Molecular targeting of breast and colon cancer cells by PAR1 mediated apoptosis through a novel pro-apoptotic peptide
We report a novel pro-apoptotic peptide which can selectively kill malignant cells via its specific target receptor PAR1 which is over expre ssed in the malignant cells and can be used as a molecular target therapy for cancer treatment. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - September 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Targeting autophagy for combating chemoresistance and radioresistance in glioblastoma
AbstractAutophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by degrading unneeded cell components. When exposed to hostile environments, such as hypoxia or nutrient starvation, cells hyperactivate autophagy in an effort to maintain their longevity. In densely packed solid tumors, such as glioblastoma, autophagy has been found to run rampant due to a lack of oxygen and nutrients. In recent years, targeting autophagy as a way to strengthen current glioblastoma treatment has shown promising results. However, that protective autophagy inhibition or autopha...
Source: Apoptosis - August 31, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

N -(3-oxo-acyl) homoserine lactone induced germ cell apoptosis and suppressed the over-activated RAS/MAPK tumorigenesis via mitochondrial-dependent ROS in C. elegans
This study provides in vivo evidence that C12 is a potential candidate for cancer therapeutics by exerting its pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor effects via elevating mitochondria-dependent ROS production. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - August 31, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Targeting autophagy for combating chemoresistance and radioresistance in glioblastoma
AbstractAutophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by degrading unneeded cell components. When exposed to hostile environments, such as hypoxia or nutrient starvation, cells hyperactivate autophagy in an effort to maintain their longevity. In densely packed solid tumors, such as glioblastoma, autophagy has been found to run rampant due to a lack of oxygen and nutrients. In recent years, targeting autophagy as a way to strengthen current glioblastoma treatment has shown promising results. However, that protective autophagy inhibition or autopha...
Source: Apoptosis - August 31, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

N -(3-oxo-acyl) homoserine lactone induced germ cell apoptosis and suppressed the over-activated RAS/MAPK tumorigenesis via mitochondrial-dependent ROS in C. elegans
This study provides in vivo evidence that C12 is a potential candidate for cancer therapeutics by exerting its pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor effects via elevating mitochondria-dependent ROS production. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - August 31, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PpV, acting via the JNK pathway, represses apoptosis during normal development of Drosophila wing
AbstractApoptosis is one of the main fundamental biological processes required for development of multicellular organisms. Inappropriate regulation of apoptosis can lead to severe developmental abnormalities and diseases. Therefore, the control of apoptosis, not only for its activation but also for its inhibition, is critically important during development. In contrast to the extensive studies of apoptosis induction, its inhibitory mechanisms that are even more vital in certain populations of cells actually are very far from being well understood. Here we report an inhibitory role of protein phosphatase V (PpV), a serine/t...
Source: Apoptosis - August 29, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

MiRNA-126 expression inhibits IL-23R mediated TNF- α or IFN-γ production in fibroblast-like synoviocytes in a mice model of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis
This study aimed to investigate the association of miR-126 and IL-23R and the possible modulation of miR-126 to RA pathogenesis. Serum, synovial tissue and synovial fluid were collected from patients with RA, and expression of miR-126, IL-23R, TNF- α and IFN-γ were detected. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) was established using a collagen-induced arthritis mice model. The expression of miR-126 was manual intervened using pro-miR-126 and anti-miR-126 encoding lentivirus plasmids, or miR-126 agonists and corresponding negative controls. MiR -126 expression was inhibited in RA patients when compared with controls (P 
Source: Apoptosis - August 24, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The role of autophagy in pulmonary hypertension: a double-edge sword
AbstractAutophagy is a recycling process that degrades damaged or unneeded cellular components for renewal. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of autophagy is involved in pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH is a progressive disease characterized by persistent proliferation of apoptosis-resistant pulmonary vascular cells. However, reports on the role of autophagy in the development of PH are often conflicting. In this review, we discuss recent development in the field with emphasis on pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, pulmonary smooth muscle cells, right ventricular myocyte, as well as pharmacological strateg...
