The analog of cGAMP, c-di-AMP, activates STING mediated cell death pathway in estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer cells
This study s uggests that c-di-AMP can activate and modulates STING pathway to induce mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer cells. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - April 10, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ca 2+ overload- and ROS-associated mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to δ-tocotrienol-mediated paraptosis in melanoma cells
AbstractMelanoma is an aggressive tumor with still poor therapy outcomes. δ-tocotrienol (δ-TT) is a vitamin E derivative displaying potent anti-cancer properties. Previously, we demonstrated that δ-TT triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Here, we investigated whether it might also activate paraptosis, a non-canonical programmed cell death. In accordance with the main paraptotic features, δ-TT was shown to promote cytoplasmic vacuolization, associated with endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial dilation and protein synthesis, as well as MAPK activation in A375 and BLM cell lines. Moreover, treate...
Source: Apoptosis - April 3, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The role of P53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) in ovarian development, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases
AbstractP53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only member of the BCL-2 family, is a direct transcriptional target of P53 that elicits mitochondrial apoptosis under treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. It also induces excessive apoptosis in cardiovascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases. PUMA has been found to play a critical role in ovarian apoptosis. In the present paper, we review the progress of the study in PUMA over the past two decades in terms of its inducement and/or amplification of programmed cell death and describe recent updates to the understanding of bo...
Source: Apoptosis - March 30, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

miR-30b-5p inhibits cancer progression and enhances cisplatin sensitivity in lung cancer through targeting LRP8
AbstractAccumulated evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs are closely implicated in lung carcinogenesis. Herein, we explored the expression pattern of miR-30b-5p in lung cancer, and aimed to uncover miR-30b-5p roles in lung cancer progression and drug resistance. miR-30b-5p expression profiles in lung cancer tissues and the matched non-tumor tissues were determined by using qPCR. Cell viability, migration, invasion andin vivo tumorigenesis were determined by using the CCK-8, colony formation, wound healing, transwell chambers experiments and tumor xenograft models. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and dual luciferase reporter...
Source: Apoptosis - March 29, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The molecular mechanism of a novel derivative of BTO-956 induced apoptosis in human myelomonocytic lymphoma cells
In conclusion, TA induced apoptosis through ER stress and activation of autophagy, and the latter is not conducive to TA-induced cell death. Our results may provide a new insight into the strategic development of novel therapy for the treatment of AML. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 18, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Response to the letter to the editor: Dihydroartemisinin prevents palmitate-induced β-cell apoptosis
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 16, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Release mechanisms of major DAMPs
AbstractDamage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous molecules which foment inflammation and are associated with disorders in sepsis and cancer. Thus, therapeutically targeting DAMPs has potential to provide novel and effective treatments. When establishing anti-DAMP strategies, it is important not only to focus on the DAMPs as inflammatory mediators but also to take into account the underlying mechanisms of their release from cells and tissues. DAMPs can be released passively by membrane rupture due to necrosis/necroptosis, although the mechanisms of release appear to differ between the DAMPs. Other types o...
Source: Apoptosis - March 13, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

New insights into targeting mitochondria in ischemic injury
AbstractStroke is the leading cause of adult disability and death worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a marker of neuronal death during ischemic stroke. Maintaining the function of mitochondria is important for improving the survival of neurons and maintaining neuronal function. Damaged mitochondria induce neuronal cell apoptosis by releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-apoptotic factors. Mitochondrial fission and fusion processes and mitophagy are of great importance to mitochondrial quality control. This paper reviews the dynamic changes in mitochondria, the roles of mitochondria in diff...
Source: Apoptosis - March 9, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

A novel apoptosis probe, cyclic ApoPep-1, for in vivo imaging with multimodal applications in chronic inflammatory arthritis
In this study we investigated whether cyclic apoptosis-targeting peptide-1 (CApoPep-1) can be used as an apoptosis imaging probe in inflammatory arthritis. We tested the utility ofCApoPep-1 for detecting apoptotic immune cells in vitro and ex vivo using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The feasibility of visualizing and quantifying apoptosis using this probe was evaluated in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, especially after treatment.CApoPep-1 peptide may successfully replace Annexin V for in vitro and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for ex vivo in the measur...
