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Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update.
Authors: Zhao RH, Shi Y, Zhao H, Wu W, Sheng JF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and progn...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 18, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of traditional Chinese medicine-induced liver injury: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: Our work summarises current knowledge regarding clinical presentation, disease course, and prognosis of TCM-ILI. TCM can result in hepatotoxicity, even death or necessitate life-saving liver transplantation. Governmental regulation of TCM products should be strictly established. PMID: 29323538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 13, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Impact of prior malignancy on outcomes of stage IV esophageal carcinoma: SEER based study.
CONCLUSION: Prior malignancy does not adversely impact survival of stage IV esophageal cancer. These results should be taken into consideration when designing clinical trials. PMID: 29316808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 12, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

New therapies target the toxic consequences of cholestatic liver disease.
Authors: Jansen PLM Abstract Introduction In most cholestatic liver diseases the primary cholestasis-causing lesions are located in the biliary tree and may be of (auto)immune origin. Bile salts are responsible for the secondary toxic consequences. Bile salt and nuclear hormone directed therapies primarily aim at improving this secondary toxic injury. In primary biliary cholangitis, trials show statistically significant responses on biochemical endpoints. Preclinical studies suggest that FXR- and PPAR-agonists, inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT-inhibitors) and the C23 UDCA deriva...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 10, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Stratified alpha-fetoprotein pattern accurately predicts mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure.
This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of stratified AFP in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). METHODS: A total of 192 patients were included and AFP were categorized into quartiles. The prognostic value was determined for overall survival (OS) and assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses studied the association of all independent parameters with disease prognosis. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off points of AFP were: (Q1) 252.3-4800.0 ng/ml, (Q2) 76.0-252.2 ng/ml, (Q3) 18.6-75.9 ng/ml, and (Q4) 0.7-18.5 ng/ml. B...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 6, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Hepcare Europe - bridging the gap in the treatment of hepatitis C: study protocol.
CONCLUSIONS: Hepcare has the potential to make an important impact on patient care for marginalised populations who might otherwise go undiagnosed and untreated. Lessons learned from the study can be incorporated into national and European guidelines and strategies for HCV. PMID: 29300496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - January 6, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Hepatorenal syndrome: the clinical impact of vasoactive therapy.
Authors: Colle I, Laterre PF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of acute kidney injury seen in cirrhotic patients and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Despite its impact, diagnosis and treatment of HRS remains challenging and this review aims to assess and compare the available vasoconstrictors used as first-line treatment for HRS. Areas covered: A literature review was undertaken on the use of vasoconstrictors in HRS, using PubMed/Medline database searches of: 'hepatorenal syndrome', 'HRS' and 'vasoconstrictor'. Expert commentary: Current diagnosis criteria are b...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 21, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Non-endoscopic biopsy techniques: a review.
Authors: Otuya DO, Verma Y, Farrokhi H, Higgins L, Rosenberg M, Damman C, Tearney GJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Diseases of the stomach and small intestine account for approximately 20% of all gastrointestinal (GI)-related mortality. Biopsy of the stomach and small intestine remains a key diagnostic tool for most of the major diseases that affect the GI tract. While endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy is generally the standard of care, it has several limitations that make it less ideal for pediatric patients and in low resource areas of the world. Therefore, non-endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy samples is of int...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 17, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 29237299 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 16, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Liver transplantation beyond or downstaging within the Milan criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Authors: Rudnick SR, Russo MW Abstract INTRODUCTION: Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common indication for liver transplantation (LT). The Milan criteria became standard criteria but expansion beyond the Milan criteria (tumor size and number) have resulted in similar post-transplant outcomes, thus suggesting LT is a viable treatment option for HCC presenting beyond the Milan criteria Areas covered: Expanded criteria and the use of downstaging therapies to meet Milan criteria are reviewed. Surrogates of tumor biology (including biomarkers and response to therapy) are described in detail. The controv...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 14, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Glucagon like peptide-2 and neoplasia; a systematic review.
Authors: Ring LL, Nerup N, Jeppesen PB, Svendsen LB, Achiam MP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Glucagon like peptide-2 is synthesized from enteroendocrine L cells primarily located in the ileum and large intestine. GLP-2 stimulates crypt cell proliferation, increases intestinal blood flow, enhances gut barrier function, induces mucosal healing, and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. Due to these effects GLP-2 is used in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Areas covered The aim of this systematic review was to provide information on the potential risk of intestinal neoplasia in patients receiving treatment with GLP-2....
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 14, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Clinical relevance of liver histopathology and different histological classifications of NASH in adults.
