Recombinant human lactoferrin induces apoptosis, disruption of F-actin structure and cell cycle arrest with selective cytotoxicity on human triple negative breast cancer cells
AbstractBreast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Here, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) expressed inPichia pastoris was tested for its potential cytotoxic activity on a panel of six human breast cancer cell lines. The rhLf cytotoxic effect was determined via a live-cell HTS imaging assay. Also, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry protocols were employed to investigate the rhLf mode of action. The rhLf revealed an effective CC50 of 91.4 and 109.46  µg/ml on non-metastatic and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, with favorable selective cytotoxicity index values, 11.68 and 13.99...
Source: Apoptosis - April 2, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Potential role of anastasis in cancer initiation and progression
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - April 1, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Calreticulin in phagocytosis and cancer: opposite roles in immune response outcomes
AbstractCalreticulin (CRT) is a pleiotropic and highly conserved molecule that is mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recently, CRT has gained special interest for its functions outside the endoplasmic reticulum where it has immunomodulatory properties. CRT translocation to the cell membrane serves as an “eat me” signal and promotes efferocytosis of apoptotic cells and cancer cell removal with completely opposite outcomes. Efferocytosis results in a silenced immune response and homeostasis, while removal of dying cancer cells brought about by anthracycline treatment, ionizing-irradiation or phot odyn...
Source: Apoptosis - March 30, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine reverts paclitaxel resistance and attenuates metastatic potential in human nonsmall lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells via ROS mediated modulation of β-catenin pathway
The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error in acknowledgment text. The authors would like to include a statement: “Moumita Dasgupta is supported by Junior Research Fellowship from University Grant Commission, India.” in acknowledgment section. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 28, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Effects of annexin A7 inhibitor-ABO on the expression and distribution of long noncoding RNA-CERNA1 in vascular endothelial cells apoptosis
In this study, we found that nuclear CERNA1 positively regulated BCL2L10, which accelerated the serum and FGF-2 starvation-induced apoptosis of VECs, by enhancing the histone modification level of H3K9ac and H3K4me3 in BCL2L10 promoter region. Furthermore, due to the paradoxical function, we investigated the variation of CERNA1 subcellular location in VECs. The results showed that, as the change of apoptosis status, CERNA1 altered the cellular distribution in VECs. And the annexin A7 inhibitor, ABO (6-amino-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzoxazine), not only increased the expression of CERNA1 by TIA-1, but also specific...
Source: Apoptosis - March 25, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cell death rocks
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 20, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Activator protein-1 and caspase 8 mediate p38 α MAPK-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by palmitic acid
The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms involved in palmitic acid-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Human adult ventricular cardiomyocyte line (AC16 cells) exposed to high physiological levels of PA for 16 h showed enhanced transcription and phosphorylation of c-fos and c-jun subunits of AP-1 and transcription of caspase 8. When AC16 cells were transfected with small interfering RNA specific against p38α MAPK (si-p38α) for 24 or 48 h, the amplified phosphorylation of c-fos was dose-dependently attenuated, and procaspase 8 was dose-de pendently reduced. With translational knockdow...
Source: Apoptosis - March 16, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Improved in vivo targeting of BCL-2 phenotypic conversion through hollow gold nanoshell delivery
AbstractAlthough new cancer therapeutics are discovered at a rapid pace, lack of effective means of delivery and cancer chemoresistance thwart many of the promising therapeutics. We demonstrate a method that confronts both of these issues with the light-activated delivery of a Bcl-2 functional converting peptide, NuBCP-9, using hollow gold nanoshells. This approach has shown not only to increase the efficacy of the peptide 30-fold in vitro but also has shown to reduce paclitaxel resistant H460 lung xenograft tumor growth by 56.4%. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 16, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

BDNF-mediated mitophagy alleviates high-glucose-induced brain microvascular endothelial cell injury
In this study, we investigated the role of BDNF in the hyperglycemic injury of BMECs and its associated intracellular signal transduction pathways. BMECs were treated with 33  mM glucose to imitate the endothelium under hyperglycemic conditions. The high-glucose treatment caused cell dysfunction, as evaluated by oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, which could be alleviated by BDNF. In addition, BDNF preserved mitochondrial function as assessed by mPTP opening, mitochon drial membrane potential, calcium content, and mitochondrial biogenesis markers. Western blot analysis of LC3-II, p62, and TOMM20 and the detection of...
