Polymorphisms of extrinsic death receptor apoptotic genes (FAS −670 G>A, FASL −844 T>C) in coronary artery disease
Abstract Apoptosis plays an important role in atherogenesis and rupture of vulnerable plaques in coronary artery disease. FAS and FAS ligand (FASL) induce apoptosis when FAS binds to FAS-L. However sFas blocks apoptosis by binding to FAS and FASL or sFasL. The present study is sought to examine the role of extrinsic apoptotic genes (FAS, FASL) polymorphism and serum levels of FAS, FASL in the pathogenesis and susceptibility to CAD in south Indian population. The study included 300 CAD patients and 300 healthy controls. Lipid profiles, sFas, sFasL were estimated by commercially available kits. FAS −670 G>...
Source: Apoptosis - April 13, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Injection of Aβ1-40 into hippocampus induced cognitive lesion associated with neuronal apoptosis and multiple gene expressions in the tree shrew
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - April 6, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation and Rac1 activity has implications on ROS production, cell migration and apoptosis
In this study, we present the interplay between f-actin, SNTA1 and Rac1. We analyzed the effect of actin depolymerization on SNTA1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity using actin depolymerizing drugs, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A. Our results indicate a marked decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation of SNTA1 upon actin depolymerization. Results suggest that actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation leads to loss of interaction between SNTA1 and Rac1, with a concomitant loss of Rac1 activation. The loss of SNTA1tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity by actin depolymerization results in in...
Source: Apoptosis - April 4, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-30 inhibits antiapoptotic factor Mcl-1 in mouse and human hematopoietic cells after radiation exposure
Abstract We previously reported that microRNA-30 (miR-30) expression was initiated by radiation-induced proinflammatory factor IL-1β and NFkB activation in mouse and human hematopoietic cells. However, the downstream effectors of miR-30 and its specific role in radiation-induced cell death are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated effects of radiation on miR-30 expression and activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway Bcl-2 family factors in in vivo mouse and in vitro human hematopoietic cells. CD2F1 mice and human CD34+ cells were exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation. In additi...
Source: Apoptosis - March 30, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Suppression of c-Myc induces apoptosis via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent pathway by 4- O -methyl-ascochlorin in leukemia cells
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 30, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Eupatilin induces Sestrin2-dependent autophagy to prevent oxidative stress
Abstract Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone) has many pharmacological activities including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer effects. Autophagy is the basic cellular machinery involving the digestion of damaged cellular components. In the present study, we investigated the protection effects of eupatilin against arachidonic acid (AA) and iron-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible. Eupatilin increased cell viability against AA + iron in a concentration-dependent manner and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and reac...
Source: Apoptosis - March 24, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Unravelling the relationship between macroautophagy and mitochondrial ROS in cancer therapy
Abstract Macroautophagy (Autophagy), an evolutionarily conserved cellular self-digesting process implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, is activated by different stimuli including oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in autophagy modulation through multiple signaling pathways and transcription regulators. Accumulating data support both a positive and negative role of ROS-modulated autophagy in cancer. As a tumor suppressive mechanism, autophagy induces autophagic cell death and maintains genome stability. Conversely, autophagy may promote cancer development by limit...
Source: Apoptosis - March 22, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Deconvoluting the relationships between autophagy and metastasis for potential cancer therapy
Abstract Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosome-dependent degradation process that may digest some long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. As an essential homeostasis maintaining system in normal cells, autophagy plays a key role in several pathological settings, especially cancer. Metastasis, known as a crucial hallmark of cancer progression, is the primary cause of cancer lethality. The role of autophagy in metastasis is quite complex as supportive evidence has indicated both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic functions of autophagy. Autophagy can inhibit metastasis by restricting necrosis and mediating au...