We report on the individual histological features and scoring systems of NAFLD: the NAFLD activity score (NAS) introduced by the NASH-Clinical Research Network, the "Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression" algorithm and Steatosis, Activity, and Fibrosis (SAF) score. Pros and cons of histological classifications in NASH are discussed. Special emphasis is given to liver histopathology in some high-risk patient groups, such as those with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we also examine the relationship between liver histopathology and clinical features, and the impact of liver histopathology on the long-...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 13, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Survival in signet ring cell carcinoma varies based on primary tumor location: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis.
Authors: Wu SG, Chen XT, Zhang WW, Sun JY, Li FY, He ZY, Pei XQ, Lin Q Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of patients with signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) based on primary tumor location. METHODS: Patient data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1988-2012) with ≥200 cases per tumor location. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate prognostic factors of cause-specific survival (CSS). RESULTS: We identified 24,171 patients. Of the patients, 63.4% had gastric SRCC, followed by colon (18.2%), esophageal (5.0%), rectal ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 13, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Utility of point shear wave elastography in characterisation of focal liver lesions.
Authors: Hasab-Allah M, Salama RM, Marie MS, Mandur AAM, Omar H PMID: 29219625 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 10, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Validation of the 8th AJCC staging system for gastric cancer in a population-based setting.
Authors: Abdel-Rahman O Abstract OBJECTIVE: To validate the prognostic value 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for gastric cancer. METHODS: Through SEER*Stat program, Surveillance, epidemiology and end results database (2010-2013) was accessed and 8th AJCC stages were reconstructed. Cancer-specific survival analyses according to both 7th and 8th editions were conducted through Kaplan-Meier analysis/log-rank testing and multivariate analysis was conducted through a Cox model. RESULTS: Among pathologically-staged patients, P values for pairwise comparisons among different 8t...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 6, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Supersonic shear imaging for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in liver diseases: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: LSM with SSI had a high diagnostic accuracy for liver fibrosis, but a moderate diagnostic accuracy for portal hypertension and esophageal varices. PMID: 29186994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Glecaprevir + pibrentasvir (ABT493 + ABT-530) for the treatment of Hepatitis C.
Authors: Hubbard H, Lawitz E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Glecaprevir (formerly ABT-493, pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and pibrentasvir (formerly ABT-530, pangenotypic NS5A inhibitor) are second generation direct acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C (HCV). It is a fixed dose ribavirin (RBV)-free regimen with activity against genotypes (GT) 1-6. In vitro the two antivirals have synergistic activity with a high barrier to resistance and potent activity against common polymorphisms. It is once daily oral dosing with minimal absorption, primary biliary excretion, and negligible renal exc...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - December 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Apprenticeship-based training in neurogastroenterology and motility.
We describe the training model, learning experiences, and outcomes of one-month apprenticeship-based training in NGM at a center of excellence, using a detailed individual observer account and data from 12 consecutive trainees that completed the program. During a one-month training period, 302 procedures including; breath tests (BT) n=132, anorectal manometry (ARM) n=29 and esophageal manometry (EM) n=28, were performed. Post-training, all trainees (n=12) knew indications for motility tests, and the majority achieved independence in basic interpretation of BT, EM and ARM. Additionally, in a multiple-choice NGM written-test...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 17, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

New insights into the role of vitamin D in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Authors: Wu DB, Wang ML, Chen EQ, Tang H Abstract INTRODUCTION: In addition to being crucial for host immune defense, vitamin D is involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, inflammation, invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis and micro-RNA modulation. To date, clinical studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is common not only in patients with chronic liver diseases but also in those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Experimental studies have also demonstrated that vitamin D and its receptors are related to the occurrence of HCC and the prognoses of patients with HCC. Areas covered: ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 17, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Practical gastrointestinal investigation of iron deficiency anaemia.
Authors: Banerjee AK, Celentano V, Khan J, Longcroft-Wheaton G, Quine A, Bhandari P Abstract INTRODUCTION: About 10% of oesophagogastroduodenoscopies (OGDs) and colonoscopies are done for investigation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) . Much of the existing guidance on investigation of IDA predates CRC screening, which has driven significant improvements in colonoscopy quality and completion rates, as well as a reduction in Helicobacter pylori prevalence and increase in PPI usage, and therefore probably needs re-consideration. New investigations, e.g. CT colonography, enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy have also been...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 14, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Outcomes of treatment with sorafenib in Egyptian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSION: Sorafenib use should be limited to patients with Child A, PS 0-1, and low disease burden. PMID: 29124987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 11, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Advances in mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in the management of Crohn's disease.
