Naloxone Training From Nonmedical Personnel: Benefits Before, During, and After Overdose Events
Conclusions: The results of the current study substantiate the effectiveness of naloxone in reversing overdose symptoms. A brief, 15-minute naloxone training delivered by nonmedical personnel enhanced overdose knowledge and led to positive reversal outcomes. Training persons who use opioids in dyads may offer additional benefits and improve follow-up reporting. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Associations Among Childhood Household Dysfunction, Sexual Orientation, and DSM-5 Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substance Use Disorders in Adulthood: Evidence From a National U.S. Survey
Conclusions: Sexual minorities are more likely to have childhood household dysfunction which in turn is associated with a higher risk of developing DSM-5 alcohol, tobacco, and substance use disorders in adulthood, especially among sexual minority women. Healthcare providers who care for individuals raised in dysfunctional households should carefully assess risk for substance use disorders and intervene as needed. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Canadian Cannabis Consumption and Patterns of Congenital Anomalies: An Ecological Geospatial Analysis
Objectives: Cannabis is a known teratogen. Data availability addressing both major congenital anomalies and cannabis use allowed us to explore their geospatial relationships. Methods: Data for the years 1998 to 2009 from Canada Health and Statistics Canada was analyzed in R. Maps have been drawn and odds ratios, principal component analysis, correlation matrices, least squares regression and geospatial regression analyses have been conducted using the R packages base, dplyr, epiR, psych, ggplot2, colorplaner and the spml and spreml functions from package splm. Results: Mapping showed cannabis use was more common in...
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Secondary Analysis of Pain Outcomes in a Large Pragmatic Randomized Trial of Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Methadone for Opioid Use Disorder
Conclusion and Relevance: In this large multisite randomized trial of medication treatments for OUD, nearly half of the participants reported pain at baseline, and improvement in pain early in treatment was associated with increased likelihood of retention in treatment. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Parental Experience of Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Across Inpatient Care Settings: A Qualitative Study
Conclusion: The parental experience of care for NAS is negatively affected by lack of standardized NAS education in the prenatal and postnatal settings, inconsistent communication with providers, the Finnegan scoring system, lack of provider sensitivity to parental substance use disorder, and maternal guilt. This study also highlights the parental desire to be more involved in the care of newborns with NAS. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Integrating Reproductive and Sexual Health Education and Services Into Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Programs: A Qualitative Study
Conclusions: Assessing determinants of implementation is important to the development of RSH interventions. CFIR constructs were found to be important influences that could facilitate or hinder effective implementation. Integration of RSH education and services is a process, and, when addressed in stages, might be feasible. A broad range of RSH education and services has the potential to have a profound impact on the health of women with OUD and their children, their families, and their communities. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Factors Associated With Cannabis Use Among African American Nondaily Smokers
Conclusions: Rates of cannabis and tobacco dual use in our sample exceed national rates. Dual use poses harmful health effects that exceed the risk of either substance alone. Findings will inform future work in tailoring treatments to vulnerable groups of people who use both tobacco and cannabis. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Association Between Patterns of Alcohol Use and Short-Term Risk of Suicide Attempt Among Patients With and Without Reported Suicidal Ideation
Conclusions: Findings underscore the potential value of offering alcohol-related care to patient reporting suicidal ideation. Additional strategies are needed to identify suicide risk among those reporting no suicidal ideation. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Clinical Significance of Food Addiction
Conclusions: Overall, this study replicates and extends previous findings, particularly in regard to behavioral economics and demand for food, providing further support for the consideration of food addiction in the psychiatric nosology. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Internal Medicine Residents’ Feelings of Responsibility, Confidence, and Clinical Practice in Opioid Overdose Prevention and Naloxone Prescribing
Conclusions: Despite feeling responsible and confident in addressing opioid overdose prevention strategies, few residents report implementing these strategies in clinical care. Residency programs must not only include curricula addressing overdose risk assessment and counseling, referral to or provision of OUD treatment, but also include curricula that impact implementation of opioid overdose prevention strategies. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Use of the Methadone/Metabolite Ratio (MMR) to Identify an Individual Metabolic Phenotype and Assess Risks of Poor Response and Adverse Effects: Towards Scientific Methadone Dosing
Conclusions: The MMR measures an individual's phenotype for methadone metabolism. The data suggested underdosing in the URM category, as well as evidence of excessive dosing in IM and USM categories. The MMR provides a guide to safe and effective dosing, an alternative to the pharmacokinetically ‘blind’ dosing algorithms currently in use. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validation of the NIDA-modified ASSIST as a Screening Tool for Prenatal Drug Use in an Urban Setting in the United States
Conclusions: The NM-ASSIST reliably distinguished pregnant women who use cannabis from those who do not, but performed poorly for all other substances. More research is needed to identify screeners that reliably detect all prenatal drug use. Although more cost-prohibitive, a combination of self-report and toxicological screening may be preferable for detecting prenatal drug use. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Predictors of Opioid and Alcohol Pharmacotherapy Initiation at Hospital Discharge Among Patients Seen by an Inpatient Addiction Consult Service
Conclusions: The association of MOUD/MAUD initiation with homelessness and partner substance use suggests that hospitalization may be an opportunity to reach highly-vulnerable people, further underscoring the need to provide hospital-based addictions care as a health-system strategy. Methamphetamine's negative association with MOUD/MAUD warrants further study. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Time to First Cigarette: A Potential Clinical Screening Tool for Nicotine Dependence
Conclusions: Earlier TTFC is a key indicator of greater nicotine dependence. Knowledge of a smoker's TTFC may allow clinicians to accurately inform smokers of health risks and assign greater resources during cessation attempts. Smokers may be able to use TTFC to self-select cessation aids and accurately assess their unique smoking-related health risks. TTFC may be a better item than cigarettes/day for accurately quantifying dependence and risk in epidemiologic studies. (Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine)
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Avoiding NICU Transfers for Newborns With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS): A Quality Improvement Initiative to Manage NOWS on the Mother-baby Unit
Objectives: To reduce transfers to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for neonates with opioid withdrawal while also reducing length of stay and pharmacologic intervention, and maintaining standards of safety. Patients and methods: This was a single-center quality-improvement (QI) initiative in a free-standing maternity hospital comparing outcomes for neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) before and after a series of QI bundles in infants>36 weeks’ gestation age (GA). We compared outcomes to our preintervention period (January, 2013 to December, 2013; n = 42) with outcomes postintervention cycle 1 (Oct...
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research