Source: Apoptosis - March 21, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bakuchiol attenuates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury by maintaining mitochondrial function: the role of silent information regulator 1
This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of BAK treatment in the setting of myocardial IRI and to elucidate the potential mechanism of those effects. Prior to induction of IR, isolated rat hearts or cardiomyocytes were exposed to BAK in either the absence or presence of the SIRT1 inhibitors Sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA. BAK exerted cardioprotective effects, as evidenced by the improvements noted in cardiac function following ischemia, attenuated myocardial apoptosis, and changes in several biochemical parameters (including increases in the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, decreases in the level of...
Source: Apoptosis - March 21, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Varying butyric acid amounts induce different stress- and cell death-related signals in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells: implications in neuropathic pain absence during periodontal disease progression
In this study, we exposed NGF-treated PC12 cells to varying BA concentrations [0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mM] and determined selected stress-related (H2O2, glutathione reductase, calcium (Ca2+), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA), and GADD153/CHOPS) and cell death-associated (extrinsic: FasL, TNF-α, TWEAK, and TRAIL; intrinsic: cytochrome C (CytC), NF-kB, CASP8, CASP9, CASP10, and CASP3) signals. Similarly, we confirmed cell death execution by chromatin condensation. Our results showed that low (0.5 mM) and high (1.0 and 5.0 mM) BA levels differ in stress and cell death signaling. Moreover, at periodon...
Source: Apoptosis - March 19, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Berberine activates Nrf2 nuclear translocation and inhibits apoptosis induced by high glucose in renal tubular epithelial cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism
In this study, the underlying mechanisms involved in the protective effects of BBR on high glucose-induced apoptosis were explored using cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E cells) and human kidney proximal tubular cell line (HK-2 cells). We identified the pivotal role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt in BBR cellular defense mechanisms and revealed the novel effect of BBR on nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in NRK-52E and HK-2 cells. BBR attenuated reactive oxygen species production, antioxidant defense (GSH and SOD) and oxidant-sensitive proteins...
Source: Apoptosis - March 15, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Erratum to: DAPK plays an important role in panobinostat-induced autophagy and commits cells to apoptosis under autophagy deficient conditions
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 10, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Injection of Aβ1-40 into hippocampus induced cognitive lesion associated with neuronal apoptosis and multiple gene expressions in the tree shrew
This study utilized twelve adult male tree shrews (TS), which were randomly divided into PBS and amyloidbetapeptide1-40 (Aβ1-40) groups. AD model was established via an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ1-40 after being incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Behavioral, pathophysiological and molecular changes were evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), silver staining, hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining, TUNEL assay and gene sequencing, respectively. At 4 weeks post-injection, as compared with the PBS group, in Aβ1-40 injected animals: cognitive ...
Source: Apoptosis - February 20, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease
In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50–p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same enviro...
Source: Apoptosis - February 20, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Sec6/8 regulates Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, but not Bcl-xl, in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells
This study demonstrates that combination of doxorubicin and sorafenib induces apoptosis in MPNST cells through downregulation of B cell lymphoma protein 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-related protein long form of Bcl-x (Bcl-xl), and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1). Moreover, both Sec6 and Sec8 levels decreased after treatment with doxorubicin and sorafenib and were found to be associated with Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expressions, but not Bcl-xl. Although Sec8 was found to be involved in the regulation of both Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 at the mRNA level, Sec6 regulated Bcl-2 at the mRNA level and the binding affinity of F-box and WD repeat domain containin...
Source: Apoptosis - February 18, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Gadd45b prevents autophagy and apoptosis against rat cerebral neuron oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury
In conclusion, our data suggested that Gadd45b inhibited autophagy and apoptosis under OGD/R. Gadd45b may be a common regulatory protein to control autophagy and apoptosis. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 16, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3
Abstract The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs’ effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinop...
Source: Apoptosis - February 15, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Anticancer potential of pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP) extracted from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30
Abstract Marine bacterium, strain MB30 isolated from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, exhibited antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain MB30 was identified as Staphylococcus sp. The bioactive metabolite produced by the strain MB30 was purified through silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Purified metabolite was further characterized by FT-IR, LC–MS and NMR analyses. On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was identified as pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, ...
