Lung cancer screening with ultra-low dose CT using full iterative reconstruction
ConclusionThe diagnostic ability of ULDCT using f-IR is comparable to LDCT. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - February 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of glymphatic system activity with the diffusion MR technique: diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) in Alzheimer ’s disease cases
ConclusionActivity of the glymphatic system may be evaluated with diffusion images. Lower diffusivity along the perivascular space on DTI-APLS seems to reflect impairment of the glymphatic system. This method may be useful for evaluating the activity of the glymphatic system. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - February 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Respiratory gating and multifield technique radiotherapy for esophageal cancer
ConclusionThe lung parameters were reduced by the respiratory gating technique and increased by the multifield technique. The heart parameters were reduced by both techniques. It is important to select the optimal technique according to the risk of complications. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - February 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of brain core temperature using MR DWI-thermometry in Alzheimer disease patients compared to healthy subjects
ConclusionsBrain core temperature in AD patients showed no significant alterations compared to healthy volunteers. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - February 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Temporal evolution of the signal intensity of hyper-acute ischemic lesions in a canine stroke model: influence of hyperintense acute reperfusion marker
ConclusionsHARM should be noted during the quantitative analysis of FLAIR images in future clinical practice. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 31, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abnormal regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in adjustment disorder of new recruits: a resting-state fMRI study
ConclusionThis study reveals abnormalities in recruits with AD in baseline brain function activities, which could further improve our understanding of the neural substrates of cognitive impairment in AD. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 31, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison between solid component size on thin-section CT and pathologic lymph node metastasis and local invasion in T1 lung adenocarcinoma
AbstractObjectivesTo correlate the tumor size and solid component size on thin-section CT (TS-CT) with pathological findings including lymph node (LN) metastasis and local invasion in T1 lung adenocarcinoma.Methods188 patients with surgically resected T1 lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Two chest radiologists measured the long-axis and short-axis dimensions of nodules and solid components with a lung and/or a mediastinal window setting (WS) on TS-CT. After analyzing interobserver agreement, average long-axis dimensions of the measured tumors and solid components were correlated with pathological findings....
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

T1 mapping using saturation recovery single-shot acquisition at 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: comparison to late gadolinium enhancement
AbstractPurposeWe evaluated the T1 values of segments and slices and the reproducibility in healthy controls, using saturation recovery single-shot acquisition (SASHA) at 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Moreover, we examined the difference in T1 values between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and healthy controls, and compared those with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE).Materials and methodsTwenty-one HCM patients and 10 healthy controls underwent T1 mapping before and after contrast administration. T1 values were measured in 12 segments.ResultsNative T1 values were significantly longer in HCM than in healthy controls [13...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Peritoneal fluid of low CT Hounsfield units as a screening criterion for traumatic bowel perforation
ConclusionPeritoneal fluid of low CT HU is a sensitive and important CT screening criterion for traumatic bowel perforation. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for differentiating between Warthin ’s tumor and oncocytoma of the parotid gland
AbstractPurposeTo assess the efficacy of diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating between Warthin ’s tumor and oncocytoma of the parotid gland.MethodsForty-five histopathologically confirmed parotid gland tumors (41 Warthin ’s tumors and 4 oncocytomas) were examined by MR imaging including DW imaging.18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT was also performed in 9 Warthin ’s tumors and 3 oncocytomas. We retrospectively reviewed the images and compared the MR signal intensities, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the solid components between the tw...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Adrenal hormones before and after venography during adrenal venous sampling: a self-controlled study
ConclusionsDuring non-stimulated left AVS, adrenal hormone secretion was slightly but significantly decreased after venography, similar to the normal time-related stress reaction. Venography did not increase the adrenal hormone secretion. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection: a pictorial essay
AbstractZika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-p...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Scrub typhus: radiological and clinical findings in abdominopelvic involvement
ConclusionScrub typhus has a spectrum of variable clinical and radiological findings mimicking those of acute hepatitis. Diffuse abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy involving the retroperitoneum and pelvic area may aid in early diagnosis of scrub typhus. Perigastric lymphadenopathy could be a sign of severe scrub typhus combined with hepatic dysfunction. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Emerging neuroradiological topics in journals from related societies
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - January 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

JJR: our next step
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Adaptive radiation therapy in head and neck cancer for clinical practice: state of the art and practical challenges
