Five-year change of prevalence and risk factors for infection and mortality of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection in a tertiary hospital in North China
AbstractBackgroundThere are few studies focused on carbapenem-resistantKlebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) bloodstream infection (BSI). The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors for infection and mortality of CRKP BSI.MethodsSusceptibility ofKlebsiella pneumoniae (KP) isolated from blood samples and the proportion of CRKP were recorded annually. One hundred sixty-four patients with CRKP and 328 with carbapenem-susceptibleKlebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP) BSI were categorized as the case group and control group to identify risk factors for CRKP infection and mortality by univariable analysis and multivariable...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - June 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

One Health in hospitals: how understanding the dynamics of people, animals, and the hospital built-environment can be used to better inform interventions for antimicrobial-resistant gram-positive infections
AbstractDespite improvements in hospital infection prevention and control, healthcare associated infections (HAIs) remain a challenge with significant patient morbidity, mortality, and cost for the healthcare system. In this review, we use a One Health framework (human, animal, and environmental health) to explain the epidemiology, demonstrate key knowledge gaps in infection prevention policy, and explore improvements to control Gram-positive pathogens in the healthcare environment. We discuss patient and healthcare worker interactions with the hospital environment that can lead to transmission of the most common Gram-posi...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - June 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ATP measurement as an objective method to measure environmental contamination in 9 hospitals in the Dutch/Belgian border area
ConclusionATP measurements can be used as a more objective approach to determine the level of environmental contamination in hospitals. Significant differences in ATP levels were found between hospitals and between countries. Also, substantial differences were found between different fomite groups. These findings offer potential targets for improvement of cleanliness in healthcare facilities. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Early discontinuation of empirical antibiotic treatment in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome
ConclusionThe introduction of a protocol promoting restrictive use of EAT resulted in reduction of carbapenem and vancomycin use and appears to be safe in AML or high-risk MDS patients with febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy or SCT. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The effect of a 5-year hand hygiene initiative based on the WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy: an interrupted time-series study
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of this initiative in terms of changes in alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) consumption and the Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) score.MethodsThe consumption of monthly hospital-wide ABHR was calculated in L per 1000 patient days (PDs). The change in ABHR consumption was analysed by an interrupted time series analysis with a pre-implementation period of 36  months and an implementation period of 60 months. The correlation between annual ABHR consumption and the HHSAF score was estimated using Pearson’s correlation coefficients.ResultsThe ann...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and risk factors of polymicrobial Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections
AbstractBackgroundAlthoughStaphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SA-BSI) are a common and important infection, polymicrobial SA-BSI are infrequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of polymicrobial SA-BSI in comparison with monomicrobial SA-BSI.MethodsA single-center retrospective observational study was performed between Jan 1, 2013, and Dec 31, 2018 at a tertiary hospital. All patients with SA-BSI were enrolled, and their clinical data were gathered by reviewing electronic medical records.ResultsA total of 349 patients with SA-BSI were enrolled inclu...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

First detection of autochthonous extensively drug-resistant NDM-1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 from a patient with bloodstream infection in Italy, October 2019
ConclusionsFew strains of NDM-1-PA have been identified worldwide, all belonging to ST235. The combination of ST235 and ExoU is a predictor of highly unfavorable prognosis. The potential spread of these high-risk clones in healthcare settings is worrisome because treatment options are limited. Early identification of high-risk clones could help in outbreaks investigation and infections control. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A national survey of public awareness of antimicrobial resistance in Nigeria
This study was therefore designed to assess the current level of awareness and knowledge of the Nigerian public of AMR.MethodsPre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to obtain information from the general public across the six geopolitical zones (North Central, North East, North West, South East, South South and South West) in Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling was used to select one state from each zone and respondents were selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Responses to eight questions were used to grade the level of knowledge categorized as poor, fair and good. Collation and analysis of data were perf...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Acquisition of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales during international travel: a systematic review of clinical and microbiological characteristics and meta-analyses of risk factors