Source: Apoptosis - August 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Down-regulation of 14-3-3 zeta sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to apoptosis induction
In this study, we focus on two targets: (1) the expression of 14-3-3 zeta in the different grades of human astrocytoma (II –IV), (2) suppression of 14-3-3 zeta protein expression in glioblastoma derived astrocytes by 14-3-3 zeta shRNA lentiviral particles. The tissues of human astrocytoma were provided from 30 patients (ten of each grade of astrocytoma). Control tissues were obtained from the peritumoral brain zone of those patients with glioblastoma. The protein and mRNA expression levels of each astrocytoma grade were assessed via western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Results indicated that 14-3-3 zeta was sig...
Source: Apoptosis - August 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

MLKL mediates apoptosis via a mutual regulation with PERK/eIF2 α pathway in response to reactive oxygen species generation
AbstractThe pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) is a core effector of necroptosis, and its function in necroptosis is widely studied. However, the function of MLKL in apoptosis remains unclear. In the present study, the role of MLKL in chelerythrine (CHE)-promoted apoptosis was studied. A special band of MLKL (i.e., *MLKL) was observed after treatment with CHE. MLKL and *MLKL were accumulated in the nucleus upon treatment with CHE and MLKL silencing reversed the CHE-induced apoptosis. Blockade of CHE-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation or inhibition of CHE-activated protein kinase-li...
Source: Apoptosis - August 6, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

CD155 downregulation synergizes with adriamycin to induce breast cancer cell apoptosis
AbstractCD155 has been implicated in migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis of human cancer cells, and DNA damage response caused by chemotherapeutic agents or reactive oxygen species has been shown to attribute to CD155 induction. Adriamycin (Adr) is one of the most common chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat breast cancer. Here we reported that treatment with Adr upregulated CD155 expression on several in vitro cultured breast cancer cells and in breast cancer cell 4T1 xenografts. We also found that CD155 knockdown or Adr treatment induced apoptosis of in vitro cultured cancer cells and cancer cells in 4T1 xeno...
Source: Apoptosis - July 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

GD2 ganglioside-binding antibody 14G2a and specific aurora A kinase inhibitor MK-5108 induce autophagy in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells
In this study we gained mechanistic insights on autophagy in the observed cytotoxic effects exerted by both agents using cytotoxicity assays, RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and autophagy detection methods. Enhancement of the autophagy process in the 14G2a mAb- and MK-5108-treated IMR-32 cells was documented by assessing autophagic flux. Application of a lysosomotropic agent —chloroquine (CQ) affected the 14G2a mAb- and MK-5108-stimulated autophagic flux. It is our conclusion that the 14G2a mAb (40 μg/ml) and MK-5108 inhibitor (0.1 μM) induce autophagy in IMR-32 cells. Moreover, the combinatorial treatment o...
Source: Apoptosis - July 19, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Co-expression of caspase-3 or caspase-8 with galanin in the human stomach section affected by carcinoma
AbstractNeoplastic process may cause distinct changes in the morphology, i.e. size and number of the neurons of the neuronal plexuses forming the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the human intestine. Moreover, it was also reported that these changes were not directly associated with apoptosis. Thus, the main aim of this study was to determine the atrophic changes of myenteric plexuses (MPs) in the vicinity of cancer invasion and the potential reason which may be responsible for these changes if they occur. Tissue samples from the stomach were collected from ten patients which undergo organ resection due to cancer diagnosis....
Source: Apoptosis - July 17, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Flavonoids of Rosa roxburghii Tratt offers protection against radiation induced apoptosis and inflammation in mouse thymus
AbstractThe present study evaluated the protective effect of the natural compound flavonoids ofRosa roxburghii Tratt (FRT) against γ-radiation-induced apoptosis and inflammation in mouse thymus cells in vivo and in vitro. Thymus cells and mice were exposed to60Co γ-ray at a dose of 6 Gy. The radiation treatment induced significant cell apoptosis and inflammation. Radiation increased the expressions of cleaved caspase 3/8–10, AIF, and PARP-1, and FRT could mitigate their activation and inhibit subsequent apoptosis in the thymus both in vitro or in vivo. I rradiation increased the mRNA expression of IC...
Source: Apoptosis - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Protective effects of circulating microvesicles derived from ischemic preconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress
AbstractMicrovesicles (MVs) have been shown to be involved in pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Here we investigated the effects of MVs derived from ischemic preconditioning (IPC-MVs) on myocardial ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Myocardial IPC model was elicited by three cycles of ischemia and reperfusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. IPC-MVs from the peripheral blood of the above animal model were isolated by ultracentrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. IPC-MVs were administ...
