Changes in clinical scenarios, management and perspectives of patients with chronic hepatitis C after viral clearance by direct-acting antivirals.
Authors: Nevola R, Rinaldi L, Zeni L, Romano C, Marrone A, Galiero R, Pafundi PC, Acierno C, Vetrano E, Adinolfi LE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a systemic infection inducing hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. These latter involve cardiovascular system, kidney, brain, endocrine, glucose and lipid metabolism and the immune system. HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality for both hepatic and extrahepatic events. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA), introduced in the most recent years for HCV treatment, are effective in up to 99% of cases and have changed the c...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 17, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Biologics and pregnancy: a clinician's guide to the management of IBD in pregnant women.
Authors: Guerrero Vinsard D, Kane SV Abstract INTRODUCTION: Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) endorse a tremendous amount of concern about medication exposure during pregnancy and their effects on the fetus. Medical providers caring for this patient population should be well informed and feel comfortable counseling their patients for the best pregnancy outcome possible. AREAS COVERED: It is of particular importance to understand the implications of use of biologics in preconception, pregnancy and postpartum timeframes. Herein, we aim to inform the clinician about the impact of uncontrolled inflammatio...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Combined ablation-chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis: a propensity score matching study.
Authors: Yan X, Ning ZY, Wang P, Zhuang LP, Xu LT, Zhu ZF, Sheng J, Shen YH, Hua YQ, Meng ZQ Abstract Objectives: To retrospectively assess the efficacy of combined ablation-chemotherapy in comparison to that of chemotherapy alone in patients with liver metastasized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (lmPDAC). Methods: In total 104 patients with hepatic oligo metastasized PDAC were identified; among them, 74 patients underwent combined thermal ablation-chemotherapy, and 30 patients underwent chemotherapy alone. Through propensity score matching, 1:1 matching of the combined ablation-chemotherapy group and chemotherap...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 29, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Microwave ablation determines similar survival outcomes as compared to radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: MWA seems to determine similar outcomes as compared to RFA. PMID: 33356655 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 29, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

An essential technique for modern hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery: minimally invasive biliary reconstruction.
In this study, were viewed published studies of minimally invasive biliary reconstruction within the last 5 years and discussed the current status and main complications of minimally invasive biliary reconstruction. More importantly, we introduced the current reconstruction strategies and technical details of minimally invasive biliary reconstruction, which may be potentially helpful for surgeons to choose reconstruction methods and improve reconstruction quality. Expert opinion: Although several improved and modified methods for biliary reconstruction have been developed recently, no single approach is optimal or ada...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 29, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal involvement of autism spectrum disorder: focus on gut microbiota.
Authors: Settanni CR, Bibbò S, Ianiro G, Rinninella E, Cintoni M, Mele MC, Cammarota G, Gasbarrini A Abstract INTRODUCTION: . Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder typical of early age, characterized by impaired communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviours. ASD patients frequently suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Neuro-psychological functions, intestinal homeostasis and functional GI disturbances are modulated by the gut microbiota through the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". AREAS COVERED: Literature regarding GI symptoms among the ASD ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 29, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Long-term effects of appendectomy in humans: is it the optimal management of appendicitis?
Authors: Song MY, Ullah S, Yang HY, Ahmed MR, Saleh AA, Liu BR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Appendectomy remains the gold standard for treating uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. However, the vermiform appendix may play a significant role in immune system (secondary immune function) and maintain a reservoir of the normal microbiome for human body. The aim of this study was to summarize the long-term effects after appendectomy and discuss whether appendectomy is suitable for all appendicitis patients. AREAS COVERED: A comprehensive and unbiased literature search was performed in PubMed. The terms "append...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 24, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Infection: Progress in Identifying Patients Most Likely to Respond to Peginterferon Alfa.