ConclusionsRisk of acquiring MDR-E while travelling increases depending on travel destination and if antibiotics are used during travel. This information is useful for the development of guidelines for healthcare facilities with low MDR-E prevalence rates to prevent admission of carriers without appropriate measures. The impact of such guidelines should be assessed. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In vitro evaluation of double carbapenem and colistin combinations against OXA-48, NDM carbapenemase-producing colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains
ConclusionUsing double carbapenem antibiotics with colistin could be a potential alternative to treat colistin and carbapenem-resistantK. pneumoniae. The present study is the first Turkish report of OXA –181-type carbapenemase causing colistin resistance. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Predicting the occurrence of multidrug-resistant organism colonization or infection in ICU patients: development and validation of a novel multivariate prediction model
ConclusionThis easy-to-use nomogram is potentially useful for predicting the occurrence of MDRO colonization or infection in ICU patients. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence of β-lactamase- and carbapenemase- producing Enterobacteriaceae at integrated fish farms
ConclusionThe present findings suggest transmission of the resistance genes amongEnterobacteriaceae strains from different sources. This reiterates the need for control strategies that focus on humans, animals, water, and sewage systems to solve the antibiotic resistance problem. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Implementing a combined infection prevention and control with antimicrobial stewardship joint program to prevent caesarean section surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance: a Tanzanian tertiary hospital experience
AbstractBackgroundSurgical site infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after caesarean section, especially in Low and Middle Income Countries. We hypothesized that a combined infection prevention and control with antimicrobial stewardship joint program would decrease the rate of post- caesarean section surgical site infections at the Obstetrics& Gynaecology Department of a Tanzanian tertiary hospital.MethodsThe intervention included: 1. formal and on-job trainings on infection prevention and control; 2. evidence-based education on antimicrobial resistance and good antimicrobial prescribing practice. ...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Rumors and incorrect reports are more deadly than the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
(Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Implementation of the WHO hand hygiene strategy in Faranah regional hospital, Guinea
ConclusionThe WHO HH strategy is an adaptable and effective method to improve HH knowledge and compliance in a resource-limited setting. Local production is a feasible method for providing self-sufficient supply of ABHR to regional hospitals like the FRH. Participatory approaches like hygiene committee ownership builds confidence of sustainability. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outbreak investigation of Serratia marcescens neurosurgical site infections associated with a contaminated shaving razors
ConclusionsWe report an outbreak of neurosurgical site infections after craniotomy, which was associated with shaving razors contaminated byS. marcescens. Shaving scalps with razors should be avoided to prevent SSI. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical impact of endemic NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in intensive care units of the national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia
ConclusionsNDM-producing CNKP are introduced into these ICUs and some strains expand clonally among patients and the environment, resulting in endemic CNKP. CNKP acquisition was associated with prolonged ICU stay and may affect ICU survival.Trial registrationThe study was registered at Netherlands Trial Registerhttp://www.trialregister.nl. Candidate number: 23527, NTR number: NTR5541, NL number: NL5425 (https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/5424), Retrospectively registered: NTR: 22 December 2015. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Point-prevalence survey of hospital acquired infections in three acute care hospitals in Northern Nigeria
ConclusionThe prevalence of HAI was relatively high compared to other developing countries and was significantly associated with neonatal and pediatric surgical specialties. Hospital infection control strategies should be strengthened to reduce the burden of HAIs. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Screening for triazole resistance in clinically significant Aspergillus species; report from Pakistan
ConclusionTriazole resistance could not be detected amongst clinicalAspergillus isolates from the South of Pakistan. However, environmental strains remain to be tested for a holistic assessment of the situation. This study will set precedence for future periodic antifungal resistance surveillance in our region onAspergillus isolates. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The potential negative impact of antibiotic pack on antibiotic stewardship in primary care in Switzerland: a modelling study