Source: Apoptosis - March 15, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are resistant to cisplatin-induced cell death via enhanced CK2-dependent XRCC1 activity
AbstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly and progressive fibrotic lung disease, but the precise etiology remains elusive. IPF is characterized by the presence of apoptosis-resistant (myo)fibroblasts that relentlessly produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM). Recent studies showed that an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin is implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that the treatment of cancer patients with cisplatin may alter fibroblast viability. To address this possibility, we investigated the cisplatin-induced cell death mechanism in lung fibroblasts derived from IPF...
Source: Apoptosis - March 8, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Inhibition of TNF- α-induced neuronal apoptosis by antidepressants acting through the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA 1
AbstractTumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine considered to be implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder, is a critical regulator of neuronal cell fate. In the present study we found that TNF-α-induced apoptosis of HT22 hippocampal cells, a neuroblast-like cell line, was markedly atten uated by the antidepressants mianserin, mirtazapine and amitriptyline. The anti-apoptotic effect of the antidepressants was blocked by either pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1. Mianserin failed to affect TNF- α-induced casp...
Source: Apoptosis - March 6, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Drosophila jumu modulates apoptosis via a JNK-dependent pathway and is required for other processes in wing development
AbstractPrevious studies in several model organisms have revealed that members of the Forkhead (Fkh) transcription factor family have multiple functions.Drosophila Jumeau (Jumu), a member of this family, participates in cardiogenesis, hematopoiesis and immune system homeostasis. Here, we show that loss ofjumu function positively regulates or triggers apoptosis via a JNK-dependent pathway in wing development.jumu mutants showed reduced wing size and increased apoptosis. Moreover, we observed a loss of the anterior cross vein (ACV) phenotype that was similar to that observed in wings in which JNK signaling has been ectopical...
Source: Apoptosis - February 22, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Simultaneous polychromatic flow cytometric detection of multiple forms of regulated cell death
AbstractCurrently the study of Regulated Cell Death (RCD) processes is limited to the use of lysed cell populations for Western blot analysis of each separate RCD process. We have previously shown that intracellular antigen flow cytometric analysis of RIP3, Caspase-3 and cell viability dye allowed the determination of levels of apoptosis (Caspase-3+  ve/RIP3− ve), necroptosis (RIP3Hi  + ve/Caspase-3− ve) and RIP1-dependent apoptosis (Caspase-3+  ve/RIP3+  ve) in a single Jurkat cell population. The addition of more intracellular markers allows the determination o...
Source: Apoptosis - February 20, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The neuroprotective action of 3,3 ′-diindolylmethane against ischemia involves an inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy that depends on HDAC and AhR/CYP1A1 but not ERα/CYP19A1 signaling
This study demonstrated for the first time, that the neuroprotective action of 3,3′-diindolylmethane against ischemia involves an inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy and depends on AhR/CYP1A1 signaling and HDAC activity, thus creating the possi bility of developing new therapeutic strategies that target neuronal degeneration at specific molecular levels. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 18, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine reverts paclitaxel resistance and attenuates metastatic potential in human nonsmall lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells via ROS mediated modulation of β-catenin pathway
In this study we found that inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine prevented development of paclitaxel resistance in A549 cells with time and potentiated the effect of paclitaxel by increased accumulation of superoxide-producing damaged mitochondria, with elevated ROS generation, it also increased the apoptotic rate and sub G0/ G1 phase arrest with time in A549 cells treated with paclitaxel and attenuated the metastatic potential and cancer stem cell population of the paclitaxel-resistant cells by ROS mediated modulation of the Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway, thereby increasing paclitaxel sensitivity. ROS here pla...