Authors: Yeh ML, Huang JF, Yu ML, Chuang WL Abstract Introduction: Despite the potential disadvantage of side effects, pegylated interferon alpha (Peg-IFN α) remains an indispensable agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) due to its immunomodulatory effect. The selection of a patient most likely to have a favorable response becomes an essential issue for Peg-IFN α therapy. Areas covered: Recent progress in the prediction of the treatment response to Peg-IFN α. Expert opinion: Before initiating Peg-IFN α therapy, baseline host and viral factors, including female sex, younger age...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

BILCAP trial and adjuvant capecitabine in resectable biliary tract cancer: reflections on a standard of care.
Authors: Rizzo A, Brandi G Abstract Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive malignancies comprising ampulla of Vater cancer, gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; unfortunately, the incidence of distant and locoregional recurrence remains high in resected BTCs, with approximately 60-70% of patients which will experience disease relapse. Until a few years ago, adjuvant treatment was mainly based on the results of a meta-analysis including heterogeneous retrospective studies and showing a survival benefit in the selected populations of rese...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 15, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Recent advances in the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Authors: Björnsson ES, Kalaitzakis E Abstract INTRODUCTION: PSC is a rare liver disease that leads frequently to cirrhosis and need for liver transplantation. No medical treatment is of proven value. Liver transplantation is the only curative therapy available. There is a big medical need to find medical therapy that can alter the natural history of the disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors highlight advances in PSC, based on recent literature retrieved from PubMed until September 2020 regarding both medical and endoscopic biliary therapy. Future possibilities for treatment of PSC are discussed. EXPERT O...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 9, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Effect of the SARS-CoV2 pandemic on endoscopy provision - The Impact of Compliance with National Guidance.
Authors: Leeds JS, Awadelkarim B, Dipper C, Nayar MK, Oppong KW, Nylander DL Abstract Objective There is limited data on the impact of the pandemic upon endoscopy service provision and quality indicators. Methods Analysis of number and type of procedure, in-room time (minutes), key performance indicators and list utilisation was performed over 3 periods; pre-lockdown, lockdown and early recovery and compared with the previous year. Results Endoscopy activity reduced to 13.3% of the same period in 2019 with the largest drops in colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy numbers. In-room time increased significantly for ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Magnetic endoscopic imaging as a rational investment for specific colonoscopies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Tan X, Yang W, Wichmann D, Huang C, Mothes B, Grund KE, Chen Z, Chen Z Abstract BACKGROUND: Magnetic endoscopic imaging (MEI) was regarded as an adjuvant device to improve procedural efficacy and patients' comfort during colonoscopy. METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Based on the heterogeneity of included studies, random-effects or fixed-effects models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RR), risk difference (RD) or mean difference (MD) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Twenty-one randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selec...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

A single-letter change in an acronym: signals, reasons, promises, challenges, and steps ahead for moving from NAFLD to MAFLD.
Authors: Yilmaz Y, Byrne CD, Musso G Abstract Introduction We are currently at the dawn of a revolution in the field of fatty liver diseases. Recently, a consensus recommended "metabolic (dysfunction) associated fatty liver disease" (MAFLD) as a more appropriate name to describe fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction, ultimately suggesting that the old acronym non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) should be abandoned. Areas covered In this viewpoint, we discuss the reasons and relevance of this semantic modification through five different conceptual domains, i.e., 1) signals, 2) rea...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Metabolome and microbiome alterations in tongue coating of gastric precancerous lesion patients.
Conclusions: Compared with healthy people, the changes of tongue coating metabolites in GPL patients were mainly characterized by alterations in lipid metabolism and were associated with localized changes in the microbiome. PMID: 33252275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 2, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury: a mechanistic perspective through acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.
Authors: Umbaugh DS, Jaeschke H Abstract Introduction: Liver injury induced by drugs is a serious clinical problem. Many circulating biomarkers for identifying and predicting drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have been proposed. Areas covered: Biomarkers are mainly predicated on the mechanistic understanding of the underlying DILI, often in the context of acetaminophen overdose. New panels of biomarkers have emerged that are related to recovery/regeneration rather than injury following DILI. We explore the clinical relevance and limitations of these new biomarkers including recent controversies. Extracellular vesicl...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 28, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Prevention and treatment of stricturing Crohn's disease - perspectives and challenges.