ConclusionsFixed antibiotic packs often do not match recommended treatment regimens, especially for children, potentially resulting in longer than necessary treatments and leftover doses in the community. As part of national stewardship, a move to an exact pill-count system, including for child-appropriate solid formulations, should be considered. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Implementation and impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs: a systematic scoping review
The original article [1] contains an error in Fig.  1 whereby the number of selected articles of the first box is incorrect. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Bacteremia in critical care units at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania: the role of colonization and contaminated cots and mothers ’ hands in cross-transmission of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria
ConclusionHigh prevalence of MDR-GNB bacteremia and intestinal colonization, and MDR-GNB contaminating cots and mothers ’ hands was observed. Improved cots decontamination strategies is crucial to limit the spread of MDR-GNB. Further, clinical presentations and water use should be considered in administration of empirical therapy whilst awaiting culture results. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - May 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The great nursing brain drain and its effects on patient safety
AbstractThe World Health Organization (WHO) has declared 2020 the “Year of the Nurse and Midwife”. On May 5th of this year, for the annual celebration of the SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign, the WHO will focus on the critical role of nurses and midwives in promoting public health. The brain drain of healthcare workers (HCWs) leads to unequal distribution of nurses and midwives around the world, which affects the quality of care provided to patients. This phenomenon should be addressed as a global problem as it highlights staff shortages in the health system. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The global prevalence of Daptomycin, Tigecycline, Quinupristin/Dalfopristin, and Linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase –negative staphylococci strains: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThe present study shows that resistance to new agents is low in staphylococci and these antibiotics can still be used for treatment of staphylococcal infections in the world. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Persuasive antimicrobial stewardship intervention in the context of a KPC outbreak: a controlled interrupted time series analysis
ConclusionPersuasive AMS interventions on top of previously implemented restrictive interventions can reduce carbapenem consumption without increasing total antibiotic consumption. Starting persuasive AMS interventions in an outbreak setting does not compromise the sustainability of the intervention. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

“Nurses and midwives: clean care is in your hands”: the 5th May 2020 World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign
AbstractIn honor of Florence Nightingale ’s 200th birthday, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared 2020 the “Year of the Nurse and Midwife”. On May 5th of this year, for the annual celebration of the SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign, WHO will focus on the essential role that nurses and midwives play in contributing to saving millions of lives per year. It is necessary to recognize the work and the immense responsibility that nurses and midwives carry since achieving Universal Health Coverage is highly reliant on them. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emerging coexistence of three PMQR genes on a multiple resistance plasmid with a new surrounding genetic structure of qnrS2 in E. coli in China
ConclusionsWe revealed the coexistence of three PMQR genes on a multiple resistance plasmid and a new surrounding genetic structure ofqnrS2 flanked by IS26 elements. IS26 plays an important role in horizontal spread of quinolone resistance. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Secular trend analysis of antibiotic utilisation in China ’s hospitals 2011–2018, a retrospective analysis of procurement data
ConclusionsDespite efforts have been made towards restricting antibiotic use by the Chinese government, antibiotic utilisation demonstrated an upward trend after the medical reform. The increase of last-resort antibiotics raises serious concern for public health. Current patterns of antibiotic utilisation demonstrated that gaps are existed towards the global target set up by the WHO. To better facilitate proper antibiotic use, more efforts are needed to explore the appropriateness of antibiotic use at the individual level. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sustained effects of a multimodal campaign aiming at hand hygiene improvement on compliance and healthcare-associated infections in a large gynaecology/obstetrics tertiary-care centre in Vietnam
ConclusionsA multimodal strategy aiming at behaviour change significantly improved and sustained hand hygiene, which contributed to the reduction of healthcare-associated infections. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Candida tropicalis is the most prevalent yeast species causing candidemia in Algeria: the urgent need for antifungal stewardship and infection control measures
ConclusionsCollectively, our data suggest an urgent need for antifungal stewardship and infection control strategies to improve the clinical outcome of Algerian patients with candidemia. The high prevalence ofC. tropicalis joined by fluconazole-resistance may hamper the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole, the frontline antifungal drug used in Algeria. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Different screening frequencies of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: which one is better?