Source: Apoptosis - February 6, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mycobacterium avium MAV2052 protein induces apoptosis in murine macrophage cells through Toll-like receptor 4
In this study, using multidimensional fractionation, we identified MAV2052 protein, which induced macrophage apoptosis in M. avium culture filtrates. The recombinant MAV2052 induced macrophage apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. The loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial translocation of Bax, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were observed in macrophages treated with MAV2052. Further, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was required for the apoptosis induced by MAV2052. In addition, ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in MAV2052-mediated TNF-&a...
Source: Apoptosis - February 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Profilin potentiates chemotherapeutic agents mediated cell death via suppression of NF-κB and upregulation of p53
Abstract The molecular mechanism by which Profilin acts as a tumor suppressor is still unclear. Several chemotherapeutic agents, used till date either have unfavorable side effects or acquired resistance in tumor cells. Our findings show that Profilin enhances cell death mediated by several chemotherapeutic-agents. The activation of NF-κB and its dependent genes, mediated by paclitaxel and vinblastine, was completely inhibited in Profilin overexpressing cells. This inhibition was due to the Profilin mediated attenuation of IκBα degradation, thereby preventing p65 nuclear translocation and low NF-...
Source: Apoptosis - February 3, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

GSIV serine/threonine kinase can induce apoptotic cell death via p53 and pro-apoptotic gene Bax upregulation in fish cells
In this study, we demonstrated that the Giant seaperch iridovirus (GSIV) genome encoded a serine/threonine kinase (ST kinase) protein, and induced apoptotic cell death via a p53-mediated Bax upregulation approach and a downregulation of Bcl-2 in fish cells. The ST kinase expression profile was identified through Western blot analyses, which indicated that expression started at day 1 h post-infection (PI), increased up to day 3, and then decreased by day 5 PI. This profile indicated the role of ST kinase expression during the early and middle phases of viral replication. We then cloned the ST kinase gene and tested its...
Source: Apoptosis - January 30, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Phosphocreatine protects against LPS-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 29, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Knockdown of α-synuclein in cerebral cortex improves neural behavior associated with apoptotic inhibition and neurotrophin expression in spinal cord transected rats
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes severe functional impairment with poor recovery. The treatment, however, is far from satisfaction, and the mechanisms remain unclear. By using proteomics and western blot, we found spinal cord transection (SCT) resulted in a significant down-regulation of α-synuclein (SNCA) in the motor cortex of SCT rats at 3 days post-operation. In order to detect the role of SNCA, we used SNCA-ORF/shRNA lentivirus to upregulate or knockdown SNCA expression. In vivo, SNCA-shRNA lentivirus injection into the cerebral cortex motor area not only inhibited SNCA expression, bu...
Source: Apoptosis - January 28, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 enhances the chemosensitivity of laryngeal squamous cell cancer Hep-2 cells to cisplatin
Abstract It has been previously reported that cisplatin is a well-known anticancer drug being used against a wide range of malignancies including head and neck, ovarian and non-small cell lung carcinoma, and demonstrated its anticancer activity by reacting with DNA or changing cell structure, immune response, reactive oxygen species level (ROS). In this research we proved that cisplatin induced cell injuries and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in laryngeal squamous cell cancer Hep-2 cells through ROS generation. The induction of HO-1 clearly protected Hep-2 cells from cisplatin-induced cell death and ROS reacti...
Source: Apoptosis - January 22, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress
This study seeks to determine if caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in myoblast and its underlying mechanism. Apoptosis was assessed by Hochest staining, DAPI staining and annexin V binding and PI staining. ER chaperones, such as GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12, were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Furthermore, caspase-12 inhibitor was used to value the mechanism of the caspase-12 pathway. Apoptosis of myoblast, which is subjected to cyclic stretch, was observed in a time-dependent manner. We found that GRP78 mRNA and...
