Uzcanga GL, Bubis J Abstract Two horses were infected with distinct non-tsetse transmitted Trypanozoon Venezuelan stocks, namely TeAp-N/D1 Trypanosoma equiperdum and TeAp-El Frio01 Trypanosoma evansi. Preceding reports have revealed that a 64-kDa antigenic glycopolypeptide (p64), which is the soluble form of the predominant variant surface glycoprotein from TeAp-N/D1 T. equiperdum, can be used as a good antigen for immunodiagnosis of animal trypanosomosis. Here, the course of the experimental acute infection in both horses was monitored by evaluating total anti-p64 IgG and particular anti-p6...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - June 13, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Antibodies to oxidized lipoproteins in human normal plasma, detection and analysis.
Authors: Gasparyan VK, Mikaelyan MV, Poghosyan GG Abstract In the article, presence of antibodies to protein components of oxidized human donor plasma was demonstrated. It was shown that normal plasma oxidized by CuCl2, FeSO4, or potassium ferricyanide acquired ability to bind with human IgG-sensitized polystyrene latex particles and colloidal gold nanoparticles. Ability of these antibodies to bind to oxidized components strongly depends on time of oxidation. Moreover, Sepharose 2B conjugated with human IgG has affinity to component of such plasma. Molecular weight analysis demonstrates that this component eluted a...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - June 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Mast cell activation markers for in vitro study.
Authors: Sahid MNA, Kiyoi T Abstract Mast cells (MCs) are well known for their role in allergic conditions. This cell can be activated by various types of secretagogues, ranging from a small chemical to a huge protein. Mast cell activation by secretagogues triggers the increase in intracellular calcium (iCa2+) concentration, granule trafficking, and exocytosis. Activated mast cells release their intra-granular pre-stored mediator or the newly synthesized mediator in the exocytosis process, in the form of degranulation or secretion. There are at least three types of exocytosis in mast cells, which are suggested to c...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - June 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Inflammation, diet, and type 2 diabetes: a mini-review.
Authors: Jafaripour S, Sedighi S, Jokar MH, Aghaei M, Moradzadeh M Abstract Inflammation is a common feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inflammatory cytokines increase in patients with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease. Various types of cells can produce inflammatory cytokines and then release them into the bloodstream, where their complex interactions with target tissues raise a tissue-specific immune response. This review focused on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α as an inflammatory cytokine, and adiponectin produced by adipose tissues. Despite the major role of c...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - May 15, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Diagnostic utility of serum dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP- IV) /CD26 as a serum marker in Egyptian patients with colorectal cancer.
Conclusion: CD26 is involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal diseases; sCD26 is diminished in CRC patients suggesting the potential utility of a sCD26 for diagnosis. PMID: 32223519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - April 2, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Comparative studies of rubella virus immunity of immunized and non-immunized pregnant women visiting Kogi State University Teaching Hospital, Anyigba, North Central Nigeria.
Authors: O Okolo ML, Omatola CA, Ogbonnaya O, Odama LE, Bello KE, Idache BM, Ekuma OU Abstract Rubella is endemic worldwide and poses a serious threat to infants and pregnant women. Although the disease has been widely reported in parts of the country, there is currently no documented evidence of the disease in Anyigba. A comparative study of rubella immunity was conducted among immunized and non-immunized pregnant women visiting the Kogi State University Teaching Hospital, Anyigba. In a cross-sectional study, blood samples collected from 300 pregnant women (immunized = 127; non-immunized = 173)...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - March 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Plexin-B2 in psoriasis; a clinical and immunohistochemical study.
Authors: Hemida AS, Mareae AH, Elbasiony ASA, Shehata WA Abstract Psoriasis is an inflammatory, immune-mediated disease. Plexins are transmembrane proteins that are involved in immune system regulation and inflammation. This work aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Plexin-B2 in plaque psoriasis in both lesional and perilesional skin. This case-control study included 30 patients with psoriasis vulgaris in comparison with 20 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy persons. We used the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score to evaluate psoriasis severity. Biopsies from 30 lesional, 30 pe...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - March 19, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Cultural, histochemical, and immunohistochemical detection of pathogenic Leptospira species in the kidneys of cattle slaughtered in two abattoirs in Southwest Nigeria.
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira organism in renal tissues of slaughtered cattle from two major abattoirs in southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and seventy (170) kidney samples of different breeds, ages, and sexes were collected and examined using cultural isolation, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), Warthin silver (WSs) impregnation and immunohistochemistry (IH). Chi-square test was used with a confidence level set at 0.05 to ascertain associations between positive cases and sex, age, and breed. One hundred and thirty (76.5%) of the kidney samples were culturally positive whi...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - March 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Significance of Luminex-based single antigen class II bead assay and its mean fluorescence intensity in renal transplant cases; a retrospective observation in 97 cases.