Source: Apoptosis - July 6, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Staurosporine-induced apoptotic water loss is cell- and attachment-specific
In this study, we quantified intracellular water in staurosporine-treated cells using a previously described optical microscopic technique that combines volume measurements with quantitative phase analysis. Water loss was observed in detached HeLa and in adherent MDCK but not in adherent HeLa cells. At the same time, adherent HeLa and adherent MDCK cells exhibited visually similar apoptotic morphology, including fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. Morphological changes and caspase activation were prevented by chloride channel blockers DIDS and NPPB in both adherent and suspended HeLa cells, while potassium channel b...
Source: Apoptosis - July 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Dying to communicate: apoptotic functions of Eph/Ephrin proteins
The original version of this article contained a mistake in reference. The references in Table 1 are incorrect. The corrected Table with proper citation is given below. The field codes ADDIN REFMGR.CITE inadvertently appeared along the article. This was overlooked during the process. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - July 4, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

In vitro leishmanicidal effects of the anti-fungal drug natamycin are mediated through disruption of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction
AbstractNatamycin, a Food and Drug Administration approved anti-fungal drug, and also used as a food additive was evaluated for anti-leishmanial activity since it is known to specifically bind to ergosterol, which is essential to these parasites but absent in mammals. Promising anti-proliferative activity was observed in both promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite with IC50 values of 15 and 8  µM respectively and a selective index of 12.5. The ultrastructural effects of natamycin on both forms of the parasite and physiological effects on promastigotes were studied in detail for the first time. Electro...
Source: Apoptosis - July 3, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

P53/PUMA are potential targets that mediate the protection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB from etoposide-induced cell death in neuroblastoma (NB)
In this study, we investigated the roles of P53 and BCL2 family members in the protection of BDNF/TrkB from etoposide-induced NB cell death. TB3 and TB8, two tetracycline (TET)-regulated TrkB-expressing NB cell lines, were utilized. The expressions of P53 and BCL2 family members were detected by Western blot or RT-PCR. Transfection of siRNAs was used to knockdown P53 or PUMA. Activated lentiviral was used to over-express PUMA. Cell survival was performed by MTS assay, and the percentage of cell confluence was measured by IncuCyte ZOOM. Our results showed that etoposide treatment induced significant and time-dependent incre...
Source: Apoptosis - June 29, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PET imaging of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a rat myocardial infarction model
AbstractCardiomyocyte apoptosis has been observed in several cardiovascular diseases and contributes to the subsequent cardiac remodeling processes and progression to heart failure. Consequently, apoptosis imaging is helpful for noninvasively detecting the disease progression and providing treatment guidance. Here, we tested18F-labeled 2-(5-fluoropentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid (18F-ML-10) and18F-labeled 2-(3-fluoropropyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid (18F-ML-8) for apoptosis imaging in rat models of myocardial infarction (MI) and compared them with18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). MI was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by permanent...
Source: Apoptosis - June 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal microecology: a crucial and potential target in acute pancreatitis
This article reviewed the progress of gastrointestinal microecology in AP to provide a reference for deeply understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of AP and identifying new therapeutic targets. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - June 20, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Apoptosis on the move
(Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - June 1, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Treating metastatic prostate cancer with microRNA-145
In this study, in vitro studies were performed to show the control of MYC and RAS by miR-145. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell proliferation and apoptosis. The efficacy of miR-145 in treating metastatic PCa was tested in nude mice using a model of bone metastasis promoted by intraventricular injection of PC-3MLuc-C6 cells. Tumor growth was evaluated by an in vivo bioluminescence system. After the full establishment of metastases on day 21, six animals were treated with three intravenous doses of miR-145 (on days 21, 24 and 27), and six were injected with scramble miRNA as controls. Compared to the controls, tumor gr...
Source: Apoptosis - June 1, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Down-regulating IL-6/GP130 targets improved the anti-tumor effects of 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer
This study firstly verifies that targeting IL-6/GP130 signaling can increase the anti-tumor function of 5-FU; in addition, this strategy can sensitize cancer cell drug sensitivity, implying that blocking IL-6/GP130 targets can reverse chemoresistance. Therefore, combining 5-FU and IL-6/GP130 target inhibitors may be a promising approach for cancer treatment. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - May 18, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Dying to communicate: apoptotic functions of Eph/Ephrin proteins
AbstractThe Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases and interact with a group of ligands called Ephrins. An essential feature of the Eph receptors and Ephrin ligands is that both are membrane-bound and, upon cell –cell interaction, initiate a bidirectional signaling involving both the receptor (forward signaling) and the ligand (reverse signaling). They regulate a large set of pleiotropic functions in virtually every tissue and physiological system. In vitro as well as in vivo data support a role for Eph a nd Ephrin molecules i...