Source: Apoptosis - February 14, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Minocycline promotes cardiomyocyte mitochondrial autophagy and cardiomyocyte autophagy to prevent sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction by Akt/mTOR signaling
In conclusion, minocycline enhanced cardiomyocyte mitochondrial autophagy and cardiomyocyte autophagy and improved cardiac function. The underlying mechanisms were associated with mTORC1 inhibition and mTORC2 activation. Thus, our findings suggest that minocycline may represent a potential approach for treating myocardial injury and provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of myocardial injury and dysfunction after sepsis. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase/eEF2 plays protective roles against glucose deprivation-induced cell death in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts
In conclusion, we for the first time revealed that eEF2K/eEF2 axis under GD condition mediates the inhibition of apoptotic H9c2 cell death at least in part via promotion of autophagy through AMPKα/ULK1 signaling pathway. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 8, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Excess active P13K rescues huntingtin-mediated neuronal cell death but has no effect on axonal transport defects
AbstractHigh levels of oxidative stress is detected in neurons affected by many neurodegenerative diseases, including huntington ’s disease. Many of these diseases also show neuronal cell death and axonal transport defects. While nuclear inclusions/accumulations likely cause cell death, we previously showed that cytoplasmic axonal accumulations can also contribute to neuronal death. However, the cellular mechanisms responsi ble for activating cell death is unclear. One possibility is that perturbations in normal axonal transport alter the function of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-pat...
Source: Apoptosis - February 6, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Combination treatment of podophyllotoxin and rutin promotes mouse Lgr5 +  ve intestinal stem cells survival against lethal radiation injury through Wnt signaling
AbstractIt has been well established that radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is manifested through loss of intestinal crypt stem cells and disruption of the mucosal layers, resulting in diarrhoea, weight loss, electrolyte imbalance, infection and mortality. Podophyllotoxin and rutin in combination (G-003M) has been reported to regulate endogenous cellular antioxidant defense systems and inflammatory response. However, the mechanism by which G-003M ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) injury remains unclear. Here, we hypothesize the radioprotective potential of G-003M would amplify the intestinal ...
Source: Apoptosis - February 6, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Chemotherapeutic paclitaxel and cisplatin differentially induce pyroptosis in A549 lung cancer cells via caspase-3/GSDME activation
AbstractGasdermin E (GSDME) has an important role in inducing secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Upon apoptotic stimulation, it can be cleaved by activated caspase-3 to generate its N-terminal fragment (GSDME-NT), which executes pyroptosis by perforating the plasma membrane. GSDME is expressed in many human lung cancers including A549 cells. Paclitaxel and cisplatin are two representative chemotherapeutic agents for lung cancers, which induce apoptosis via different action mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether they can induce GSDME-mediated secondary necrosis/pyroptosis in lung A549 cancer cells. Here we showed that ...
Source: Apoptosis - February 1, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Genetic and epigenetic analysis of the BAX and BCL2 in the placenta of pregnant women complicated by preeclampsia
AbstractThe current study examined the effects ofBAX andBCL2 polymorphisms and methylation as well as mRNA expression on susceptibility to PE. After delivery, the placentas were collected from 92 women with PE, as well as 106 normotensive pregnant women. TheBAX rs4645878 andBCL2 rs2279115 polymorphisms were genotyped by the PCR-RFLP method. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used for analysis of promoter methylation. mRNA expression was assayed by Quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, in silico analysis was performed by bioinformatics tools. There was no relationship between PE and placental BAX rs4645878 and BCL2 rs2279115 po...