The objective of this study was to determine the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values of class II Luminex single antigen bead (L-SAB) assay and compare these MFI values with cell-based complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch with anti-human globulin (CDC-AHG-XM) and IgG-B-cell flow cytometry crossmatch (FC-XM) results and explore the near-accurate MFI-cutoff values of positive cell-based crossmatch results. This retrospective study was an analysis in 97 renal transplant recipients, who were tested for the presence of DSA by CDC-AHG-XM and IgG-B-cell-FC-XM methods with their corresponding donor as well as for anti-...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - March 5, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Evaluation of mucoadhesive property and the effect of Boswellia carteri gum on intranasal vaccination against small ruminant morbillivirus infection (PPR).
Authors: Mumin FI, Emikpe BO, Odeniyi D Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate mucoadhesive property and immunomodulatory effect of phytogenic gums from Boswellia frereana, Boswellia carteri andCommiphora myrrha on intranasal Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination in goats and sheep in an ex-vivo and in-vivo situations. Plant gums were purified, dried and compressed into 500gm tablets. Modified shear stress measurement technique was used on freshly excised trachea and intestine tissues of goat to measure peak adhesion time. Forty eight animals (24 goats and 24 sheep) were divided into eight groups (of 3 g...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - March 3, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

The effect of Hepatitis D co-infection on the immunologic and molecular profile of Hepatitis B in asymptomatic Chronic Hepatitis B patients in southwest Nigeria.
Conclusion: The prevalence of HDV-Ag among asymptomatic treatment naïve chronic hepatitis B patients in Abeokuta was 11% and there was no significant difference in the levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg among those with or without hepatitis D. PMID: 32096684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - February 27, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Pathology and immunohistochemical evaluation of lungs of cattle slaughtered at metropolitan abattoirs in Nigeria and Ghana.
Authors: Ola OO, Adeniran GA, Opoku-Agyemang T, Bediako E, Ishola O, Jarikre TA, Emikpe BO Abstract There was a dearth of information on pathology and causal agents of bovine pneumonia in West Africa. This cross-sectional study conducted at four major metropolitan abattoirs in Nigeria and Ghana was to evaluate the pathology and to immunohistochemically demonstrates viral and bacterial pathogens of bovine pneumonia in West Africa. Out of the 20,605 cattle lungs examined at post-mortem using standard inspection procedures, 136 samples grossly showed pneumonic lesions and 99 randomly selected lung samples were fixed i...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - February 25, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Moroccan lymphocyte subsets reference ranges: age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic factors dependent differences.
This study provides reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets of healthy Moroccan adults. These results can be used for other North African (Maghrebian) countries considering their geographic, ethnic, economic, and cultural similarities. PMID: 32065027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - February 19, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in ophthalmic disorders.
Authors: Ahmad A, Ahsan H Abstract The review article focuses on free radicals and oxidative stress involved in ophthalmological diseases such as retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, etc. Oxidative stress is considered as a key factor involved in the pathology of many chronic diseases including ophthalmic complication and inflammatory process. Oxidative stress and inflammation are closely related pathophysiological processes and are simultaneously found in many pathological conditions. The free radicals produced oxidize cellular components such as lipids and phospholipids leading to lipid peroxidation and trigger the o...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - February 14, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in slaughtered sheep and goats at Kumasi Abattoir, Ghana.
This study was therefore conducted to provide evidence of exposure of sheep and goats slaughtered at the Kumasi Abattoir to Coxiella burnetii. A total of 350 serum samples collected from 175 sheep and 175 goats were analyzed for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit (ID Vet). Results of the study established a seroprevalence of 28.57% in goats, 16.57% in sheep and an overall seroprevalence of 22.29% in sheep and goats; 20.57% for male sheep, 23.86% for female sheep, 26.44% for male goats and 30.68% for female goats. Results showed that goats are more at risk to the infection than sheep however...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - February 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

HIV coinfections with tuberculosis among HIV-1 infected individuals in old cross river state, Nigeria.
This study evaluated the HIV/TB co-infection rate among HIV-1 infected individuals in old Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of 417 HIV-infected individuals participated in this study, 241 (57.8%) from Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria and 176 (42.2%) from Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The age range of the 417 HIV-1 positive individuals who participated in the study was 4-72 years with an average age of 39.1 years. Plasma samples were analyzed for HIV and TB using fourth-generation Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay. The CD4 count was enumerated using the Partec CyFlow® Counter. Plasma viral loads (PVL) we...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - January 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Detection of Hepatitis C virus and the risk of transmission among pregnant and nursing mothers from rural and urban communities in Kogi State, Nigeria.
Authors: Ifeorah IM, Bakarey AS, Akubo AO, Onyemelukwe FN Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with liver complicated diseases resulting in end-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Although vertical transmission from mother to child serves as one of the routes of HCV acquisition in children, yet HCV infection in pregnant women and children is still underappreciated in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, this study investigated the burden of HCV, associated risk factors, and viremia among antenatal and postnatal clinic attendees in the rural and urban communities of Kogi State, Nigeria. Atotal of 176 blood samples w...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - January 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin G amplifies the production of regulatory rheumatoid factor in vitro through idiotype-anti-idiotype interactions.