Source: Apoptosis - January 22, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Necroptosis: a potential, promising target and switch in acute pancreatitis
This article reviewed the progress of necroptosis in AP to provide a reference for deeply understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of AP and identifying new therapeutic targets. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 14, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Enhanced autophagy reveals vulnerability of P-gp mediated epirubicin resistance in triple negative breast cancer cells
Abstract Epirubicin (EPI) is widely used for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but a substantial number of patients develop EPI resistance that is associated with poor outcome. The underlying mechanism for EPI resistance remains poorly understood. We have developed and characterized an EPI-resistant (EPI-R) cell line from parental MDA-MB-231 cells. These EPI-R cells reached stable growth in the medium containing 8 μg/ml of EPI. They overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and contained numerous autophagic vacuoles. The suppression of P-gp overexpression and/or autophagy restored the sensitivity of these EP...
Source: Apoptosis - January 14, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Human islet cells are killed by BID-independent mechanisms in response to FAS ligand
Abstract Cell death via FAS/CD95 can occur either by activation of caspases alone (extrinsic) or by activation of mitochondrial death signalling (intrinsic) depending on the cell type. The BH3-only protein BID is activated in the BCL-2-regulated or mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and acts as a switch between the extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways. We have previously demonstrated that islets from BID-deficient mice are protected from FAS ligand-mediated apoptosis in vitro. However, it is not yet known if BID plays a similar role in human beta cell death. We therefore aimed to test the role of BID in human ...
Source: Apoptosis - January 12, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Membrane-bound heat shock proteins facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen
Abstract Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally identified as stress-responsive proteins and serve as molecular chaperones in different intracellular compartments. Translocation of HSPs to the cell surface and release of HSPs into the extracellular space have been observed during the apoptotic process and in response to a variety of cellular stress. Here, we report that UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment rapidly induce the expression of membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 upstream the phosphatidylserine exposure. Membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the release of IL-6 and IL-1β...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Advanced oxidation protein products induce chondrocyte apoptosis via receptor for advanced glycation end products-mediated, redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway
Abstract Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced chondrocyte apoptosis is a primary cause of cartilage destruction in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a novel pro-inflammatory mediator, have been confirmed to accumulate in patients with RA. However, the effect of AOPPs accumulation on chondrocyte apoptosis and the associated cellular mechanisms remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that the plasma formation of AOPPs was enhanced in RA rats compared with normal. Then, chondrocyte were treated with AOPPs-modified rat serum albumin (AOPPs-RSA) in vitro. E...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bcl-2 silencing attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells
This study therefore reveals critical insight into potential therapeutic targets for treating PAH. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis
Abstract Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of th...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Krabbe disease: involvement of connexin43 in the apoptotic effects of sphingolipid psychosine on mouse oligodendrocyte precursors
In this study, some apoptotic markers such as apoptotic index (AI), DNA fragmentation, caspase-3, PTEN, Bad, and PI3K were determined in oligodendrocyte precursors from wild type or twitcher mice untreated or treated with psychosine. Twitcher is a natural mouse model of Krabbe disease containing a premature stop codon (W339X) in the β-galactosylceramidase gene. Moreover, a possible involvement of connexin (Cx)43 in cell death of oligodendrocyte precursors induced by psychosine was investigated with the final aim to provide a contribution to the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological events that o...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Beta1 integrin inhibits apoptosis induced by cyclic stretch in annulus fibrosus cells via ERK1/2 MAPK pathway
Abstract Low back pain is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) due to cellular loss through apoptosis. Mechanical factors play an important role in maintaining the survival of the annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and the deposition of extracellular matrix. However, the mechanisms that excessive mechanical forces lead to AF cell apoptosis are not clear. The present study was to look for how AF cells sense mechanical changes. In vivo experiments, the involvement of mechanoreceptors in apoptosis was examined by RT-PCR and/or immunoblotting in the lumbar spine of rats subjected to unbalanced dynamic and...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Knockdown of HIF-1α and IL-8 induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma triggers apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells
This study aimed to evaluate whether knockdown of HIF-1α and IL-8 induced apoptosis of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and endothelial cell lines. HCC cell lines were infected with adenovirus-expressing shRNA for HIF-1α and IL-8 and maintained under hypoxic conditions (1 % O2, 24 h). The expression levels of HIF-1α and both apoptotic and growth factors were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. We also investigated apoptosis by TUNEL assay (FACS and Immunofluorescence) and measured the concentration of cytochrome C. Inhibition of HIF-1α and IL-8 up-regulated the expre...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

CD147 is increased in HCC cells under starvation and reduces cell death through upregulating p-mTOR in vitro
In this study, using an Earle’s Balanced Salt Solution medium culture model that mimics nutrient deprivation induced by TACE, we investigated the regulation of CD147 expression on HCC cells under starvation conditions and its functional effects on HCC cell death. During early stages of starvation, the expression of CD147 was considerably upregulated in SMMC7721, HepG2 and HCC9204 hepatoma cell lines at the protein levels. Downregulation of CD147 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly promoted starvation-induced cell death. In addition, CD147 siRNA-transfected SMMC7721 cells demonstrated significantly...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PEDF and 34-mer inhibit angiogenesis in the heart by inducing tip cells apoptosis via up-regulating PPAR-γ to increase surface FasL
Abstract Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent anti-angiogenic factor whose effects are partially mediated through the induction of endothelial cell apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism for PEDF and the functional PEDF peptides 34-mer and 44-mer to inhibit angiogenesis in the heart has not been fully established. In the present study, by constructing adult Sprague–Dawley rat models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in vitro myocardial angiogenesis, we showed that PEDF and 34-mer markedly inhibits angiogenesis by selectively inducing tip cells apoptosis rather than quiescent cel...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of apoptosis and necroptosis inhibitors in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity
In conclusion, our study has a significant potential to show in vitro and in vivo protection obtained by necrostatin-1. Therefore, our results suggest that necroptosis may be an important mechanism of cell death after kidney injury. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PPM1D exerts its oncogenic properties in human pancreatic cancer through multiple mechanisms
In this study, we determined PPM1D expression in human PC tissues and cell lines and their irrespective noncancerous controls. We subsequently investigated the functional role of PPM1D in the migration, invasion, and apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 PC cells in vitro and explored the signaling pathways involved. Furthermore, we examined the role of PPM1D in PC tumorigenesis in vivo. Our results showed that PPM1D is overexpressed in human PC tissues and cell lines and significantly correlated with tumor growth and metastasis. PPM1D promotes PC cell migration and invasion via potentiation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway ...
Source: Apoptosis - December 29, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Drosophila MOF regulates DIAP1 and induces apoptosis in a JNK dependent pathway
Abstract Histone modulations have been implicated in various cellular and developmental processes where in Drosophila Mof is involved in acetylation of H4K16. Reduction in the size of larval imaginal discs is observed in the null mutants of mof with increased apoptosis. Deficiency involving Hid, Reaper and Grim [H99] alleviated mof RNAi induced apoptosis in the eye discs. mof RNAi induced apoptosis leads to activation of caspases which is suppressed by over expression of caspase inhibitors like P35 and Diap1clearly depicting the role of casp...
Source: Apoptosis - December 28, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Phosphocreatine protects against LPS-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation
Abstract Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an exogenous energy substance, which provides phosphate groups for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle and promotes energy metabolism in cells. However, it is still unclear whether PCr has influenced on mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHO) in previous studies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of PCr on lipopolsaccharide (LPS)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mitochondrial OXPHO pathway. PCr protected HUVECs against LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing the mitochondrial pe...
Source: Apoptosis - December 26, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair
Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells displa...
Source: Apoptosis - December 19, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Apoptosis in Drosophila : which role for mitochondria?
Abstract It is now well established that the mitochondrion is a central regulator of mammalian cell apoptosis. However, the importance of this organelle in non-mammalian apoptosis has long been regarded as minor, mainly because of the absence of a crucial role for cytochrome c in caspase activation. Recent results indicate that the control of caspase activation and cell death in Drosophila occurs at the mitochondrial level. Numerous proteins, including RHG proteins and proteins of the Bcl-2 family that are key regulators of Drosophila apoptosis, constitutively or transiently localize in mitochondria. These pr...
