Walk on the wild side: the complexity of free-living mobility assessment
A recent study quantified free-living (community) mobility using subjective questionnaires.1 The authors found no useful information from their free-living mobility data. This can be attributed to the limited methodology, more likely overcome with standardised objective approaches. Are inertial sensor-based (accelerometer/gyroscope) wearables the viable solution? They promise the next step in monitoring: unobtrusive, objective, continuous and pervasive. However, lack of clinically appropriate (sensitive/specific) algorithms has hindered advances. Often, attempts to instrument mobility in the context of physical activity (e...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hickey, A., Stuart, S., O'Donovan, K., Godfrey, A. Tags: Letters to the editor Source Type: research

Integrated knowledge translation: digging deeper, moving forward
Conclusions We explore some of these challenges and benefits in detail to help researchers understand what integrated knowledge translation means, and whether the approach's potential added value is worth the investment of time, energy and other resources. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kothari, A., Wathen, C. N. Tags: Essay Source Type: research

Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides?
Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ~100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs. We conclude that current safe...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vandenberg, L. N., Blumberg, B., Antoniou, M. N., Benbrook, C. M., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L. G., Hansen, M., Landrigan, P. J., Lanphear, B. P., Mesnage, R., vom Saal, F. S., Welshons, W. V., Myers, J. P. Tags: Open access, Press releases Essay Source Type: research

Workplace social capital and the onset of major depressive episode among workers in Japan: a 3-year prospective cohort study
This study examined the prospective association of workplace social capital (WSC) with major depressive episode (MDE) among Japanese employees. Methods A 3-year prospective cohort study was conducted among 1058 employees from a private think-tank company who participated in a baseline survey; after excluding those with MDE in the past 12 months, 929 were followed up. WSC at baseline was measured using a 3-item scale. MDE was assessed at baseline and at follow-up every year, by using a web-based, self-administered version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) 3.0 depression section, based ...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sakuraya, A., Imamura, K., Inoue, A., Tsutsumi, A., Shimazu, A., Takahashi, M., Totsuzaki, T., Kawakami, N. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Does the risk of hospitalisation for ischaemic heart disease rise already before widowhood?
Conclusions These findings indicate that men are already vulnerable to cardiac problems before the death of a wife. Medical interventions and health counselling could be targeted to the husbands of terminally ill patients, in order to improve their cardiovascular health over the transition to widowhood. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Einiö, E., Moustgaard, H., Martikainen, P., Leinonen, T. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Diagnoses of sexual abuse and their common registered comorbidities in the total population of Stockholm
Conclusions Diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse, psychotic, bipolar, stress anxiety disorders, depression and somatic pain are more common among individuals with a diagnosis of sexual abuse than among individuals without a diagnosis of sexual abuse. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rajan, G., Ljunggren, G., Wändell, P., Wahlström, L., Svedin, C.-G., Carlsson, A. C. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Income and functional limitations among the aged in Europe: a trend analysis in 16 countries
Conclusions High-income groups are more in favour of the observed overall decline in functional limitations than deprived groups. Results point to potential income-related inequalities in compression of morbidity in the recent past in Europe. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: von dem Knesebeck, O., Vonneilich, N., Lüdecke, D. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Associations between specific autoimmune diseases and subsequent dementia: retrospective record-linkage cohort study, UK
Objective To determine whether hospital admission for autoimmune disease is associated with an elevated risk of future admission for dementia. Methods Retrospective, record-linkage cohort study using national hospital care and mortality administrative data, 1999–2012. Cohorts of people admitted to hospital with a range of autoimmune diseases were constructed, along with a control cohort, and followed forward in time to see if they developed dementia. 1 833 827 people were admitted to hospital with an autoimmune disease; the number of people in cohorts for each autoimmune disease ranged from 1019 people in ...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wotton, C. J., Goldacre, M. J. Tags: Press releases Research reports Source Type: research

Explaining socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health: a systematic review of the relative contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors
Conclusions The evidence presented might be used for policymakers to identify and to justify prioritisation in terms of prevention and health promotion. The findings show that multiple factors are important for tackling social inequalities in health. Strategies for reducing these inequalities should focus on material/structural living conditions as they shape conditions of psychosocial resources and health behaviour. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Moor, I., Spallek, J., Richter, M. Tags: Screening (epidemiology), Health service research, Health promotion, Screening (public health), Sociology SES [amp ] health Source Type: research