Authors: Sleiman J, El Ouali S, Qazi T, Cohen B, Steele SR, Baker ME, Rieder F Abstract Introduction: Fibrostenosis is a hallmark of Crohn's disease (CD), remains a challenge in today's clinical management of inflammatory bowel disease patients and represents a key event in the disease course necessitating improved preventative strategies and a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management. With the advent of anti-fibrotic therapies and well-defined clinical endpoints for stricturing CD, there is promise to impact the natural history of disease. Areas covered: This review summarizes current evidence in the...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 25, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Role of histone deacetylase on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Authors: Fu S, Yu M, Tan Y, Liu D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a group of diseases related to metabolic abnormalities, which severely impairs the life and health of patients, and brings great pressure to the society and medical resources. Currently, there is no specific treatment. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have recently been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and are considered as new targets for the treatment of NAFLD. AREA COVERED: In this review, we summarized the role of HDACs in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and proposed possible therapeutic targets in...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 22, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Recent advances of immunotherapy for biliary tract cancer.
Authors: Rizzo A, Ricci AD, Brandi G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive malignancies comprising intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer and ampulla of Vater cancer. Although recent years have witnessed the emergence of novel treatment targets, medical therapy remains a compelling challenge in these hepatobiliary malignancies. In order to provide more effective treatment options, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently under investigation in advanced BTC, with controversial results reported so far. AREAS ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 22, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Clinical impact of sarcopenia assessment in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Authors: Marasco G, Dajti E, Ravaioli F, Brocchi S, Rossini B, Alemanni LV, Peta G, Bartalena L, Golfieri R, Festi D, Colecchia A, Renzulli M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide a detailed report on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients, the several imaging methods available for the assessment of sarcopenia and the clinical studies evaluating the prognostic role...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The cellular and molecular components involved in pre-metastatic niche formation in colorectal cancer liver metastasis.
Authors: Yang L, Li T, Shi H, Zhou Z, Huang Z, Lei X Abstract INTRODUCTION: Liver metastasis is the main cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre-metastatic niche (PMN), a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells colonization at distant organ, plays a pivotal role in CRC liver metastasis (CRCLM). Our understanding of the mechanisms mediating the formation of liver PMN in CRC has been significantly advanced in recent years, there are still many challenges and questions that remain. AREAS COVERED: This review covers cellular and molecular components, and the interaction of the primary cancer with the res...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 14, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in celiac disease diagnosis and treatment.
Authors: Kurki A, Kemppainen E, Laurikka P, Kaukinen K, Lindfors K Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Celiac disease is characterized by an abnormal immune activation driven by the ingestion of gluten from wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten-specific CD4+ T cells play an important role in disease pathogenesis and are detectable among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). AREAS COVERED: : This review summarizes the use of celiac disease patient PBMCs in clinical applications focusing on their exploitation in the development of diagnostic approaches and novel drugs to replace or complement gluten-free diet. EXPERT OPI...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 14, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

An update on the use of immunotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer.
Authors: Nguyen M, Tipping Smith S, Lam M, Liow E, Davies A, Prenen H, Segelov E Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy worldwide, with recent trends demonstrating increasing incidence amongst younger patients. Despite multiple treatment options, metastatic disease remains incurable. A new therapeutic strategy to harness the host immune system, specifically with immune checkpoint inhibitors, now has reported results from a number of clinical trials. Areas covered: This review will discuss in detail microsatellite instability (MSI) and other biomarkers for response to immu...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 5, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Identification and validation of a new gene signature predicting prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by network analysis of stemness indices.
Conclusions: The established six-gene signature was able to predict patient prognosis accurately. This new signature should be verified in prospective studies in order to determine patient prognosis in clinical decision-making. PMID: 33131341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 4, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Managing cognitive symptoms and fatigue in cholestatic liver disease.