Source: Apoptosis - March 3, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Dihydroartemisinin prevents palmitate-induced β-cell apoptosis
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 19, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) in cell death and cardiovascular disease
This article also describes the potential therapeutic effect and research prospects of ARC. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 19, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Honokiol induces paraptosis - like cell death of acute promyelocytic leukemia via mTOR & amp; MAPK signaling pathways activation
AbstractAcute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a blood system disease caused by the accumulation of a large number of immature blood cells in bone marrow. Although the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic has reached a high level of complete remission rate and 5-year disease-free survival rate, the occurrence of various adverse reactions still severely affects the quality of life of patients. As a natural product, honokiol (HNK) has the advantages of low toxicity and high efficiency, and it is a potential drug for the treatment of cancer. Since cancer cells can escape apoptotic cell death through multi...
Source: Apoptosis - February 7, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: NPC-16, a novel naphthalimide –polyamine conjugate, induced apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and Bel-7402 cells
The Editors-in-Chief have retracted this article [1]. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 3, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Progesterone induces apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and calcitriol via activation of caspase-9 pathways in ovarian and endometrial cancer cells in vitro
AbstractPreviously we have shown inhibition of endometrial cancer cell growth with progesterone and calcitriol. However, the mechanisms by which the two agents attenuate proliferation have not been well characterized yet. Herein, we investigated how progesterone and calcitriol induce apoptosis in cancer cells. DNA fragmentation was upregulated by progesterone and calcitriol in ovarian and endometrial cancer cells. Time-dependent treatment of ovarian cancer cells, ES-2, and TOV-21G with progesterone enhanced caspase -8 activity after 12  h, whereas OV-90, TOV-112D, HEC-1A, and HEC-59 cells showed increased activity aft...
Source: Apoptosis - January 30, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Apoptosis induced by SARS-CoV-2: can we target it?
AbstractSome viruses are known to be associated with increased apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death triggered by these viruses has a complex role in host antiviral immunity, and might facilitate the viral clearance or act as a mechanism for virus-induced tissue injury and disease progression. The induction of apoptosis is a hallmark of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Accumulating evidence suggests that there is a direct relationship between apoptosis rate and COVID ‐19 pathogenicity/severity. Targeting virus-induced apoptosis could be a promising strategy in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 29, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Characteristics of intracellular propagation of mitochondrial BAX recruitment during apoptosis
AbstractRecent advancements in live cell imaging technologies have identified the phenomenon of intracellular propagation of late apoptotic events, such as cytochrome c release and caspase activation. The mechanism, prevalence, and speed of apoptosis propagation remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have demonstrated propagation of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAX. To evaluate the role of BAX in intracellular apoptotic propagation, we used high speed live-cell imaging to visualize fluorescently tagged-BAX recruitment to mitochondria in four immortalized cell lines. We show that propagation of mitochondrial BAX recruitment...
Source: Apoptosis - January 11, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

H 2 S probe CPC inhibits autophagy and promotes apoptosis by inhibiting glutathionylation of Keap1 at Cys434
AbstractH2S is actual an endogenous signaling gas molecule and involved in a range of cell physiological processes. However, the mechanism of endogenous H2S regulating autophagy and apoptosis has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we try to address this issue by using a H2S probe, (E)-2-(4-(4-(7-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-styryl)-1, 3, 3-trimethyl-3H-indol-1-ium iodide (CPC), which could react with endogenous H2S.  Herein, we reported that CPC inhibited autophagy and decreased the expression and activity of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), then induced cell apoptosis. CPC inhi...
Source: Apoptosis - January 3, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Triclosan induces apoptosis in Burkitt lymphoma-derived BJAB cells through caspase and JNK/MAPK pathways
In conclusion, this report identifies TCS as an antitumor agent and provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing TCS-induced apoptosis in BL cells. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - January 2, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Fluorizoline-induced apoptosis requires prohibitins in nematodes and human cells
AbstractWe previously showed that fluorizoline, a fluorinated thiazoline compound, binds to both subunits of the mitochondrial prohibitin (PHB) complex, PHB1 and PHB2, being the expression of these proteins required for fluorizoline-induced apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. To investigate the conservation of this apoptotic mechanism, we studied the effect of PHB downregulation on fluorizoline activity on two human cell lines, HEK293T and U2OS. Then, we asked whether PHBs mediate the effect of fluorizoline in a multicellular organism. Interestingly, reduced levels of PHBs in the human cells impaired the induction of...