Authors: Ibraheim H, Giacomini C, Kassam Z, Dazzi F, Powell N Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of therapy in Crohn's disease (CD) is induction and maintenance of remission, promotion of mucosal healing and restoration of quality of life. Even the best treatment regimes, including combinations of biologics and immunomodulators lack durable efficacy and have well documented side effects. Accordingly, there is an unmet need for novel therapies. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a subset of non-hematopoietic stem cells that home to sites of inflammation where they exert potent immunomodulatory effects and contribute t...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 4, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Nasogastric aspiration/lavage in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a review of the evidence.
Authors: Karakonstantis S, Tzagkarakis E, Kalemaki D, Lydakis C, Paspatis G Abstract INTRODUCTION: The usefulness of nasogastric aspiration and nasogastric lavage in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding is controversial, as evidenced by conflicting recommendations, both among and within society guidelines. Areas covered: Considering these controversies, we reviewed the evidence regarding the following questions: 1) Can nasogastric lavage stop or slow down the bleeding and improve subsequent endoscopic visualization? 2) Is nasogastric aspiration helpful for the localization of bleeding? 3) Can nasogastric aspirat...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 4, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The biological challenges and pharmacological opportunities of orally administered nanomedicine delivery.
Authors: Moss DM, Curley P, Kinvig H, Hoskins C, Owen A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nano-scale formulations are being developed to improve the delivery of orally administered medicines, and the interactions between nanoformulations and the gastrointestinal luminal, mucosal and epithelial environment is currently being investigated. The mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is capable of trapping and eliminating large particles and pathogens as part of the natural defences of the body, it is becoming clearer that nanoformulation properties such as particle size, charge, and shape, as well as mucous properties suc...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - November 3, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The use of obeticholic acid for the management of non-viral liver disease: current clinical practice and future perspectives.
Authors: Gitto S, Guarneri V, Sartini A, Andreone P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Farnesoid X nuclear receptor is involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, though mainly in the homeostasis of bile acids. Indeed, the agonists of farnesoid X nuclear receptor represent promising drugs. Areas covered: Obeticholic acid, a novel semi-synthetic analogue of the naturally occurring bile acid, has led to encouraging preliminary results in both cholestatic and metabolic liver disease. In patients with primary biliary cholangitis, obeticholic acid determines a significant biochemical improvement although the effects...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 31, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Management of gastrointestinal complications in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis: a single-center experience over 40 years.
This article presents our experience with diagnosing and treating the GI symptoms of ATTRm amyloidosis patients at our center over the last 40 years, in the Swedish clustering area of the disease. Our aim is to help other physicians to better manage GI complications in patients with this rare but widespread condition. Expert commentary: GI symptoms are debilitating complications for ATTRm amyloidosis patients to experience, yet with the appropriate questioning and diagnosis methods, symptomatic treatments of these symptoms can be implemented to provide relief. Further, patients with fewer GI complications and a good nutrit...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 28, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Indeterminate biliary strictures: a simplified approach.
Authors: Xie C, Aloreidi K, Patel B, Ridgway T, Thambi-Pillai T, Timmerman G, Khan A, Atiq M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pre-operative evaluation of biliary strictures remains challenging. The dilemma that exists is how to balance the risk of failing to detect malignancy and the potential morbidity caused by unnecessary surgery in patients with benign etiologies. With emerging novel diagnostic modalities, this study aims to assess the efficacy of diagnostic techniques and facilitate a clinical approach to indeterminate biliary strictures. Areas covered: Conventional imaging modalities are crucial in identifying the loca...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 18, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Endoscopy for patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease: bowel preparation and sedation.
Authors: Bezzio C, Andreozzi P, Casini V, Manes G, Saibeni S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Endoscopy has a key role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is helpful in the diagnosis, in case of relapse, refractoriness, before therapeutic changes, after surgery as well as in the assessment of mucosal healing and in the surveillance of colo-rectal cancer. Patients IBD are intended to undergo several times the examination during their lifespan. Bowel preparation and sedation highly contribute to high-quality colonoscopy. Areas covered: Few studies addressed preparation and sedation in the field of inflamm...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 13, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatments and infectious diseases in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.
Authors: Dipasquale V, Romano C Abstract INTRODUCTION: The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, as is the employment of immunosuppressive and biological drugs. Most patients with IBD receive immunosuppressive therapies during the course of the disease. These molecules are a double-edged sword; while they can help control disease activity, they also increase the risk of infections. Therefore, it is important that pediatricians involved in primary care, pediatric gastroenterologists, and infectious disease physicians have a thorough knowledge of the infections that can affect patients wi...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 11, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Overview of small bowel angioectasias: clinical presentation and treatment options.