Are the poverty histories of neighbourhoods associated with psychosocial well-being among a representative sample of California mothers? An observational study
Conclusions Policies aimed at reducing neighbourhood poverty may improve mothers' psychosocial well-being. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Walsemann, K. M., Child, S., Heck, K., Margerison-Zilko, C., Braveman, P., Marchi, K., Cubbin, C. Tags: Editor's choice SES [amp ] health Source Type: research

Sex differences in the relationship between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions Reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in CHD and CVD outcomes might require different approaches for men and women. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Backholer, K., Peters, S. A. E., Bots, S. H., Peeters, A., Huxley, R. R., Woodward, M. Tags: SES [amp ] health Source Type: research

Ethnicity-specific factors influencing childhood immunisation decisions among Black and Asian Minority Ethnic groups in the UK: a systematic review of qualitative research
Conclusions Factors related to ethnicity must be considered when seeking to understand immunisation decisions among parents from BAME backgrounds. Where appropriate and feasible, vaccination information should be targeted to address beliefs about ethnic differences held by some individuals from some BAME backgrounds. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Forster, A. S., Rockliffe, L., Chorley, A. J., Marlow, L. A. V., Bedford, H., Smith, S. G., Waller, J. Tags: Open access Ethnicity [amp ] health Source Type: research

Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution: a cross-sectional pooled study in Inuit, Africans and Europeans
Conclusions Conventional anthropometric measures like BMI and waist circumference do not reflect the same amount of VAT and SAT across ethnic groups. Thus, the obesity level at which Inuit and Africans are at increased cardiometabolic risk is likely to differ from that of Europeans. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ronn, P. F., Andersen, G. S., Lauritzen, T., Christensen, D. L., Aadahl, M., Carstensen, B., Jorgensen, M. E. Tags: Ethnicity [amp ] health Source Type: research

Can environmental improvement change the population distribution of walking?
Conclusions Environmental improvement encouraged the less active to take up walking for transport, as well as encouraging those who were already active to walk more. Further research should disentangle the role of socioeconomic characteristics in determining use of new environments and changes in walking. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Panter, J., Ogilvie, D., on behalf of the iConnect consortium Tags: Open access Physical activity Source Type: research

Levels and sociodemographic correlates of accelerometer-based physical activity in Irish children: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions PA levels differed by individual factors including age, gender and weight status as well as by environmental factors including residence and daylight length. Less than one-quarter of children (26.8% boys, 16.2% girls) meet guidelines. Effective intervention policies are urgently needed to increase PA. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Li, X., Kearney, P. M., Keane, E., Harrington, J. M., Fitzgerald, A. P. Tags: Physical activity Source Type: research

Effects of estimated completion time and unconditional gift certificates on questionnaire response
Obtaining a high response rate is important to reduce selection bias. Some strategies, including prenotification, monetary incentives and shorter questionnaires, may increase response rates, whereas other strategies have no or unclear effects.1 We determined whether the estimated completion time and/or an unconditional gift certificate affect questionnaire response. Pregnant women participating in the PRIDE Study were asked to fill out a postal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) after completing the web-based baseline questionnaire.2 We employed three strategies to increase response rates in succession: (1) underestimation...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: van Gelder, M. M. H. J., Geuijen, P. M., de Vries, J. H. M., Roeleveld, N. Tags: Letters to the editor Source Type: research

Effectiveness of mass distribution of nicotine patches to promote tobacco control in rural versus urban settings
Smoking rates are higher in rural than in urban settings.1 Further, access to healthcare and tobacco cessation programmes is challenging in rural areas because of lower population density and large geographic distances.2 Thus, tobacco cessation initiatives that overcome these barriers are needed to address the disparity in healthcare provision in rural settings.3 4 One such option is the distribution of nicotine patches by postal mail. However, is there evidence to suggest that such programmes might be effective in rural settings? Secondary analyses were conducted of a recently completed randomised controlled trial (RCT) o...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cunningham, J. A., Kushnir, V. Tags: Letters to the editor Source Type: research

Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary
Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Moore, S., Kawachi, I. Tags: Glossary Source Type: research

Health insurance coverage, neonatal mortality and caesarean section deliveries: an analysis of vital registration data in Colombia
Conclusions Health insurance through the contributory system is associated with lower neonatal mortality than insurance through the subsidised system or lack of insurance. Universal health insurance may not be sufficient to close the gap in newborn mortality between socioeconomic groups. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Houweling, T. A. J., Arroyave, I., Burdorf, A., Avendano, M. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Mortality and morbidity Evidence-based public health policy and practice Source Type: research

Longitudinal study of weight, energy intake and physical activity change across two decades in older Scottish women
Background The perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods are times of pronounced physiological change in body mass index (BMI), physical activity and energy intake. Understanding these changes in middle age could contribute to formation of potential public health targets. Method A longitudinal cohort of 5119 perimenopausal women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) recruited between 1990 and 1994, with follow-up visits at 1997–1999 and 2009–2011. At each visit, participants were weighed, measured and completed socioeconomic and demographic questionnaires. Participants at the first...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yang, T. C., Gryka, A. A., Aucott, L. S., Duthie, G. G., Macdonald, H. M. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Do differences in religious affiliation explain high levels of excess mortality in the UK?
Conclusions Differences in religious affiliation do not explain the higher mortality rates in Scotland compared with the rest of the UK. However, it is possible that other aspects of religion such as religiosity or religious participation which were not assessed here may still be important. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ralston, K., Walsh, D., Feng, Z., Dibben, C., McCartney, G., O'Reilly, D. Tags: Editor's choice Research reports Source Type: research

Inequalities in tobacco outlet density by race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, 2012, USA: results from the ASPiRE Study
Conclusions Data from a large sample of US counties and results from 2 techniques to address spatial dependence strengthen evidence of inequalities in tobacco outlet density by race and income. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to strengthen interventions. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lee, J. G. L., Sun, D. L., Schleicher, N. M., Ribisl, K. M., Luke, D. A., Henriksen, L. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Demographic factors, workplace factors and active transportation use in the USA: a secondary analysis of 2009 NHTS data
Background While active transportation has health, economic and environmental benefits, participation within the USA is low. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships of demographic and workplace factors with health-enhancing active transportation and commuting. Methods Participants in the 2009 National Household Travel Survey reported demographics, workplace factors (time/distance to work, flextime availability, option to work from home and work start time) and active transportation (for any purpose) or commuting (to and from work, workers only) as walking or biking (≥10 min bouts only). Multiple logi...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Quinn, T. D., Jakicic, J. M., Fertman, C. I., Barone Gibbs, B. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

How voter turnout varies between different chronic conditions? A population-based register study
Conclusions By showing how different health conditions are related to voter turnout, this study provides essential information for identifying gaps in the potential for political participation and for further inquiries aiming to develop models that explain the link between health and voting probability. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sund, R., Lahtinen, H., Wass, H., Mattila, M., Martikainen, P. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Urban-rural differences in cancer-directed surgery and survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer
Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Clinically appropriate cancer-directed surgery is an influential and significant prognostic factor. In a population-based study, we determined how urban/rural residence was related to surgery receipt for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We assessed the relationship between relative survival and patients' area of residence, taking into account surgery receipt and area socioeconomic level. Methods We extracted data from the National Cancer Registry Ireland on patients with non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed during 1994–2011 and linked to...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Thomas, A. A., Pearce, A., O'Neill, C., Molcho, M., Sharp, L. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Mortality and morbidity, Population-base studies Research reports Source Type: research

Visualising and quantifying 'excess deaths in Scotland compared with the rest of the UK and the rest of Western Europe
Conclusions Worsening mortality among young adults in the past 30 years reversed a relative advantage evident for those born between 1950 and 1960. Compared with rWE, Scotland and rUK have followed similar trends but Scotland has started from a worse position and had worse working age–period effects in the 1990s and 2000s. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Minton, J., Shaw, R., Green, M. A., Vanderbloemen, L., Popham, F., McCartney, G. Tags: Open access Research reports Source Type: research