Source: Apoptosis - January 2, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The role of the DFF40/CAD endonuclease in genomic stability
AbstractMaintenance of genomic stability in cells is primordial for cellular integrity and protection against tumor progression. Many factors such as ultraviolet light, oxidative stress, exposure to chemical reagents, particularly mutagens and radiation, can alter the integrity of the genome. Thus, human cells are equipped with many mechanisms that prevent these irreversible lesions in the genome, as DNA repair pathways, cell cycle checkpoints, and telomeric function. These mechanisms activate cellular apoptosis to maintain DNA stability. Emerging studies have proposed a new protein in the maintenance of genomic stability:...
Source: Apoptosis - January 2, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Intracellular leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 competes with Apaf-1 for binding cytochrome c in protecting MCF-7 breast cancer cells from apoptosis
AbstractLeucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG1) has been shown to compete with apoptosis activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) for binding cytochromec (Cytc) and could play a role in inhibition of apoptosis. Employing MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we report that intracellular LRG1 does protect against apoptosis. Thus, cells transfected with thelrg1 gene and expressing higher levels of LRG1 were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis than parental cells, while cells in which LRG mRNA was knocked down by short hairpin (sh) RNA-induced degradation were more sensitive. The amount of Cytc co-immunoprecipitated with Apaf-1...
Source: Apoptosis - January 1, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The extracellular lactate-to-pyruvate ratio modulates the sensitivity to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via the cytosolic NADH/NAD + redox state
AbstractThe advantages of the Warburg effect on tumor growth and progression are well recognized. However, the relevance of the Warburg effect for the inherent resistance to apoptosis of cancer cells has received much less attention. Here, we show here that the Warburg effect modulates the extracellular lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, which profoundly regulates the sensitivity towards apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in several cell lines. To induce oxidative stress, we used the rapid apoptosis inducer Raptinal. We observed that medium conditioned by HepG2 cells has a high lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and confers resistance t...
Source: Apoptosis - November 23, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Potential role of TrkB agonist in neuronal survival by promoting CREB/BDNF and PI3K/Akt signaling in vitro and in vivo model of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neuronal death
AbstractStriatal neurons depends on an afferent supply of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-(BDNF) that explicitly interacts with tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor and performs sundry functions including synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and growth. Therefore, we aimed to scrutinize an active molecule that functions identical to BDNF in activating TrkB receptor and it ’s downstream targets for restoring neuronal survival in Huntington disease (HD). Data from in vitro Neuro-2a cell line showed that treatment with 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), improved 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in...
Source: Apoptosis - November 23, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Association between nuclear factor of kappa B (NF κB) deficiency and induction of eryptosis in mouse erythrocytes
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 16, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Response to letter to the Editor: The therapeutic strategy of drug re-positioning to induce autophagic cell death in brain malignancy
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 13, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The interplay between apoptosis and ferroptosis mediated by ER stress
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 7, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The delay in cell death caused by the induction of autophagy by P2Et extract is essential for the generation of immunogenic signals in melanoma cells
AbstractP2Et extract obtained from theCaesalpinia spinosa plant is abundant in phenolic compounds such as gallic acid and ethyl gallate and can generate signals to activate the immune response by inducing a mechanism known as immunogenic cell death in murine models of breast cancer and melanoma. Immunogenic cell death involves mechanisms such as autophagy, which can be modulated by various natural compounds, including phenolic compounds with a structure similar to those found in P2Et extract. Here, we determine the role of autophagy in apoptosis and the generation of immunogenic signals using murine wild-type B16-F10 melan...
Source: Apoptosis - November 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The interplay between apoptosis and ferroptosis mediated by ER stress
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - November 2, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Functional characterization of the Drosophila suzukii pro-apoptotic genes reaper , head involution defective and grim
AbstractApoptosis is a fundamental process for the elimination of damaged or unwanted cells, and is a key aspect of development. It is triggered by pro-apoptotic genes responding to the intrinsic pathway that senses cell stress or the extrinsic pathway that responds to signals from other cells. The disruption of these genes can therefore lead to developmental defects and disease. Pro-apoptotic genes have been studied in detail in the fruit flyDrosophila melanogaster, a widely-used developmental model. However, little is known about the corresponding genes in its relativeD. suzukii, a pest of soft fruit crops that originate...