Source: Apoptosis - January 30, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Methods for monitoring the progression of cell death, cell disassembly and cell clearance
AbstractCell death through apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis, as well as the clearance of dead cells are crucial biological processes in the human body. Likewise, disassembly of dying cells during apoptosis to generate cell fragments known as apoptotic bodies may also play important roles in regulating cell clearance and intercellular communication. Recent advances in the field have led to the development of new experimental systems to identify cells at different stages of cell death, measure the levels of apoptotic cell disassembly, and monitor the cell clearance process using a range of in vitro, ex vivo an...
Source: Apoptosis - January 25, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Targeting phosphatidylserine for radionuclide-based molecular imaging of apoptosis
AbstractOne major characteristic of programmed cell death (apoptosis) results in the increased expression of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer membrane of dying cells. Consequently, PS represents an excellent target for non-invasive imaging of apoptosis by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Annexin V is a 36  kDa protein which binds with high affinity to PS in the presence of Ca2+ ions. This makes radiolabeled annexins valuable apoptosis imaging agents for clinical and biomedical research applications for monitoring apoptosis in vivo. However, the use of radio...
Source: Apoptosis - January 25, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Protective effect of dihydromyricetin on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis in human myelomonocytic lymphoma cells
AbstractDihydromyricetin (DMY) is a traditional herbal medicine, with a wide range of biological activities. Extreme hyperthermia (HT) can suppress the immune system; thus, protection of the immune system is beneficial in heat-related diseases, including heatstroke. In our study, we revealed the protective effect of DMY against HT-induced apoptosis and analysed the underlying molecular mechanisms. We incubated human myelomonocytic lymphoma U937 cells at 44  °C for 30 min with or without DMY and followed by further incubation for 6 h at 37 °C. Cell viability was determined by the CCK-8 assay. DMY...
Source: Apoptosis - January 25, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

NF- κB contributes to Smac mimetic-conferred protection from tunicamycin-induced apoptosis
AbstractSmac mimetics that deplete cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins have been shown to activate Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF- κB). Here, we report that Smac mimetic-mediated activation of NF-κB contributes to the rescue of cancer cells from tunicamycin (TM)-triggered apoptosis. The prototypic Smac mimetic BV6 activates non-canonical and canonical NF-κB pathways, while TM has little effect on NF-κB signaling. Importantl y, ectopic expression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR), which inhibits canonical and non-canonical NF-κB activation, signi...
Source: Apoptosis - January 24, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Overexpression of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) mitigates the effect of H 2 O 2 -induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in renal tubule epithelial cells
AbstractIschemia/reperfusion is a major cause of acute kidney injury and can induce apoptosis in renal epithelial tubule (HK-2) cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to apoptosis in acute kidney injury. We previously reported that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) functions as an anti-apoptotic factor in H2O2-treated HK-2 cells although the precise mechanism underlying this action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the role of ALR in H2O2-induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis. We overexpressed ALR and established a H2O2-induced ER stress m...
Source: Apoptosis - January 24, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ultraspiracle-independent anti-apoptotic function of ecdysone receptors is required for the survival of larval peptidergic neurons via suppression of grim expression in Drosophila melanogaster
In this study, we show that disruption of endogenous EcR function by ectopic expression of dominant negative forms of EcRs (EcRDN) causes premature death of larval CCAP neurons in a caspase-dependent manner. This event is rescued by co-expression of individual EcR isoforms. Furthermore, larval CCAP neurons are largely normal inecr mutants lacking either EcR-A or EcR-B isoforms, suggesting that EcR isoforms redundantly function to protect larval CCAP neurons. Of surprise, a role of Ultraspiracle (Usp), a canonical partner of EcR, is dispensable in the protection of CCAP neurons, whereas both EcR and Usp are required for ind...