Authors: Chetcuti Zammit S, Koulaouzidis A, Sanders DS, McAlindon ME, Rondonotti E, Yung DE, Sidhu R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elderly patients with multiple co-morbidities are at an increased risk of developing small bowel angioectasias. Treating these lesions can be both challenging and costly with patients requiring extensive investigations and recurrent admissions for iron infusions and blood transfusions as well as invasive procedures. This review presents treatment options and describes in detail drugs that should be considered whilst taking into account their effectiveness and their safety profile. Areas covere...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 11, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Preventing liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and the road ahead.
Authors: Nobili V, Miele L, Alisi A PMID: 28994314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 11, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Tenofovir alafenamide as compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the management of chronic hepatitis B with recent trends in patient demographics.
Authors: Hsu YC, Wei MT, Nguyen MH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has recently been approved for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). It is more stable than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in the plasma and can provide similar efficacy with lower circulating concentration in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Areas covered: This synopsis will review the current anti-HBV standard practice and the changing epidemiology of CHB, specifically the controversies surrounding the renal and bone safety associated with TDF use in the context of an aging CHB population. We will review data from phas...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - October 4, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The role of mucoprotectants in the management of gastrointestinal disorders.
Authors: Eutamene H, Beaufrand C, Harkat C, Theodorou V Abstract INTRODUCTION: The intestinal barrier controls the absorption of nutrients and water whilst helping to prevent the entry of toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms from the lumen into the tissues. Deficiencies in the barrier are associated with various gastrointestinal and extra digestive disorders. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the relationship between increased intestinal permeability and disease, and considers the role of mucosal protectants (mucoprotectants) in restoring normal intestinal barrier function, with a particular focus...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 28, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Survival and clinical events related to end-stage liver disease associated with HCV prior to the era of all oral direct-acting antiviral treatments.
CONCLUSION: Our results show the complexity and rapid progression of end-stage liver disease associated with HCV infection. The considerable loss of life expectancy associated with the development of decompensated cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection in the absence of viral clearance through treatment is acutely evident. PMID: 28946785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 28, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base (LKTB) and Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) classification for assessment of human liver injury.
Authors: Thakkar S, Tong W, Chen M, Fang H, Liu Z, Roberts R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is challenging drug development, clinical practice and regulation. The Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base (LTKB) provides essential data for DILI study. Areas Covered: The LTKB provided various types of data that can be used to assess and predict DILI. Among much information available, several reference drug lists with annotated human DILI risk are of important. The LTKB DILI classification data include DILI severity concern determined by the FDA drug labeling, DILI severity score from the NIH LiverTox da...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 23, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 28903609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 15, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The future of diagnosing NASH - could a simple blood test be the key?
Authors: Francque S, Vonghia L PMID: 28862886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 3, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Pharmacoepigenetics and pharmacoepigenomics of gastrointestinal cancers.
Authors: Lopomo A, Coppedè F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of the epigenetic changes occurring in gastrointestinal cancers has gained tremendous advancements in recent years, and some epigenetic biomarkers are already translated into the clinics for cancer diagnostics. In parallel, pharmacoepigenetics and pharmacoepigenomics of solid tumors are relevant novel, but emerging and promising fields. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature to summarize and update the emerging field of pharmacoepigenetics and pharmacoepigenomics of gastrointestinal cancers. Expert commentary: Several epig...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Elastography methods for the non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.
Authors: Roccarina D, Rosselli M, Genesca J, Tsochatzis EA Abstract INTRODUCTION: The gold standard to assess the presence and severity of portal hypertension remains the hepatic vein pressure gradient, however the recent development of non-invasive assessment using elastography techniques offers valuable alternatives. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic accuracy and utility of such techniques in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Areas covered: A literature search focused on liver and spleen stiffness measurement with different elastographic techniques for the assessment of the presence and ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - September 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Hand-foot skin reaction is a beneficial indicator of sorafenib therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a systemic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Wang P, Tan G, Zhu M, Li W, Zhai B, Sun X Abstract BACKGROUND: Sorafenib remains the only standard first-line drug for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) is a very common side-effect in patients treated with sorafenib, and also affects the treatment schedule and quality of life. However, the association of HFSR and response of HCC to sorafenib remain unclear. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to May 7(th), 2017. Review Manager 5.3 software was adopted for performing meta-an...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 31, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Luminally expressed gastrointestinal biomarkers.
Authors: Cummins G, Yung DE, Cox BF, Koulaouzidis A, Desmulliez MPY, Cochran S Abstract INTRODUCTION: A biomarker is a measurable indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses. The identification of a useful biomarker is challenging, with several hurdles to overcome before clinical adoption. This review gives a general overview of a range of biomarkers associated with inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer along the gastrointestinal tract. Areas covered: These markers include those that are already clinically accepted, such as inflammatory markers such as faecal ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 31, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Non-healthcare costs of hepatitis C: A systematic review.