Source: Apoptosis - October 28, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Sphingosylphosphorylcholine alleviates hypoxia-caused apoptosis in cardiac myofibroblasts via CaM/p38/STAT3 pathway
AbstractBlockade of hypoxia-caused nonmyocytes apoptosis helps improve survival and mitigate ventricular remodeling and dysfunction during the chronic stage of myocardial infarction. But tools affecting nonmyocyte apoptosis are very rare. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid in plasma, was proved to protect cardiomyocyte against apoptosis in an ischemic model in our previous study. Here, we showed that SPC also inhibited hypoxia-induced apoptosis in myofibroblasts, an important type of nonmyocytes in the heart. Calmodulin (CaM) is an identified receptor of SPC. We clarified that S...
Source: Apoptosis - October 17, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Circumventing the Crabtree effect: forcing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) via galactose medium increases sensitivity of HepG2 cells to the purine derivative kinetin riboside
AbstractSmall-molecule compound-based therapies have provided new insights into cancer treatment against mitochondrial impairment. N6-furfuryladenosine (kinetin riboside, KR) is a purine derivative and an anticancer agent that selectively affects the molecular pathways crucial for cell growth and apoptosis by interfering with mitochondrial functions and thus might be a potential mitotoxicant. Metabolism of cancer cells is predominantly based on the Crabtree effect that relies on glucose-induced inhibition of cell respiration and thus on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which supports the survival of cancer cells in meta...
Source: Apoptosis - September 20, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Maslinic acid differentially exploits the MAPK pathway in estrogen-positive and triple-negative breast cancer to induce mitochondrion-mediated, caspase-independent apoptosis
AbstractBreast cancer accounts for 1.4 million new cases every year. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one the leading cause of mortality in developing countries and is associated with early age onset (under 40  years old). Chemotherapy has a poor success rate in patients with TNBC as compared to other types of breast cancers. It is due to the lack of expression of three validated molecular markers for breast cancer, the estrogen and progesterone receptors, and the amplification of HER-2/Neu. Therefore, a clear need exists for a greater understanding of TNBC at all levels and for the development of better therap...
Source: Apoptosis - September 16, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The function and mechanism of ferroptosis in cancer
AbstractFerroptosis is a newly defined form of regulated cell death (RCD) characterized by iron overload, lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and lipid peroxidation, which is different from necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy and other forms of RCD in morphology, biochemistry, function and gene expression. Increasing evidence has shown that ferroptosis is intimately associated with cancer initiation, progression, and suppression. In this review, we summarize the primary mechanisms and signal pathways relevant to ferroptosis and then discuss the potential roles of ferroptosis in cancer, including those related to p...
Source: Apoptosis - September 16, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

RAB25 confers resistance to chemotherapy by altering mitochondrial apoptosis signaling in ovarian cancer cells
AbstractOvarian cancer remains one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related death in women. Many patients with ovarian cancer suffer from de novo or acquired resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we report that RAB25 suppresses chemotherapy-induced mitochondrial apoptosis signaling in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer cells. RAB25 blocks chemotherapy-induced apoptosis upstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by either increasing antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins or decreasing proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. In particular, BAX expression negatively correlates with RAB25 expression in ovarian can...
Source: Apoptosis - September 7, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Epoxyazadiradione exhibit activities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by targeting multiple pathways
AbstractThe head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) constitute about 90% of all head and neck cancers. HNSCC falls in the top 10 cancers in men globally. Epoxyazadiradione (EPA) and Azadiradione (AZA) are the limonoids derived from the medicinal plantAzadirachta indica (popularly known as Neem). Whether or not the limonoids exhibit activities against HNSCC and the associated mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that EPA exhibits stronger activity in HNSCC in comparison to AZA. The limonoids obeyed the Lipinski ’s rule of 5. EPA exhibited activities in a variety of HNSCC lines like suppression of th...