Source: Apoptosis - May 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Resveratrol analogue, (E)- N -(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide induces G 2 /M cell cycle arrest through the activation of p53 –p21 CIP1/WAF1 in human colorectal HCT116 cells
In this study, we further discovered that CS also exerts a potent suppressive effect on HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. In contrast, normal colon cells (CCD-112 Con) were not sensitive to CS up to 72  h post treatment. CS caused cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells through several apoptotic events including activation of the Fas death receptor, FADD, caspase 8, caspase 3, caspase 9, and cleaved PARP, which occurred alongside cell cycle arrest from the up-regulation of p53 and p21. The results show that CS causes apoptosis via the activation of an extrinsic pathway leading to caspase activation and cell cycle arrest from activ...
Source: Apoptosis - May 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Identification of inhibitors synergizing gemcitabine sensitivity in the squamous subtype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)
This study aims to utilize large scale genomic datasets and computational systems biology to identify potential drugs targeting the squamous subtype of PDAC through combination therapy. Using the transcriptomic data available from the International Cancer Genome Consortium, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and Connectivity Map, we identified 26 small molecules that could target the squamous subtype of PDAC. Among them include inhibitors targeting the SRC proto-oncogene (SRC) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2). Further analyses demonstrated that the SRC inhibitors (dasatinib and PP2) and MEK1/2 inhibi...
Source: Apoptosis - May 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Prodigiosin stimulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and induces autophagic cell death in glioblastoma cells
This study investigated the cell death mechanism of prodigiosin in glioblastoma. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary cancer of the central nervous system. Despite treatment, or standard therapy, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is about 14.6 month. The results of the present study clearly showed that prodigiosin significantly reduced the cell viability and neurosphere formation ability of U87MG and GBM8401 human glioblastoma cell lines. Moreover, prodigiosin with fluorescence signals was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and found to induce excessive levels of autophagy. These findings we...
Source: Apoptosis - May 2, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Critical contribution of RIPK1 mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to compression-induced rat nucleus pulposus cells necroptosis and apoptosis
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate whether RIPK1 mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contributed to compression-induced nucleus pulposus (NP) cells necroptosis and apoptosis, together with the interplay relationship between necroptosis and apoptosis in vitro. Rat NP cells underwent various periods of 1.0  MPa compression. To determine whether compression affected mitochondrial function, we evaluated the mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), mitochondrial ultrastructure and ATP content. Oxidative stress-related indicators reactive oxygen s...
Source: Apoptosis - April 28, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Feasibility study of stain-free classification of cell apoptosis based on diffraction imaging flow cytometry and supervised machine learning techniques
This study was to explore the feasibility of prediction and classification of cells in different stages of apoptosis with a stain-free method based on diffraction images and supervised machine learning. Apoptosis was induced in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells bycis-platinum (DDP). A newly developed technique of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) was performed to acquire diffraction images of the cells in three different statuses (viable, early apoptotic and late apoptotic/necrotic) after cell separation through fluorescence activated cell sorting with Annexin V-PE and SYTOX ® Green d...
Source: Apoptosis - April 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNAs in the mTOR signaling network: biomarkers and therapeutic targets
AbstractAs an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) related kinase family, the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays vital roles in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, participating in different cellular processes including cell survival, metabolism and proliferation. Aberrant activity of this signaling pathway may lead to oncogenesis. Over the last two decades, great progress has been made in the understanding of mTOR activation and how its response is counteracted for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Besides regulatory proteins and microRNAs, long noncoding RNA (l...