Source: Apoptosis - December 17, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Survivin silencing and TRAIL expression using oncolytic adenovirus increase anti-tumorigenic activity in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells
In this study, we demonstrated that survivin downregulation with TRAIL expression greatly enhanced the cytotoxic death of pancreatic cancer cells after gemcitabine treatment. Using real-time RT-PCR, we analyzed five survivin shRNAs to identify the best target sequence for suppression of human survivin, with the goal of treating gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Survivin shRNA 5, corresponding to target 5, showed the greatest reduction in survivin mRNA levels. Furthermore, combined treatment with survivin shRNA-expressing adenovirus with gemcitabine plus TRAIL decreased uncleaved PARP and increased consequent P...
Source: Apoptosis - December 16, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Dihydropyridines’ metabolites-induced early apoptosis after myocardial infarction in rats; new outlook on preclinical study with M-2 and M-3
Abstract Our previous studies established cardio-protective effects of furnidipine and its active metabolites called M-2 and M-3. The aim of current research was to compare the effects of single oral pretreatment with 20 mg kg−1 of M-2 and M-3 on mortality, different forms of arrhythmias, blood pressures parameters and ST-segment changes during occlusion (for 90 min) and reperfusion in the model of myocardial infarction in rats evoked by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Additionally, the development of programmed cell death and biochemical parameters in blood serum were stud...
Source: Apoptosis - December 14, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Depletion of histone N-terminal-acetyltransferase Naa40 induces p53-independent apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway
Abstract Protein N-terminal acetylation is an abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes implicated in various fundamental cellular and biochemical processes. This modification is catalysed by evolutionarily conserved N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) whose deregulation has been linked to cancer development and thus, are emerging as useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Naa40 is a highly selective NAT that acetylates the amino-termini of histones H4 and H2A and acts as a sensor of cell growth in yeast. In the present study, we examine the role of Naa40 in cancer cell survival. We demonstrat...
Source: Apoptosis - December 14, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Thyroid hormones improve cardiac function and decrease expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in the heart of rats 14 days after infarction
Abstract Apoptosis is a key process associated with pathological cardiac remodelling in early-phase post-myocardial infarction. In this context, several studies have demonstrated an anti-apoptotic effect of thyroid hormones (TH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TH on the expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic process 14 days after infarction. Male Wistar rats (300–350 g) (n = 8/group) were divided into four groups: Sham-operated (SHAM), infarcted (AMI), sham-operated + TH (SHAMT) and infarcted + TH (AMIT). For 12 days, the animal...
Source: Apoptosis - December 12, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Functional characterization of Mammary Gland Protein-40, a chitinase-like glycoprotein expressed during mammary gland apoptosis
Abstract MGP-40 is a chitinase-like protein which is over expressed during mammary gland involution. However, its physiological function in the mammary gland is poorly understood. In the present investigation, we have reported the functional significance of buffalo specific MGP-40 in the mammary gland by using an in vitro model of the buffalo mammary epithelial cell (BuMEC) line. MGP-40 was highly up regulated in BuMECs in serum starved condition as well as after treatment with prolactin suggesting its role in the stress response. Subsequently, to study the effect of MGP-40 on BuMECs, the cells were transfected wi...
Source: Apoptosis - December 10, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

SOX6 and PDCD4 enhance cardiomyocyte apoptosis through LPS-induced miR-499 inhibition
In this study, we attempted to explore the mechanisms involved in LPS-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We found that LPS stimulation inhibited microRNA (miR)-499 expression and thereby upregulated the expression of SOX6 and PDCD4 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate that SOX6 and PDCD4 are target genes of miR-499, and they enhance LPS-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by activating the BCL-2 family pathway. The apoptosis process enhanced by overexpression of SOX6 or PDCD4, was rescued by the cardiac-abundant miR-499. Overexpression of miR-499 protected the cardiomyocytes against LPS-induced apoptosis. In brief, our...
Source: Apoptosis - December 10, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells
In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 ...
Source: Apoptosis - November 30, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research