Source: Apoptosis - September 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Interconnections among major forms of regulated cell death
AbstractAs a basic biological phenomenon of cells, regulated cell death (RCD) has irreplaceable influence on the occurrence and development of many processes of life and diseases. RCD plays an important role in the stability of the homeostasis, the development of multiple systems and the evolution of organisms. Thus comprehensively understanding of RCD is undoubtedly helpful in the innovation of disease treatment. Recently, research on the underlying mechanisms of the major forms of RCD, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, paraptosis and neutrophils NETosis has made significant breakthroughs. In addition...
Source: Apoptosis - September 4, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Photodynamic therapy: apoptosis, paraptosis and beyond
AbstractPhotodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light-catalyzed process that can initiate cellular death pathways from the formation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species at sub-cellular sites. Apoptosis was the first such pathway to be identified. Autophagy can also occur and is often found to be cytoprotective. Another process termed paraptosis can also have lethal consequences, even in cells with an impaired apoptotic pathway. PDT in vivo can evoke other potentially cytotoxic processes including vascular shutdown and enhanced immunologic recognition of neoplastic cells. Using appropriate photosensitizing agents, sub-cellular PDT...
Source: Apoptosis - September 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of 3,3 ’-Diindolylmethane against perinatal asphyxia involves inhibition of the AhR and NMDA signaling and hypermethylation of specific genes
In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the neuroprotective capacity of 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) in an in vivo model of rat perinatal asphyxia, which has translational value and corresponds to hypoxic/ischemic episodes in human newborns. Posttreatment with DIM restored the weight of the ipsilateral hemisphere and normalized cell number in the brain structures of rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia. DIM also downregulated the mRNA e xpression of HIF1A-regulatedBnip3 andHif1a which is a hypoxic marker, and the expression of miR-181b which is an indicator of perinatal asphyxia. In addition, DIM inhibited apo...
Source: Apoptosis - August 19, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: iron, apoptosis, and ferroptosis
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - August 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Acetylcholinesterase promotes apoptosis in insect neurons
AbstractApoptosis plays a major role in development, tissue renewal and the progression of degenerative diseases. Studies on various types of mammalian cells reported a pro-apoptotic function of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), particularly in the formation of the apoptosome and the degradation of nuclear DNA. While three AChE splice variants are present in mammals, invertebrates typically express twoache genes that code for a synaptically located protein and a protein with non-synaptic functions respectively. In order to investigate a potential contribution of AChE to apoptosis in insects, we selected the migratory locustLocu...
Source: Apoptosis - August 4, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Regulatory T cells are less sensitive to glucocorticoid hormone induced apoptosis than CD4 + T cells
AbstractEarlier we have reported that thymic regulatory T cells (Treg) are resistant to in vivo glucocorticoid hormone (GC)-induced apoptosis, while the most GC-sensitive DP thymocytes died through the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here we analyzed the apoptosis-inducing effect of high dose (10–6 M) in vitro dexamethasone (DX) treatment in mouse thymic- and splenic Tregs and CD4+ T cells. Activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways started after 2  h of DX treatment in CD4 SP thymocytes and was 3 × higher than in CD4+ splenocytes, while in Treg cells, w...
Source: Apoptosis - July 30, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

BAX-dependent mitochondrial pathway mediates the crosstalk between ferroptosis and apoptosis
In this study, we investigated a possible mechanism of this interplay between ferroptosis and apoptosis. Results from our studies reveal that combined treatment of the ferroptotic agent erastin and the apoptotic agent TRAIL effectively disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential ( ΔΨm) and subsequently promoted caspase activation. The alterations of mitochondrial membrane potential are probably due to an increase in oligomerization of BAX and its accumulation at the mitochondria during treatment with erastin and TRAIL. Interestingly, the combined treatment-promoted apoptosi s was effectively inhibited in BAX-defic...
Source: Apoptosis - July 30, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Valproic acid upregulates the expression of the p75NTR/sortilin receptor complex to induce neuronal apoptosis
AbstractThe antiepileptic and mood stabilizer agent valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to exert anti-tumour effects and to cause neuronal damage in the developing brain through mechanisms not completely understood. In the present study we show that prolonged exposure of SH-SY5Y and LAN-1 human neuroblastoma cells to clinically relevant concentrations of VPA caused a marked induction of the protein and transcript levels of the common neurotrophin receptor p75NTR and its co-receptor sortilin, two promoters of apoptotic cell death in response to proneurotrophins. VPA induction of p75NTR and sortilin was associated with an inc...