Authors: Pascual-Argente N, Puig-Junoy J, Llagostera-Punzano A Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing interest in the indirect (or non-healthcare) costs of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Areas covered: Systematic review of original studies on the non-healthcare costs of HCV published in English or Spanish between January 2000 and March 2017. 19 studies addressing non-healthcare cost of HCV were included in the analysis. All studies but one contain treatments with monotherapy or dual therapy prior to the recent introduction of innovative and highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAAs). Five studies estimate th...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 29, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of miRNAs in drug resistance of esophageal cancer.
Authors: Yang W, Ma J, Zhou W, Zhou X, Cao B, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Fan D, Hong L Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the increasing incidence of esophageal cancer, drug resistance is becoming a major obstacle to successful cancer therapy since chemotherapy is regarded as a curative approach to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Despite the great progress in anticancer treatment achieved during the last decades, the mechanisms of multidrug resistance have not been completely elucidated. Recently, accumulating studies and pre-clinical reports highlighted the role of miRNAs in the drug resistance of esophageal cancer. Areas cover...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 26, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The role of cell-free DNA in predicting colorectal cancer prognosis.
This study has summarized recent advancements and challenges regarding cell-free DNA in predicting CRC prognosis. Furthermore, the authors make predictions on the potential developments concerning cell-free DNA in future prognosis prediction techniques. Expert Commentary: Cell-free DNA has the value of predicting CRC prognosis as an important biomarke. Further clinical trials should be performed to promote translating cell-free DNA into clinical applications. PMID: 28838275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 26, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The gallbladder polypoid-lesions conundrum: Moving forward with controversy by looking back.
Authors: Xu A, Hu H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gallbladder polypoid-lesions (GPs) are found in 5-10 % of the general population. Although the majority of GPs are asymptomatic and benign in nature, some of them can develop into cancer, which carries a poor prognosis. Currently, the risk factors, natural history and classification of GPs remain unclear, differentiation of benign from malignant or premalignant GPs based on available diagnostic modalities and/or features of patients and GPs remain difficult, and there are still no evidence-based guidelines to dictate when and how GPs of varying sizes and subtypes should be...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 25, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Defibrotide for children and adults with hepatic veno-occlusive disease post hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Authors: Corbacioglu S, Richardson PG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a complication that is typically associated with conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In patients with concomitant multi-organ dysfunction, mortality may be>80%. Recently, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation established separate criteria for diagnosis and severity of VOD/SOS for adults and children, to better reflect current understanding of the disease. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of post-HSCT hepatic VOD/SO...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 22, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

Targeting cannabinoid receptors in gastrointestinal cancers for therapeutic uses: current status and future perspectives.
Authors: Pagano E, Borrelli F PMID: 28817987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 19, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

A mechanism based approach to management of children with end-stage liver disease.
Authors: Haafiz AB Abstract INTRODUCTION: Due to parallel advances in surgical and acute care disciplines, liver transplantation (LT) has revolutionized the outlook for children with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Contrary to advances in technical aspects of LT and the peri-operative care, pre-transplant management of ESLD remains quite a formidable challenge. Areas covered: This review provides mechanisms based management strategies to address common complications of ESLD including malnutrition, amended metabolic pathways, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and development of ascites. Clinically relevant discussion of...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 15, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The role of endoscopy in Eosinophilic Esophagitis: From diagnosis to therapy.
Authors: Lucendo AJ, Arias Á, Molina-Infante J, Arias-González L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has arisen as a common disorder in current clinical and endoscopic gastroenterology practice. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature to summarize and update different aspects related with the use of endoscopy in the diagnostic workout and treatment of pediatric and adult EoE patients is conducted. Expert commentary: Endoscopic features in EoE are frequently subtle, so were inadverted in some initial reports of the disease. Literature has described a wide number of EoE...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 15, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

The current therapeutic options for Crohn's disease: from medical therapy to intestinal transplantation.
Authors: Lauro A, D'Amico F, Gondolesi G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) has an annual incidence per 100.000 person-year of 20.2 in North America and 12.7 in Europe, and the purpose of this review is to evaluate its medical management, from diagnosis to transplant. Pharmacologic manipulation with nutritional care aims to achieve and maintain remission, but more than half of patients will undergo an intestinal resection, very often repeated over time. They could experience short bowel syndrome (SBS) requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Intestinal transplantation (ITx) represents an alternative in ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 15, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research