Authors: Phaw NA, Leighton J, Dyson JK, Jones DE Abstract Introduction: Patients with cholestatic diseases may develop fatigue and cognitive symptoms. The impact of symptom burden may be significant in some patients. To date, there are no effective pharmacological therapies to improve cognitive symptoms or fatigue in cholestasis and we are wholly reliant on supportive approaches. Area covered: This review provides an overview of cognitive symptoms and fatigue in the cholestatic liver disease primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), including pathophysiology and our approach to the management of these symptoms. Expert opi...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 4, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Response to: The need of reliable warning signs for dysphagia in Parkinson's disease: an often-overlooked issue.
Authors: Patel B, Legacy J, Okun MS, Wheeler-Hegland K, Herndon NE PMID: 33131348 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 4, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Angiogenesis in the progression from liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocelluar carcinoma.
Authors: Li H Abstract Introduction: Persistent inflammation and hypoxia are strong stimulus for pathological angiogenesis and vascular remodelling, and are also the most important elements resulting in liver fibrosis. Sustained inflammatory process stimulates fibrosis to the end-point of cirrhosis and sinusoidal portal hypertension is an important feature of cirrhosis. Neovascularization plays a pivotal role in collateral circulation formation of portal vein, mesenteric congestion and high perfusion. Imbalance of hepatic artery and portal vein blood flow leads to the increase of hepatic artery inflow, which is ben...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 4, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

A comprehensive update on early gastric cancer: defining terms, etiology, and alarming risk factors.
Authors: Yang K, Lu L, Liu H, Wang X, Gao Y, Yang L, Li Y, Su M, Jin M, Khan S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Early gastric cancer (EGC) is a well-defined gastric malignancy that is limited to the mucosa or submucosa, irrespective of lymph node metastasis. At an early stage, gastric cancer often does not cause symptoms until it becomes advanced, and it is a heterogeneous disease and usually encountered in its late stages. AREA COVERED: This comprehensive review will provide a novel insight into the evaluation of EGC epidemiology, defining terms, extensive etiology and risk factors, and timely diagnosis since prevention...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Nomograms for predicting survival in early-onset esophageal cancer.
Conclusion: We constructed and verified nomograms that could accurately predict the survival rate of esophageal cancer in patients younger than 50 years old. This may help clinicians better understand prognostic factors. PMID: 33121317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Capsule endoscopy - Recent developments and future directions.
Authors: Zammit Chetcuti S, Sidhu R Abstract Introduction: Capsule endoscopy (CE) is an established modality in the diagnostic algorithm of small bowel (SB) pathology. Its use has expanded for investigation of upper and lower gastrointestinal diseases with similar prototypes. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the role and recent advances of CE, as a non-invasive investigative tool. EXPERT OPINION: The use of upper gastrointestinal CE is useful in patients who require surveillance for varices particularly in the current era of the COVID 19 pandemic. It has also shown high accuracy in the detection of upper g...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 30, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

An updated incidence trends of soft-tissue sarcoma and cancer-specific survival of patients with primary soft-tissue sarcoma of liver: a population-based study.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights that age, sex, tumor size, quality of surgery, and histologic subtypes may contribute to the prognosis of hepatic STS, and STS may be etiologically distinct and should be considered separately in different races and genders. PMID: 33115276 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 30, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Epidemiology, burden of disease, and unmet needs in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in Asia.
Authors: Wei SC, Sollano J, Hui YT, Yu W, Santos Estrella PV, Llamado LJQ, Koram N Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic, chronic inflammatory disease of the colon, characterized by relapsing and remitting symptoms. Although traditionally viewed as a Western disease, the incidence and prevalence of UC is increasing in developing regions, including Asian countries. AREAS COVERED: A PubMed search identified articles describing epidemiology, disease burden, patient demographics, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and treatment of UC across Asia. We review the epidemiology and disease...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 29, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Endoscopic imaging in inflammatory bowel disease: current developments and emerging strategies.