Source: Apoptosis - March 19, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - March 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Dysregulated genes and miRNAs in the apoptosis pathway in colorectal cancer patients
We examined 133 genes within these pathways to identify whether they are expressed differently in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and normal tissue (N  = 217) and if they are associated with similar differential miRNA expression. Gene expression data (RNA-Seq) and miRNA expression data (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0) were generated. We focused on dysregulated genes with a fold change (FC) of>  1.50 or
Source: Apoptosis - March 7, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of p62 in the regulation of cell death induction
Abstractp62 is a multifunctional adaptor protein implicated in various cellular processes. It has been found to regulate selective autophagy, cell survival, cell death, oxidative stress, DNA repair and inflammation, and to play a role in a number of diseases, such as tumourigenesis, Paget ’s disease of bone, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, and obesity. Cell death induction is an important cellular process. The dysregulation of cell death induction is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration diseases, and diabetes. In this review, we d iscuss the functional role of p62 i...
Source: Apoptosis - February 26, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Epirubicin induces apoptosis in osteoblasts through death-receptor and mitochondrial pathways
AbstractEpirubicin is an anthracycline and is widely used in tumor treatment, but has toxic and undesirable side effects on wide range of cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Osteoblasts play important roles in bone development and in supporting HSC differentiation and maturation. It remains unknown whether epirubicin-induced bone loss and hematological toxicity are associated with its effect on osteoblasts. In primary osteoblast cell cultures, epirubicin inhibited cell growth and decreased mineralization. Moreover, epirubicin arrested osteoblasts in the G2/M phase, and this arrest was followed by apoptosis in which b...
Source: Apoptosis - February 21, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells
This study investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Licarin A (LCA) fromMyristica fragrans in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines —A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H520 and NCI-H460. LCA inhibited proliferation of all the four cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner with minimum IC50 of 20.03 ± 3.12, 22.19 ± 1.37 µM in NCI-H23 and A549 cells respectively. Hence NCI-H23 and A549 cells were used to assess the ability LCA to induce autophagy and apoptosis. LCA treatment caused G1 arrest, increase in Beclin 1, LC3II levels and degradation of p62 indicating activation o...
Source: Apoptosis - February 21, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Effect of phosphorylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms on caspase substrates processing
In this study, we predicted how phosphorylation and SNPs affect known human caspas e proteolytic events collected in the CASBAH and Degrabase databases by applying Random Forest caspases’ substrates prediction method, as implemented in the CaspDB, and the molecular dynamics free energy simulations approach. Our analysis confirms several experimental observations. Phosphorylation could have both positive or negative regulatory effects depending on its position with respect to the caspase cleavage site. For instance, we demonstrate that phosphorylation at P1′ is the most detrimental for proteolytic efficiency of ...
Source: Apoptosis - February 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Hypertonicity primes malignant melanoma cells for apoptosis
AbstractThe tumor environment critically influences responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapies, most of which activate the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic cascade to kill malignant cells. Especially skin tumors encounter an environment with remarkable biophysical properties. Cutaneous accumulation of Na+ locally establishes osmotic pressure gradients in vivo (hypertonicity or hyperosmotic stress), but whether cutaneous hypertonicity is a factor that modulates the responsiveness of skin cancers to therapeutic apoptosis-induction has thus far not been investigated. Here, we show that hyperosmotic stress lo...
Source: Apoptosis - February 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Plagioneurin B, a potent isolated compound induces apoptotic signalling pathways and cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells
This study is therefore importance in finding the effective compound that may offer an alternative drug for ovarian cancer treatment. (Source: Apoptosis)
Source: Apoptosis - February 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Dynamic changes and molecular analysis of cell death in the spinal cord of SJL mice infected with the BeAn strain of Theiler ’s murine encephalomyelitis virus
AbstractTheiler ’s murine encephalomyelitis (TME) is caused by the TME virus (TMEV) and represents an important animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Oligodendroglial apoptosis and reduced apoptotic elimination of encephalitogenic leukocytes seem to participate in autoimmune demyelination in MS. The present s tudy quantified apoptotic cells in BeAn–TMEV-induced spinal cord white matter lesions at 14, 42, 98, and 196 days post infection (dpi) using immunostaining. Apoptotic cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and double-immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression of apoptosis-related g enes...
Source: Apoptosis - February 12, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of the pro-apoptosis peptide kla-TAT and the cationic anticancer peptide HPRP-A1
In this study, a peptide –peptide co-administration therapy between hybrid peptide kla-TAT and cationic anticancer peptide HPRP-A1 was designed to increase the anticancer activity of the combination peptides through synergistic effect. kla is a pro-apoptotic peptide which could induce rapid cancer cell apoptosis by disrup tion the mitochondrial membrane when internalized the cells. To enhance more kla peptides pass through cell membrane, a double improvement strategy was designed by chemically conjugation with cell penetration peptide TAT as well as co-administration with cationic membrane active peptide HPRP-A1, and...