Source: Apoptosis - January 14, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: MiRNA-126 expression inhibits IL-23R mediated TNF- α or IFN-γ production in fibroblast-like synoviocytes in a mice model of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis
The authors would like to add an article note stating that “The authors Jie Gao and Ruina Kong have equally contributed to the article”. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cancer therapeutics based on BCL-2 functional conversion
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 5, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Clotam enhances anti-proliferative effect of vincristine in Ewing sarcoma cells
This study evaluated the effect of Clotam (tolfenamic acid or TA), a small molecule and inhibitor of Specificity protein1 (Sp1) and survivin for sensitizing ES cell lines to chemother apeutic agent, vincristine (VCR). ES cells (CHLA-9 and TC-32) were treated with TA or VCR or TA + VCR (combination), and cell viability was assessed after 24/48/72 h. Effect of TA or VCR or TA + VCR treatment on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were evaluated using propidium iodide, cell cy cle assay and Annexin V flow cytometry respectively. The apoptosis markers, caspase 3/7 (activity levels) and cleaved...
Source: Apoptosis - January 4, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-663 antagonizes apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor to induce apoptosis in epithelial cells
AbstractMicroRNAs are small functional RNAs that modulate various biological processes in cells by interfering with gene translation. We have previously demonstrated that certain miRNAs play a crucial role in the innate immune responses of human oral epithelial cells toPorphyromonas gingivalis. While addressing the mechanisms ofP. gingivalis induced apoptosis in these cells, we discovered that certain miRNAs are upregulated upon stimulation with live bacteria. These upregulated miRNAs include hsa-miR-584, hsa-miR-572, hsa-miR-210, hsa-miR-492, hsa-miR-623 and hsa-miR-663. Further analysis revealed an unexpected role for hs...
Source: Apoptosis - January 4, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Oxidative stress generated by irradiation of a zinc(II) phthalocyanine induces a dual apoptotic and necrotic response in melanoma cells
AbstractMelanoma is an aggressive form of skin carcinoma, highly resistant to traditional therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive therapeutic procedure  that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward malignant cells. In this work we evaluated the effect of a cationic zinc(II) phthalocyanine (Pc13) as photosensitizer on a panel of melanoma cells. Incubation with Pc13 and irradiation induced a concentration and light dose-dependent phototoxici ty. In order to study the mechanism underlying Pc13-related cell death and to compare the effect of different doses of PDT, the most sensitive melanoma B16F0...
Source: Apoptosis - January 2, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cell death in the human infant central nervous system and in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
AbstractThe brainstem has been a focus of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) research with amassing evidence of increased neuronal apoptosis. The present study extends the scope of brain regions examined and determines associations with known SIDS risk factors. Immunohistochemical expression of cell death markers, active caspase-3 and TUNEL, was studied in 37 defined brain regions in infants (aged 1 –12 months) who died suddenly and unexpectedly (SUDI). A semi-quantitative mean score of marker expression was derived for each region and scores compared between three SUDI subgroups: explained SUDI (eSUDI; n =&t...
Source: Apoptosis - January 2, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of cell death induced by arginase and asparaginase in precursor B-cell lymphoblasts
In conclusion, arginase causes death of lymphoblasts by arginine-depletion induced apoptosis, via mechanism distinct from asparaginase. Therapeutic implications for childhood ALL include: arginase might be used as treatment (but antagonised by dietary arginine and citrulline), chloroquine may enhance efficacy of asparaginase treatment, and partial resistance to arginase and asparaginase may develop by BCL-2 expression. Arginase or asparaginase might potentially be used to treat Burkitt lymphoma. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - December 21, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cornification of nail keratinocytes requires autophagy for bulk degradation of intracellular proteins while sparing components of the cytoskeleton
AbstractEpidermal keratinocytes undergo cornification to form the cellular building blocks of hard skin appendages such as nails and the protective layer on the surface of the skin. Cornification requires the cross-linking of structural proteins and the removal of other cellular components to form mechanically rigid and inert corneocytes. Autophagy has been proposed to contribute to this intracellular remodelling process, but its molecular targets in keratinocytes, if any, have remained elusive. Here, we deleted the essential autophagy factor Atg7 in K14-positive epithelia of mice and determined by proteomics the impact of...