Authors: van der Laan JJH, van der Waaij AM, Gabriëls RY, Festen EAM, Dijkstra G, Nagengast WB Abstract INTRODUCTION: Developments in enhanced and magnified endoscopy have signified major advances in endoscopic imaging of ileocolonic pathology in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Artificial intelligence is increasingly being used to augment the benefits of these advanced techniques. Nevertheless, treatment of IBD patients is frustrated by high rates of non-response to therapy, while delayed detection and failures to detect neoplastic lesions impede successful surveillance. A possible solution is offered by mol...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 25, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

An appraisal of emerging second line therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Authors: Smolenschi C, Perret A, Dall'Armellina F, Boige V, Malka D, Hollebecque A, Ducreux M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite a significant improvement in overall survival over the last 15 years, colorectal cancer remains a major public health problem worldwide. Much effort has been made to develop an optimal choice of first-line treatments, but after progression the therapeutic possibilities and the criteria for choice are different. AREAS COVERED: . The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the different possibilities of second-line treatment and to specify the criteria for choice. Biological subgrou...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 23, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

CT assessment of preoperative nutritional status in gastric cancer: Severe low skeletal muscle mass and obesity-related low skeletal muscle mass are unfavorable factors of postoperative complications.
CONCLUSIONS: LSMM was not significantly correlated with postoperative complications. Severe LSMM and obesity-related LSMM are unfavorable factors for postoperative complications with GC after gastrectomy. PMID: 33063547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 20, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of xyloglucan and gelose for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children.
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Appendiceal Neoplasm Incidence and Mortality Rates are on the Rise in Australia.
Authors: Mikaeel ER, Young JP, Hardingham JE, Tapia Rico G, Hewett PJ, Symonds EL, Edwards S, Smith E, Tomita Y, Uylaki W, Horsnell M, Gibbs P Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to examine the incidence and mortality rates of appendiceal neoplasms (ANs) in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on national data obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) from 1982 to 2013. Changes to the incidence, and the cancer-specific mortality following the diagnosis of ANs were analyzed over this time period, with stratification performed for histological subtype, gender, and age groups (
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The impact of L-branched-chain amino acids and L-leucine on malnutrition, sarcopenia, and other outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease.
Authors: Santos ALS, Anastacio LR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metabolic and hormonal disorders resulting from chronic liver diseases culminate in increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, which contributes to the development and progression of malnutrition and, consequently, sarcopenia. Nutritional management of sarcopenia in liver cirrhosis is a continuously evolving field and data on essential amino acid supplementation in chronic liver diseases is scarce. AREAS COVERED: This review encompasses the current literature on oral amino acids supplementation in patients with chronic liver disease or patient...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Chronic use of statins and risk of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis seems to suggest the non-superiority of chronic statin therapy in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis. PMID: 32993442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Patients' perception of colonoscopy and acceptance of colonoscopy based IBD related colorectal cancer surveillance.
CONCLUSION: A large proportion of IBD patients experienced colonoscopy as moderate to severely uncomfortable but would still accept colonoscopy surveillance frequency according to current guidance. Participants expected sensitivities ≥95% for potential alternatives to colonoscopy based surveillance programs. PMID: 32981385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 30, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Predicting the outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: new approaches beyond established clinical scoring systems.
Authors: Ocker M, Neureiter D PMID: 32985933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 30, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Dilemma in post-IBD patients with IBS-D symptoms; A 2020 overview.
Authors: Tozlu M, Cash B, Ertan A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in apparent clinical remission who present with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma that is called post-IBD IBS. When associated with a diarrheal IBS presentation, this clinical syndrome is known as post-IBS IBS-D. AREAS COVERED: We review and describe the literature regarding the clinical overlap of IBD and IBS. We discuss prevalent theories regarding the pathophysiology of post-IBD IBS-D and whether this presentation represents coincident inherent IBS-D, IBS-D t...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 30, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The need of reliable warning signs for dysphagia in Parkinson's disease: an often-overlooked issue.
Authors: Motolese F, Di Lazzaro V, Marano M PMID: 32969720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 26, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The high-dose amoxicillin-proton pump inhibitor dual therapy in eradication of helicobacter pylori infection.