AbstractModern radiation therapy techniques are characterized by high conformality to tumor volumes and steep dose gradients to spare normal organs. These techniques require accurate clinical target volume definitions and rigorous assessment of set up uncertainties using image guidance, a concept called image-guided radiation therapy. Due to alteration of patient anatomy, changes in tissue density/volumes and tumor shrinkage over the course of treatment, treatment accuracy may be challenged. This may result in excessive irradiation of organs at risk/healthy tissues and undercoverage of target volumes with a significant ris...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - December 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: beyond the brain CT scans
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 28, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of lower limb perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography in patients with lower limb atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study was to estimate the severity of the participants ’ lower limb ischemia by calculating the lower limb muscle-to-background ratio (LMBR) using lower limb perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and to evaluate the prognostic value of LMBR in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients.Materials and methodsThis retrospective study consists of 38 patients with PAD (70  ± 12 years) and observed over 1 year who were included in the analysis. All participants underwent lower limb perfusion SPECT/CT. LMBR was calculated by...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary metastases from sarcoma: single-center retrospective evaluation of 46 patients
ConclusionRF ablation is safe, offers good local control, and may be a viable treatment option for pulmonary metastasis of sarcoma. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: emphasis of congenital versus acquired aspects
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

In vivo effects of radiofrequency ablation on long bones and the repair process in swine models
ConclusionRFA can quickly and effectively destroy the cancellous bone tissue without affecting the cortical bone and activate bone remodeling. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The physiological accumulation of FDG in the muscles in relation to the side of intravenous administration
ConclusionThe present study finds that not only accumulation in the teres minor muscles but also accumulation in the muscles between the radioulna near the elbow occurs significantly more frequently on the side of intravenous administration compared to the contralateral side. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 3, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Can we shorten the q-space imaging to make it clinically feasible?
ConclusionA few alternativeb value combinations with the curve fitting technique were found to be able to shorten the QSI acquisition for its clinical feasibility of MD and ZDP. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 2, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection
(Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - November 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of noninvasive fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography in ischemia-causing coronary stenosis: a meta-analysis
ConclusionThis study indicates that FFRCT may be a good tool for screening and diagnosing of myocardial ischemia in patients with CAD. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 28, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for evaluation of corticospinal tract in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate diffusional changes of the corticospinal tract (CST) in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) by neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI).Materials and methodsNineteen patients with iNPH and 12 healthy controls were included. Diffusion MRI data for NODDI were acquired with a 3-T system, using 32 motion-probing gradient directions with six b-values (from 0 to 2500  s/mm2). The orientation dispersion index (ODI), intra-cellular volume fraction (Vic), and isotropic volume fraction (Viso) of the CST were calculated by tract-specific analysis in patients ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 27, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Periportal low attenuation associated with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer: evaluation using multi-detector-row CT with pathological correlation
ConclusionsPPLA on the hilar and peripheral sides of hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer may be present suggesting lymphedema and fibrosis of portal tracts not always indicating cancer infiltration. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI can be used to assess advanced T-stage colon carcinoma as well as rectal carcinoma
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of assessing advanced T-stage (T3 –T4) colorectal carcinomas by correlating MRI with histopathological findings.Materials and methodsThe study population comprised 31 patients with 32 lesions (22 colon and 10 rectal carcinomas). The relationship between the tumor and bowel layers on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T2WI, CE-T1WI), bowel wall deformity, and the linear architecture of subserosal fat on T2WI scans was independently assessed by two radiologists. Diagnostic ability and interobserver agreement were evaluated using Fisher ’s exact test and kappa ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging characteristics of the postoperative globe: a pictorial essay
AbstractRecognizing imaging characteristics after ophthalmic surgery is necessary for radiologists to prevent misdiagnosis. We review typical appearances of intraorbital implanted devices and materials on CT and MRI with demonstration of the common surgical procedures. EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration devices appear as punctate areas of metal attenuation on CT and are typically placed at the corneoscleral junction. The imaging manifestations after cataract extraction are absence of the native lens of ovoid mass and the intraocular lens with high attenuation on CT and low signal intensity on MRI. The treatment of retinal detach...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Is it essential to use fiducial markers during cone-beam CT-based radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients?