Source: Apoptosis - December 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

A thiopyran derivative with low murine toxicity with therapeutic potential on lung cancer acting through a NF- κB mediated apoptosis-to-pyroptosis switch
AbstractPyroptosis is a novel manner of cell death that can be mediated by chemotherapy drugs. The awareness of pyroptosis is significantly increasing in the fields of anti-tumor research and chemotherapy drugs. Invoking the occurrence of pyroptosis is an attractive prospect for the treatment of lung cancer. Here, the compound L61H10 was obtained as a thiopyran derivative to compare its activity with curcumin. It was indicated that L61H10 exhibited good anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo via the switch of apoptosis-to-pyroptosis, which was associated with the NF- κB signaling pathway. In addition, L61H10 h...
Source: Apoptosis - December 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

NG25, a novel inhibitor of TAK1, suppresses KRAS -mutant colorectal cancer growth in vitro and in vivo
AbstractKRAS mutations are one of the most prevalent genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although directly targeting KRAS still is a challenge in anti-cancer therapies, alternatively inhibiting KRAS related signaling pathways has been approached effectively. Here we firstly reported that MAP kinase, transforming growth factor- β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), commonly expressed in CRC cell lines and significantly associated withKRAS mutation status. Inhibition of TAK1 by the small molecular inhibitor NG25 could inhibit CRC cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo, especially inKRAS-mutant cells. NG25 induced c...
Source: Apoptosis - December 4, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correlation between microbes and colorectal cancer: tumor apoptosis is induced by sitosterols through promoting gut microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids
In this study, we investigated the roles of bacteria and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to the anti-colorectal cancer (anti-CRC) effects of sitosterols in BALB/c nude mice. Sitosterols were administered orally and gut microbiota composition and intestinal SCFAs changes were analyzed. The correlation between gut microbiota, SCFAs, and tumor apoptosis was assessed by a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Tumor growth in the mice was inhibited by sitosterol-treatment. Mechanistic studies revealed that sitosterol-treatment reduced the expression of PI3K/Akt, promoted the activation of Bad, decreased Bcl-xl, and enhanc...
Source: Apoptosis - November 30, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

A real-time, bioluminescent annexin V assay for the assessment of apoptosis
This study details our efforts to develop, characterize, and demonstrate the features of the assay by providing relevant examples from diverse cell models for programmed cell death. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 29, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and autophagy elicited by combined treatment with oridonin and cetuximab in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma
AbstractCombined oridonin (ORI), a natural and safe kaurene diterpenoid isolated fromRabdosia rubescens, and cetuximab (Cet), an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, have been reported to exert synergistic anti-tumor effects against laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) both in vitro and in vivo by our group. In the present study, we further found that ORI/Cet treatment not only resulted in apoptosis but also induced autophagy. AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway was found to be involved in the activation of autophagy in ORI/Cet-treated LSCC cells, which is independent of p53 status. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)...
Source: Apoptosis - November 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PPPDE1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma development by negatively regulate p53 and apoptosis
AbstractWe have previously identified thatPPPDE1 is a deubiquitinase (DUB) belonging to a cysteine isopeptidase family. Here we sought to explore the biological significance ofPPPDE1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, we found that amplification and overexpression ofPPPDE1 were associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We also demonstrated that knocking down ofPPPDE1 could significantly block the clonal growth and tumorigenicity of human HCC cells, which revealed a critical role forPPPDE1 in HCC development. Furthermore, we proved thatPPPDE1 is ...