Association of perceived ethnic discrimination with general and abdominal obesity in ethnic minority groups: the HELIUS study
Conclusions Ethnic and sex variations are observed in the association of PED with both general and abdominal obesity. Further research on psychosocial buffers and underlying biological mechanisms might help in understanding these variations. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schmengler, H., Ikram, U. Z., Snijder, M. B., Kunst, A. E., Agyemang, C. Tags: Ethnicity [amp ] health Source Type: research

Minority stress factors as mediators of sexual orientation disparities in mental health treatment: a longitudinal population-based study
Conclusions This study shows a substantially elevated risk of poor mental health among LGB individuals as compared with heterosexuals. Findings support several factors outlined in the minority stress theory in explaining the mechanisms behind these disparities. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bränström, R. Tags: Open access Ethnicity [amp ] health Source Type: research

Relationship between employment histories and frailty trajectories in later life: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Conclusions For women, experiencing distinct periods throughout the lifecourse of either work or family care may be advantageous for lessening frailty risk in later life. For men, leaving paid employment before 65 years seems to be beneficial for decelerating increases in frailty thereafter. Continuous full-time work until retirement age conferred no long-term health benefits. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lu, W., Benson, R., Glaser, K., Platts, L. G., Corna, L. M., Worts, D., McDonough, P., Di Gessa, G., Price, D., Sacker, A. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Longitudinal studies, Open access Work [amp ] health Source Type: research

Is being in paid work beyond state pension age beneficial for health? Evidence from England using a life-course approach
Conclusions Potential health benefits of working beyond SPA need to be considered in the light of the fact that those who report good health and are more socioeconomically advantaged are more likely to be working beyond SPA to begin with. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Di Gessa, G., Corna, L. M., Platts, L. G., Worts, D., McDonough, P., Sacker, A., Price, D., Glaser, K. Tags: Open access Work [amp ] health Source Type: research

Payback time? Influence of having children on mortality in old age
Conclusions Having children is associated with increased longevity, particularly in an absolute sense in old age. That the association increased with parents' age and was somewhat stronger for the non-married may suggest that social support is a possible explanation. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Modig, K., Talbäck, M., Torssander, J., Ahlbom, A. Tags: Open access, Press releases Parental status [amp ] health Source Type: research

Self-rated health and mental health of lone fathers compared with lone mothers and partnered fathers: a population-based cross-sectional study
Conclusions In this large population-based study, lone fathers had worse self-rated health and mental health than partnered fathers and similarly poor self-rated health and mental health as lone mothers. Interventions, supports and social policies designed for single parents should also recognise the needs of lone fathers. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chiu, M., Rahman, F., Kurdyak, P., Cairney, J., Jembere, N., Vigod, S. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Cross-sectional studies, Population-base studies, Sociology Parental status [amp ] health Source Type: research

What can large population-based birth cohort study ask about past, present and future of children with disorders of development, learning and behaviour?
A large cohort consisting of all children born to mothers from community provides ‘natural’ selection into different exposures and is a powerful resource for epidemiological research. A large population-based birth cohort with detailed systematic information already recorded, as part of longitudinal medical care, historical and current school data, detailed birth certificate data and all three resources available for every member of the birth cohort, are extremely rare. Our population-based birth cohort consists of all children born between 1976 and 2000 to mothers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, at the ...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Myers, S. M., Voigt, R. G., Yoshimasu, K., Stoeckel, R. E., Weaver, A. L. Tags: Theory and methods Source Type: research

What is policy and where do we look for it when we want to research it?
Public health researchers are increasingly concerned with achieving ‘upstream’ change to achieve reductions in the global burden of disease and health inequalities. Consequently, understanding policy and how to change it has become a central goal of public health. Yet conceptualisation of what constitutes policy and where it can be found is very limited within this field. Our glossary demonstrates that policy is many headed. It is located in a vast array of documents, discussions dialogues and actions which can be captured variously by formal and informal forms of documentation and observation. Effectively unde...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Crammond, B., Carey, G. Tags: Glossary Source Type: research

Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighbourhood social environment and smoking behaviour: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis
Conclusions Results suggest that neighbourhood social context influences whether older adults smoke, but does not promote smoking cessation or reduction over time. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mayne, S. L., Auchincloss, A. H., Moore, K. A., Michael, Y. L., Tabb, L. P., Echeverria, S. E., Diez Roux, A. V. Tags: Smoking and tobacco, Health education, Health promotion, Smoking, Sociology Research reports Source Type: research

Socioeconomic differences in health check-ups and medically certified sickness absence: a 10-year follow-up among middle-aged municipal employees in Finland
Conclusions Age-based health check-ups reduced subsequent sickness absence and should be promoted. Attendance to health check-ups should be as high as possible. Contextual factors need to be taken into account when applying the results in interventions in other settings. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Piha, K., Sumanen, H., Lahelma, E., Rahkonen, O. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Follow-up studies, Mortality and morbidity Research reports Source Type: research

Functional disability and social participation restriction associated with chronic conditions in middle-aged and older adults
Conclusions Our findings suggest that in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults, the impact of combinations of mental and physical chronic conditions on functional disability and social participation restriction is substantial and differed by gender and age. Recognising the differences in the drivers of PAR by gender and age group will ultimately increase the efficiency of clinical and public health interventions. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Griffith, L. E., Raina, P., Levasseur, M., Sohel, N., Payette, H., Tuokko, H., van den Heuvel, E., Wister, A., Gilsing, A., Patterson, C. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Trends in educational inequalities in premature mortality in Belgium between the 1990s and the 2000s: the contribution of specific causes of deaths
Conclusion Absolute inequalities decreased in men while increasing in women; relative inequalities increased in both sexes. The PAFs decomposition revealed that targeting mortality inequalities from lung cancer, IHD, COPD in both sexes, suicide in men and stroke in women would have the largest impact at population level. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Renard, F., Gadeyne, S., Devleesschauwer, B., Tafforeau, J., Deboosere, P. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Mortality and morbidity, Suicide (psychiatry), Health service research, Suicide (public health) Research reports Source Type: research

Sugar, dental caries and the incidence of acute rheumatic fever: a cohort study of Maori and Pacific children
Conclusions Dental caries is positively associated with the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in Māori and Pacific children. Sugar intake, an important risk factor for dental caries, is also likely to influence the aetiology of rheumatic fever. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Thornley, S., Marshall, R. J., Bach, K., Koopu, P., Reynolds, G., Sundborn, G., Ei, W. L. S. S. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Cohort studies, Mortality and morbidity Research reports Source Type: research

Impact of contaminated household environment on stunting in children aged 12-59 months in Burkina Faso
This study's objective was to assess the effect of contaminated environment on stunting in Burkina Faso, where stunting prevalence is persistently high. Methods Panel study of children aged 1–5 years in Kaya. Household socioeconomic characteristics, food needs and sanitary conditions were measured once, and child growth every year (2011–2014). Using multiple correspondence analysis and 12 questions and observations on water, sanitation, hygiene behaviours, yard cleanliness and animal proximity, we constructed a ‘contaminated environment’ index as a proxy of faecal-oral transmission exposure. A...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fregonese, F., Siekmans, K., Kouanda, S., Druetz, T., Ly, A., Diabate, S., Haddad, S. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Analyses of infectious disease patterns and drivers largely lack insights from social epidemiology: contemporary patterns and future opportunities
Conclusions The current landscape of infectious disease epidemiology could benefit from new approaches to understanding how the social and biophysical environment sustains transmission and exacerbates disparities. The framework of social epidemiology provides infectious disease researchers with such a perspective and research opportunity. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Noppert, G. A., Kubale, J. T., Wilson, M. L. Tags: Research reports Source Type: research

Long-term effects of youth unemployment on mental health: does an economic crisis make a difference?
Conclusions Youth unemployment is related to mental health problems, independent of the overall national rate of unemployment, which is important as the youth unemployment rates are currently at stable high level. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Thern, E., de Munter, J., Hemmingsson, T., Rasmussen, F. Tags: Open access, Editor's choice Research reports Source Type: research

Impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the health of Canadians: repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2013
Conclusions Statistically significant associations were observed between several negative health outcomes and the austerity period when compared with the precrisis period. Austerity has been linked to worsening health in other studies and represents an example of how the policy response can have greater detrimental impact on health than the financial crisis itself. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nour, S., Labonte, R., Bancej, C. Tags: Alcohol, Health education, Health promotion Research reports Source Type: research