AbstractPurposeTo compare soft-tissue cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT-P) and fiducial marker (CBCT-FM)-based image guided radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methodsSixteen prostate cancer patients were treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy. Manual alignment using CBCT-P and CBCT-FM was performed for each patient. Couch shifts were calculated and compared between methods in the left –right (x), superior –inferior (y), and anterior –posterior (z) directions.ResultsCBCT-P and CBCT-FM alignments were compared using 252 scans from the 16 patients. Mean displacement from zero was...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 11, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnosis of early colorectal cancer invasion depth by quantitative evaluation of the basal indentation in CT colonography
AbstractObjectiveTo investigate the feasibility of diagnosing the invasion depth of early colorectal cancer (CRC) by quantitatively evaluating the basal indentation (BI) —i.e., the intestinal lateral deformity—in CT colonography (CTC).Materials and methods34 early CRCs (13 Tis CRCs and 21 T1 CRCs) in 32 patients who underwent a preoperative CTC were retrospectively examined. Two radiologists calculated the depth of the BI on a computed tomographic air-contrast enema (CT enema) image, the depth of the BI due to the geometric function (BI-G) on a cross-sectional multiplanar reconstruction (CS-MPR) image, and the ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article
AbstractZika virus (ZIKV) is anarbovirus from theFlaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a “Public Health Em...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 6, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optimized workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI
AbstractAlthough PET/MRI has the advantages of a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI, high soft-tissue contrast of the MRI images, and reduction of radiation exposure, its low profitability and long acquisition time are significant problems in clinical settings. Thus, MRI protocols that meet oncological purposes need to be used in order to reduce examination time while securing detectability. Currently, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo and 3D-T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination may be the most commonly used sequences for whole-body imaging due to their shorter acquisition time and hig...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - October 6, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum and diagnostic pitfalls of multiple abnormal uptakes on bone scintigraphy
AbstractBone scintigraphy with technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled diphosphonates is one of the most frequently performed radionuclide procedures. Accumulation of99mTc-labeled diphosphonate is well recognized to reflect conditions of accelerated bone turnover and metabolism. Therefore, it is a functional imaging modality for detecting metastatic bone tumors, metabolic bone disease, traumatic injury, and inflammation. This pictorial essay describes the possible patterns of distribution of abnormal uptake for differential diagnosis of metastatic bone tumor, as well as the diagnostic pitfalls of bone scintigraphy. (Source: Japanes...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 29, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Research on pediatric glomerular disease and normal kidney with shear wave based elastography point quantification
ConclusionsElastPQ technology has certain advantages in predicting pediatric glomerular disease compared to conventional ultrasound. ElastPQ technology contributes to the early diagnosis of the disease. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) for who grade I anterior clinoid meningiomas (ACM)
ConclusionLINAC-based HFSRT offers high rates of LC and PFS for patients with ACMs. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The usefulness of cone-beam computed tomography during chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinomas fed exclusively by the cystic artery
ConclusionCBCT is useful for evaluating the distribution of iodized oil in TACE via the cystic artery. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Does catheter shape influence the success of right adrenal venous sampling? The interaction of catheter shape to anatomical factors on CT
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the importance of selecting an appropriate catheter shape for the right adrenal vein (RAV) anatomy on CT to the success of right adrenal venous sampling (RAVS) by elucidating the interactions of anatomical factors with catheter shape.Materials and methods130 patients with enhanced CT underwent RAVS using two catheters: catheter 1 was planar and catheter 2 was a three-dimensional shape. The following anatomical factors on CT were evaluated in each patient: presence of a right adrenal tumor, presence of a common trunk with an accessory right hepatic vein, diameter of the RAV, short and long diamete...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 20, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diaphragm height varies with arm position: comparison between angiography and CT