Authors: Yun J, Wu Z, Qi G, Han T, Zhang D Abstract INTRODUCTION: More attention has been paid to the eradication therapy of H. pylori with the enhancement of health awareness of patients. However, the increasing antibiotic resistance of H. pylori, due to the wide use and abuse of antibiotics, has become a critical factor affecting the efficacy of eradication. To effectively improve the eradication rate of H. pylori, high-dose amoxicillin-proton pump inhibitor (PPI) dual therapy has recently become one of the hot issues. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the schemes and efficacy of high-dose amoxicillin-PPI dua...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 24, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Coronavirus disease 2019: epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, prevention and management.
Authors: Simona D, Lorena T, Davide F, Stefano DG, Marcello C, Federico M, Germano O, Luchino C, Giovanni CM, Melis A, Gaya S, Luigi Z, Angelo R Abstract INTRODUCTION: The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019. Some authors reported evidences that patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could have a direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, and in symptomatic cases, gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain) could be very common. Area covered: In this article, we reviewed current published data of the gastroi...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 23, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

New advances in the clinical management of RAS and BRAF mutant colorectal cancer patients.
Authors: Ruffinelli JC, Santos Vivas C, Sanz-Pamplona R, Moreno V Abstract INTRODUCTION: In colorectal carcinogenesis, genetic alterations in RAS and BRAF oncogenes play an important role for cancer initiation and/or progression and represent a key focus in the search for targeted therapies. Despite many years of research and a great amount of studies, until very recently this pathway was considered extremely hard to downregulate to obtain a significant clinical impact in colorectal cancer patients. But better times are coming with the advent of new promising drugs and combinations strategies. AREAS COVERED: In...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 20, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The interrelation between lipid profile in chronic HCV patients and their response to antiviral agents.
Conclusion Higher baseline lipid parameters and their further elevation starting from week six on treatment are good predictors of SVR in HCV patients. Successful HCV therapy with DAAs is associated with a significant increase in lipid parameters. PMID: 32933323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 17, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Prognostic value of vascular endothelial growth factor in both conventional and drug eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization for treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV patients.
Authors: Farid K, ElAlfy H, Abo El-Khair SM, Elgamal H, Besheer T, Elmokadem A, Shabana W, Abed S, Elegezy M, El-Khalek AA, El-Morsy A, Negm A, Elsamanoudy AZ, El Deek B, Amer T, El-Bendary M Abstract OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to measure serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels before and after Conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) versus drug eluting beads (DEB)-TACE and evaluate its efficacy in predicting response to therapy and tumor recurrence. METHODS: 114 patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma complicating hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis were included. They ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 17, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Developments in research on interstitial Cajal-like cells in the biliary tract.
Authors: Liu Y, Fan Y, Wu S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is a special type of interstitial cells located in the gastrointestinal tract muscles. They are closely related to smooth muscle cells and neurons, participate in gastrointestinal motility and nerve signal transmission, and are pacemaker cells for gastrointestinal electrical activity. Research interest in ICCs has continuously grown since they were first discovered in 1893. Later, researchers discovered that they are also present in other organs, including the biliary tract, urethra, bladder, etc; these cells were named interstiti...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 17, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma following liver transplantation.
Authors: Hoffman D, Mehta N Abstract Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasingly common disease with liver transplant (LT) the best long-term therapy for early stage disease. We will review the data for assessing risk and managing recurrence for patients undergoing LT for HCC. Areas Covered In this review, we will provide an overview of methods of patient risk stratification in the post-transplant period, the data around surveillance for HCC recurrence, and the evidence for and against post-LT adjuvant treatment strategies. Finally, we will provide data regarding treatment options for patients wi...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 17, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Functional abdominal pain disorders and asthma: Two disorders, but similar pathophysiology?
Authors: Kumari MV, Amarasiri L, Rajindrajith S, Devanarayana NM Abstract Introduction: Functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) and asthma are common ailments affecting both children and adults worldwide. Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between these two disorders. However, the exact reason for this observed association is not apparent. Areas covered: The current review has explored available literature and outlined multiple underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, common to both asthma and FAPDs, as possible reasons for this association. Expert opinion: Smooth muscle dysfunction, hypersensit...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 13, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research