Source: Apoptosis - February 3, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Baculovirus-based gene silencing of Humanin for the treatment of pituitary tumors
AbstractPituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Humanin (HN) and Rattin (HNr), a rat homolog of HN, are short peptides with a cytoprotective action. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether endogenous HNr plays an antiapoptotic role in pituitary tumor cells. Thus, we used RNA interference based on short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted to HNr (shHNr). A plasmid including the coding sequences for shHNr and dTomato fluorescent reporter gene was developed (pUC-shHNr). Transfection of somatolactotrope GH3 cells with pUC-shHNr increased apoptosis, suggesting that endogenous HNr plays a cytopro...
Source: Apoptosis - January 19, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Piperazine clubbed with 2-azetidinone derivatives suppresses proliferation, migration and induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells through oxidative stress mediated intrinsic mitochondrial pathway
AbstractPiperazine scaffolds or 2-azetidinone pharmacophores have been reported to show anti-cancer activities and apoptosis induction in different types of cancer cells. However, the mechanistic studies involve in induction of apoptosis addressing these two moieties for human cervical cancer cells remain uncertain. The present study emphasizes on the anti-proliferating properties and mechanism involved in induction of apoptosis for these structurally related azoles derivatives in HeLa cancer cells. 1-Phenylpiperazine clubbed with 2-azetidione derivatives (5a–5h) were synthesized, characterized using various spectros...
Source: Apoptosis - January 18, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Negative regulators of cell death pathways in cancer: perspective on biomarkers and targeted therapies
AbstractCancer is a primary cause of human fatality and conventional cancer therapies, e.g., chemotherapy, are often associated with adverse side-effects, tumor drug-resistance, and recurrence. Molecularly targeted therapy, composed of small-molecule inhibitors and immunotherapy (e.g., monoclonal antibody and cancer vaccines), is a less harmful alternative being more effective against cancer cells whilst preserving healthy tissues. Drug-resistance, however, caused by negative regulation of cell death signaling pathways, is still a challenge. Circumvention of negative regulators of cell death pathways or development of pred...
Source: Apoptosis - January 10, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Caspase cleavage of Mcl-1 impairs its anti-apoptotic activity and proteasomal degradation in non-small lung cancer cells
AbstractGlobal cleavage of cellular proteins by activated caspases is a hallmark of apoptosis, which causes biochemical collapse of the cell. Recent studies suggest that, rather than completely destroying a protein, caspase cleavage can confer novel characteristics or functions. In this respect, the post-caspase role of Bcl-2 family proteins remains uncharacterized. Here, we showed that Mcl-1, a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 family, was cleaved by caspase-3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells undergoing chemotherapeutic agent-triggered apoptosis. Caspase cleavage partially impaired the anti-apoptotic activity of...
Source: Apoptosis - December 18, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Caspase cleavage of transcription factor Sp1 enhances apoptosis
AbstractSp1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor that regulates many genes involved in apoptosis and senescence. Sp1 also has a role in the DNA damage response; at low levels of DNA damage, Sp1 is phosphorylated by ATM and localizes to double-strand break sites where it facilitates DNA double-strand-break repair. Depletion of Sp1 increases the sensitivity of cells to DNA damage, whereas overexpression of Sp1 can drive cells into apoptosis. In response to a variety of stimuli, Sp1 can be regulated through proteolytic cleavage by caspases and/or degradation. Here, we show that activation of apoptosis through DNA damage or TR...
Source: Apoptosis - December 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

SDF-1 induces TNF-mediated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes
AbstractChemokines are small secreted proteins with chemoattractant properties that play a key role in inflammation. One such chemokine, Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) also known as CXCL12, and its receptor, CXCR4, are expressed and functional in cardiac myocytes. SDF-1 both stimulates and enhances the cellular signal which attracts potentially beneficial stem cells for tissue repair within the ischemic heart. Paradoxically however, this chemokine is known to act in concert with the inflammatory cytokines of the innate immune response which contributes to cellular injury through the recruitment of inflammatory cells...
Source: Apoptosis - December 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research