AbstractPurposeTo investigate how elevation of the arms affects diaphragm height.Materials and methodsWe retrospectively reviewed angiography and computed tomography (CT) portography data from 44 patients who were treated for hepatocellular carcinoma at our institution from July 2013 to May 2014. Diaphragm height was determined independently by two radiologists as the distance from the upper edge of the first lumbar vertebra to the highest point of the right diaphragm. The differences in height between angiography and CT images were compared using a pairedt-test. We also evaluated the influence of table height and distance...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The retrospective analysis of the relationship between prescribed dose and risk factor for seed migration in iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy
ConclusionsIt is suggested that the discrepancy in seed numbers might be the predictor for seed migration in PI with 110  Gy. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - September 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the degree of pancreatic fatty infiltration by area-based assessment of CT images: comparison with histopathology-based and CT attenuation index-based assessments
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of fatty infiltration (FI) of the pancreas using area-based assessment on computed tomography (CT) (CT area-based assessment) in its correlation and agreement/concordance with histopathology-based assessment. Furthermore, we examined whether CT area-based assessment was better than CT attenuation index-based assessment.Materials and methodsWe retrospectively evaluated the degree of FI of the pancreas in 37 pancreatic cancer patients who had undergone preoperative CT and pancreaticoduodenectomy. The degree of FI of the pancreas was examined by histopatholog...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - August 31, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Additive value of 320-section low-dose dynamic volume CT in relation to 3-T MRI for the preoperative evaluation of brain tumors
AbstractPurposeTo assess whether 320-section low-dose dynamic volume computed tomography (320-LDVCT) with adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) adds value to 3-T MRI for the preoperative evaluation of brain tumors.MethodsThe study population was comprised of 16 consecutive patients with brain tumors who, in addition to preoperative 3-T MRI, underwent 320-LDVCT with AIDR. Two radiologists independently evaluated the CT and MRI studies; one measured the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in the tumor and contralateral brain on CT and MR perfusion maps. Interobserver agreement was assessed byκ statistics.ResultsIn...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - August 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The primary patency of drug-eluting balloon versus conventional balloon angioplasty in hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous fistula stenoses
ConclusionDrug-eluting balloon angioplasty proved to be an effective treatment of hemodialysis AVFs stenosis, with a high primary patency rate at 12  months. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - August 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Changing roles of academic societies due to globalization
AbstractBecause of the globalization of environment around the academic society, the expected roles have changed significantly. In this short communication, we present the current situation in our international activities of the Japan Radiological Society, particularly in the academic activities and clinical practice. Establishing and reinforcing international network is one process of their promotion. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - August 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer
ConclusionADC histogram analysis quantitatively demonstrates the alterations during the treatment course. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - August 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incidence and appearances of coronary sinus anomalies in adults on cardiac CT
ConclusionThe incidence of CS anomalies was 0.33  %. Precise diagnosis of CS anomalies with TTE and the original transverse images on cardiac CT alone was difficult for some conditions. We should be alert for the presence of CS anomalies which can cause clinical or procedural complications. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - August 11, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of hepatic osteodystrophy in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a comparison study with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
ConclusionDiffusion-weighted MRI of the vertebral spine is a feasible technic to detect diffusion alterations caused by osteoporosis but lacks diagnostic capacities for diagnosing minor reductions of the bone mineral density detected by DXA. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - August 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical utility of radiofrequency ablation following transarterial injection of miriplatin-iodized oil suspension in small hepatocellular carcinoma
Conclusion MPT –RFA is a safe therapeutic option that initially provides therapeutic results. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - July 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ablation protocols and ancillary procedures in tumor ablation therapy: consensus from Japanese experts
Conclusions The consensus achieved here will serve as the framework for tumor ablation therapies in Japan. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research