Source: Apoptosis - July 24, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: A potent protective effect of baicalein on liver injury by regulating mitochondria-related apoptosis
The original version of this article unfortunately contains errors in methods and figures. In methods, animal experiments part: “2 ml/kg” and “after two days” were described incorrectly which were actually “4 ml/kg” and “after eight days” respectively. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - July 17, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

In S. cerevisiae hydroxycitric acid antagonizes chronological aging and apoptosis regardless of citrate lyase
AbstractCaloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are promising molecules to prevent age-related diseases as they activate pathways driven by a true caloric restriction. Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is considered a bona fide CRM since it depletes acetyl-CoA pools by acting as a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), ultimately repressing protein acetylation and promoting autophagy. Importantly, it can reduce inflammation and tumour development. In order to identify phenotypically relevant new HCA targets we have investigated HCA effects inSaccharomyces cerevisiae, where ACLY is lacking. Strikingly, the drug revealed a po...
Source: Apoptosis - July 13, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The specific PKC- α inhibitor chelerythrine blunts costunolide-induced eryptosis
AbstractCostunolide, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has multiple pharmacological activities such as neuroprotection or induction of apoptosis and eryptosis. However, the effects of costunolide on pro-survival factors and enzymes in human erythrocytes, e.g. glutathione and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) respectively, have not been studied yet. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms underlying costunolide-induced eryptosis and to reverse this process. Phosphatidylserine exposure was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter in flow cytometry, and intracellular glutathione [GSH]i from hi...
Source: Apoptosis - July 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Elevated IL-22 in psoriasis plays an anti-apoptotic role in keratinocytes through mediating Bcl-xL/Bax
In this study, we found that IL-22/IL-22R1 in lesional skin and IL-22 in serum from psoriatic patients were highly upregulated compared with healthy controls, while IL-22BP was not changed. Correlations between IL-22/IL-22R1 levels and the thickness of psoriatic lesions suggested that IL-22 might positively regulate abnormal hyperplasia in psoriasis. Apoptotic keratinocytes were increased only in stratum corneum, but not in spinous and basal layers of psoriasis. Moreover, IL-22 promoted cell viability in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs). The apoptosis induced by TNF- α and IFN-γ was inhibited in HEKs treate...
Source: Apoptosis - July 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cytokine regulation of apoptosis-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-induced cell proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells
We examined the consequences of VSMC apoptosis after activating extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways. VSMCs undergoing apoptosis through Fas/CD95 or the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine transcriptionally activated interleukin 6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), leading to their secretion. Apoptosis induced activation of p38MAPK, JNK, and Akt, but neither p38 and JNK activation nor IL-6 or GM-CSF induction required caspase cleavage. IL-6 induction depended upon p38 activity, while Fas-induced GM-CSF expression required p38 and JNK. Conditioned media from apoptotic VSMCs induced VS...
Source: Apoptosis - July 4, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Rational design of genetically encoded reporter genes for optical imaging of apoptosis
AbstractApoptosis is a process in which cells are genetically regulated to cause a series of changes in morphology and metabolic activity, which ultimately lead to cell death. Apoptosis plays a vital role in the entire life cycle of an organism. Too much or too little apoptosis can cause a variety of diseases. Therefore, efficient and convenient methods for detecting apoptosis are necessary for clinical treatment and drug development. Traditional methods for detecting apoptosis may cause damage to the body during sample collection, such as for flow cytometry analysis. So it is necessary to monitor apoptosis without invasio...
Source: Apoptosis - July 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Antiproliferative effect of bacterial cyclodipeptides in the HeLa line of human cervical cancer reveals multiple protein kinase targeting, including mTORC1/C2 complex inhibition in a TSC1/2-dependent manner
AbstractCervix adenocarcinoma rendered by human papillomavirus (HPV) integration is an aggressive cancer that occurs by dysregulation of multiple pathways, including oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, and tumor suppressors. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which cross-talks with the Ras –ERK pathway, has been associated with cervical cancers (CC), which includes signaling pathways related to carcinoma aggressiveness, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. Since bacterial cyclodipeptides (CDPs) possess cytotoxic properties in HeLa cells with inhibiting Akt/S6k phosphorylatio n, the mechanism of CDPs cytotoxicity involved was...
Source: Apoptosis - July 1, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research