Authors: Beduleva L, Stolyarova E, Sidorov A, Khramova T, Terentiev A, Menshikov I, Abisheva N, Snigiryev A, Fomina K Abstract Immunoglobulin G can inhibit antibody response. The mechanism of immunosuppression by immunoglobulins remains unknown. Recently, we found a new factor of immunoregulation referred to as regulatory rheumatoid factor (regRF). RegRF prevents autoimmunity and reduces experimental autoimmune reactions. RegRF comprises a population of anti-idiotypic antibodies that have a unique paratope specific to the antigen-binding sites of the antibodies, and a shared paratope specific to neoepitopes of IgG ...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - January 15, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Development of in-house RIA kit for progesterone in cow's skim milk.
Authors: Benabdelaziz A, Boudjemai S, Khelili R, Besbaci M, Kaidi R Abstract A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for progesterone has been developed. It has been validated for the determination of progesterone in cow skim milk. The main reagents used in the development work were prepared and characterized in-house. The assay uses a radioiodinated tracer purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25, standards prepared in skim milk and coated tubes with specific antibodies as the solid phase (separation system). The radiochemical purity of the tracer was greater than 95%, the maximum binding using solid phase reached 43% ...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - January 1, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Immunological and epidemiological evaluation of EBV infections among HIV-1 infected individuals in Abakaliki, Nigeria supports the potential use of neutrophils as a marker of EBV in HIV disease progression and as useful markers of immune activation.
Authors: Okonko IO, Makinde TS, Okonko BJ, Ogbu O Abstract Human herpesvirus 4 which is commonly known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the opportunistic pathogens that affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals and it is the leading cause of death and cancer in humans. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of EBV among HIV-1 infected individuals in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of 91 HIV-1 infected individuals were collected from Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. ELISA was used to determine the Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) IgG and ...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - January 1, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Determination of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 & 2 & O and P24 - antigen in pregnant women in port harcourt Nigeria.
Determination of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1&2&O and P24 - antigen in pregnant women in port harcourt Nigeria. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2019 Dec 28;:1-11 Authors: Okonko IO, Okoli EM Abstract The need for a cure against HIV infection and a need to improve HIV screening amongst low risk population such as pregnant women have been an issue since the emergence of HIV. Therefore, a hospital-based cross-sectional study was adopted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to HIV-1/2/O and P24 antigen among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Estimating the HIV seropositi...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - January 1, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Viral hepatitis B and C co-infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus among adult patients attending selected highly active anti-retroviral therapy clinics in Nigeria's capital.
This study determined the seroprevalence of HIV co-infection with the two viruses among patients attending three major hospitals in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. From February to July 2019, 311 sera samples were collected from HIV positive patients and screened for Hepatitis B and C infection. Immunochromatographic and ELISA techniques for HBsAg and HCV were used. Socio-demographic features and responses to risk factors were obtained using questionnaires. Patients' data and results obtained were analyzed with SPSS version 25. The prevalence of HIV/HBV/HCV, HIV/HBV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 0.64%, 6.43%, and ...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - December 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in alcohol use disorder.
In this study, we compared complete blood count values of 31 AUD male patients and 31 healthy male controls. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of PLR (p = .123). When the age was controlled, there was a negative correlation between the duration of alcohol use and PLR (r = -0.567; p = .005). The significance of the parameters in the AUD group was found to be related to the duration of alcohol use. PMID: 31842683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry)
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - December 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Comparison of two therapeutic approaches for the management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter: a randomized clinical trial study.
Authors: Khorvash F, Yaghoubi S, Farsaei S, Ataei B, Hakamifard A, Mohajeri F, Gudarzi M Abstract Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a puzzling issue for infectious disease specialist. The present clinical trial study was aimed to comparing the effects of injectable colistin plus nebulized colistin and injectable colistin plus nebulized tobramycin on management of patients with VAP due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. VAP patients were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30/each): Group 1 - patients that received intravenous (IV) meropenem, injectable colistin plus nebulized colistin...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - November 30, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research

Semi-solid phase assay for the alternative complement pathway activity assessment (AP100).
Authors: Kerboua KE, Djenouhat K Abstract Since the introduction of the most expensive drug in the world (Eculizumab) in the therapeutic arsenal of many diseases involving the alternative complement pathway (ACP) in their pathophysiology, the unmet need to perform simple ACP assays affordable for all countries has become one of the major challenges of the contemporary medicine. The assay currently used is AH50, despite it still challenging for several laboratories. This educational chapter consists of a detail protocol of standardized hemolytic assay AP100 and aims to help clinical laboratories over the world and e...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - November 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research