Self-reported sleep disturbance and incidence of dementia in ageing men
Conclusions Self-reported frequent sleep disturbance in middle-aged men may relate to the development of dementia in later life. Having an APOE 4 genotype did not affect the relationship. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Luojus, M. K., Lehto, S. M., Tolmunen, T., Brem, A.-K., Lönnroos, E., Kauhanen, J. Tags: Smoking and tobacco, Alcohol, Health education, Health promotion, Smoking Research reports Source Type: research

Food insecurity and mental health: an analysis of routine primary care data of pregnant women in the Born in Bradford cohort
Conclusions Our study shows that food insecure women have worse mental health than food secure women, and that this difference is most pronounced for white British pregnant women. These findings provide evidence for concerns expressed by public health experts that food insecurity may become the next public health emergency. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Power, M., Uphoff, E., Kelly, B., Pickett, K. E. Tags: Ethnic studies Research reports Source Type: research

Residential segregation and mental health among Latinos in a nationally representative survey
Conclusions Among Latinos, increasing residential segregation was associated with less mental distress, and this association was moderated by gender. Findings suggest that MSA-level segregation measures may capture protective effects associated with living in Latino communities for mental health. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nobles, C. J., Valentine, S. E., Zepeda, E. D., Wang, Y., Ahles, E. M., Shtasel, D. L., Marques, L. Tags: Ethnic studies Research reports Source Type: research

Editorial note: Peckham versus Newton
The study by Peckham et al1 reporting a potential link between water fluoridation and hypothyroidism has attracted considerable interest, much of which was critical. Two commentaries published in the same issue as the original paper (Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, July 2015, Volume 69, Number 7) have described the weaknesses of the ecological design and the limitations of the data, noted some inconsistencies in the results and concluded that the results are unreliable and fail to demonstrate a causal link between water fluoridation and hypothyroidism.2 3 We are now publishing the response by Peckham et al to...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bobak, M., Dunn, J. R. Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? Comments on the authors' response to earlier criticism
Academic debate is healthy and helps us to clarify the evidence base for the interested reader. However, it is unusual for a peer-reviewed paper in a reputable journal to receive quite as much criticism as that which greeted publication of the paper by Peckham et al on fluoride and hypothyroidism.1 Two highly critical commentaries were published at the time.2 3 A subsequent review article4 in the Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice concluded that "this study is an ecologic one that has several significant flaws, making it almost meaningless with regard to assessing any possible association between water fluorida...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Newton, J. N., Verne, J., Dancox, M., Young, N. Tags: Open access Letters to the editor Source Type: research

Fluoride levels in drinking water and hypothyroidism: Response to Grimes and Newton et al
Grimes and Newton et al have made a number of criticisms of our paper, including that we misrepresent conclusions of the existing literature; do not adequately take account of confounding factors; have used arbitrary cut-offs in categorising the variables; and made an error in reporting the results of the model.1 2 We welcome the opportunity to respond to these criticisms and, in particular, address the claim made by Newton et al that we made an error in reporting the results of our model. We acknowledge the substantial problem of poor oral health that affects some children and adults in the UK and do not question that the...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - March 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Peckham, S., Lowery, D., Spencer, S. Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Alcohol advertising and public health: systems perspectives versus narrow perspectives
Conclusions A wide evidence base needs to be drawn on to provide a system-level overview of the relationship between alcohol advertising, advertising restrictions and consumption. Advertising aims to influence not just consumption, but also to influence awareness, attitudes and social norms; this is because advertising is a system-level intervention with multiple objectives. Given this, assessments of the effects of advertising restrictions which focus only on sales or consumption are insufficient and may be misleading. For this reason, previous systematic reviews, such as the 2014 Cochrane review on advertising restrictio...
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - February 9, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Petticrew, M., Shemilt, I., Lorenc, T., Marteau, T. M., Melendez-Torres, G. J., O'Mara-Eves, A., Stautz, K., Thomas, J. Tags: Alcohol, Health education, Health promotion, Sociology Theory and methods Source Type: research