Source: Apoptosis - November 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Ready player one? Autophagy shapes resistance to photodynamic therapy in cancers
The below funding information was not submitted and hence not included in the original publication. The funding information is given below. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Licochalcone A induces apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress via a phospholipase C γ1-, Ca 2+ -, and reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells
The original version of this article contained mistakes in figures. The western blot data for pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 (Fig.  1d), β-actin (Fig. 1d), PLCγ1 (Fig. 5d), and eIF2α (Fig. 7d) are incorrect. The corrected Figs. 1d, 5d, and 7d are shown below. The corrections do not influence either the validity of the published data or the conclusion described in the article. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 2, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Apicidin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondrial dysfunction-associated apoptosis via phospholipase C γ1- and Ca 2+ -dependent pathway in mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells
The original version of this article contained a mistake in the figure. The Ca2  + confocal image for the 2-APB/Apicidin-120 min in Fig. 5d is incorrect. The correction does not influence either the validity of the published data or the conclusion described in the article. The corrected Fig. 5d is given below. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 2, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Sigma-1 receptor protects against endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in mice with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury
AbstractReports have showed that Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) activation can protect neurons against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice and alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in cultured cells, but little known is about the protective role of Sig-1R on ER stress induced by cerebral I/R. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Sig-1R exerts a protective effect against ER stress-mediated apoptosis in cerebral I/R using a 15-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) mouse model. At 72  h after reperfusion in BCCAO mice, we found that Sig-1R knockout (Sig-1R KO) significantly i...
Source: Apoptosis - November 1, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Klotho modulates ER-mediated signaling crosstalk between prosurvival autophagy and apoptotic cell death during LPS challenge
In this study, we have evaluated the effect ofklotho silencing on human fibroblasts exposed to a non-toxic dose of lipopolysaccharide in terms of in vitro wound healing ability. We show for the first time, thatklotho silencing in fibroblasts intensified lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response, what resulted in genomic instability, p-eIF2a-mediated ER stress, retardation of prosurvival autophagy, induction of apoptotic cell death and finally in impaired wound closure. Therefore, our data suggest that klotho serves as a part of cellular defense mechanism engaged in providing protection against b...
Source: Apoptosis - October 24, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Release of overexpressed CypB activates ERK signaling through CD147 binding for hepatoma cell resistance to oxidative stress
The original version of this article contained a mistake. The bands for HA Tag and t-ERK in Figs.  2d, 2h, 3d are incorrect. The author informs that these errors had no influence in the scientific content of the paper. The corrected figures (Figs. 2 and 3) are given below. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - October 6, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ready player one? Autophagy shapes resistance to photodynamic therapy in cancers
In this report, we examine the relationship between PDT responsiveness and autophagy, which can exert a cytoprotective effect. Autophagy is an essential physiological process that maintains cellular homeostasis by degrading dysfunctional or impaired cellular components and organelles via a lysosome-based pathway. Autophagy, which includes macroautophagy and microautophagy, can be a factor that decreases or abolishes responses to various therapeutic protocols. We systematically discuss the mechanisms underlying cell-fate decisions elicited by PDT; analyse the principles of PDT-induced autophagy, macroautophagy and microauto...
Source: Apoptosis - October 4, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

TAK1 mediates convergence of cellular signals for death and survival
AbstractTGF- β activated kinase 1, a MAPK kinase kinase family serine threonine kinase has been implicated in regulating diverse range of cellular processes that include embryonic development, differentiation, autophagy, apoptosis and cell survival. TAK1 along with its binding partners TAB1, TAB2 and TAB3 displ ays a complex pattern of regulation that includes serious crosstalk with major signaling pathways including the C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK, and I-kappa B kinase complex (IKK) involved in establishing cellular commitments for death and survival. This review also highlights how TAK1 orche strates reg...
Source: Apoptosis - October 4, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ready player one? Autophagy shapes resistance to photodynamic therapy in cancers
In this report, we examine the relationship between PDT responsiveness and autophagy, which can exert a cytoprotective effect. Autophagy is an essential physiological process that maintains cellular homeostasis by degrading dysfunctional or impaired cellular components and organelles via a lysosome-based pathway. Autophagy, which includes macroautophagy and microautophagy, can be a factor that decreases or abolishes responses to various therapeutic protocols. We systematically discuss the mechanisms underlying cell-fate decisions elicited by PDT; analyse the principles of PDT-induced autophagy, macroautophagy and microauto...
Source: Apoptosis - October 4, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research