AbstractBackgroundA consensus has been reached that carbapenem-resistantEnterobacteriaceae (CRE) screening in immunosuppressed individuals can reduce the incidence of CRE bloodstream infection (BSI).MethodsWe retrospectively studied the clinical data of 395 consecutive HSCT patients from September 2017 to April 2019. From September 2017 to June 2018 (period 1), 200 patients received single CRE screening before transplantation. From July 2018 to April 2019 (period 2), 195 patients received continuous weekly CRE screening after admission. For patients colonized with CRE, targeted managements were received: (1) contact precau...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of amoxicillin resistance in Escherichia coli after exposure to remnants of a non-related phagemid-containing E. coli : an exploratory study
ConclusionExposure of anE. coli isolate to another phagemid-containingE. coli that was treated with propanol-based hand rub increased the development of amoxicillin resistance. Although phagemids are cloning vectors that are not present in clinical isolates, this finding may have implications for hand disinfection practices in healthcare facilities. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The prevalence and molecular mechanisms of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa
This study aimed to describe the rates and molecular mechanisms of mupirocin resistance in clinicalStaphylococcus aureus isolates from Tygerberg Hospital, and to describe its association with strain types.MethodsWe retrospectively selected 212  S. aureus isolates which were identified from blood samples and pus swabs during the years 2009 –2011 and 2015–2017. The isolates were identified using conventional microbiological methods and genotyping was done usingspa typing. Cefoxitin (30  μg) disc diffusion and the two disc strategy (5 μg and 200 μg) were used to determine susce...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antibiogram and beta-lactamase genes among cefotaxime resistant E. coli from wastewater treatment plant
ConclusionResistance to cefotaxime and the presence of a wide range of beta-lactamase genes exposed the potential risks associated with these pathogens via occupational and domestic exposure during the reuse of treated wastewater. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Oral colonisation by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among long-term care facility residents: prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology
ConclusionsARB, as defined by growth on screening agar plates, which carried mobile resistance genes or elements or conferred high biofilm formation, were already prevalent in the oral cavity of LTCF residents. Health-care workers involved in oral care should be aware of antimicrobial resistance and pay special attention to transmission prevention and infection control measures to diminish ARB or mobile resistance elements dissemination in LTCFs. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial use and resistance in food-producing animals and the environment: an African perspective
ConclusionThere is high level of antimicrobial use, especially tetracycline, aminoglycoside and penicillin in animal production systems in Africa. This is likely to escalate the already high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multi drug resistance in the continent. This, coupled with weak antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems in the region is a great concern to the animals, environment and humans as well. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence, risk factors, phenotypic and molecular characteristics for Staphylococcus aureus carriage in community-based drug users in Guangzhou, China
ConclusionThe prevalence ofS. aureus nasal carriage was lower while the prevalence of MRSA carriage was moderate compared to previous studies. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics ofS. aureus isolates, particularly MRSA isolates, revealed high proportions of antibiotic resistance, indicating the existence of cross-circulation, and implying high opportunity of virulence-related diseases. Decolonization and antibiotic stewardship might be implemented for drug users with MRSA carriage. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains from the endotracheal tubes of patients with nosocomial pneumonia
ConclusionsHigh levels of resistance to second-line antimicrobials threatens the treatment of nosocomial respiratory infections due to methicillin-resistantS. aureus with decreased susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. The wide genotypic diversity found reinforces the central role of ICU infection control in preventing nosocomial transmission. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Infection control link nurse programs in Dutch acute care hospitals; a mixed-methods study
ConclusionsInfection control link nurse programs vary in content and in set up. Programs with a clear educational content are viewed as more successful by the infection control practitioners that implement these programs. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characterizations of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among patients in pediatric intensive care units in Taiwan
ConclusionsThe results indicated a high prevalence ofS. arueus and MRSA nasal colonization among pediatric ICU patients in Taiwan. Identification of epidemic clones warrants the implement of infection control measures to reduce colonization and prevent the dissemination of MRSA in hospitals. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The appropriateness of antimicrobial use in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in the Netherlands
ConclusionsIn hospital outpatient clinics, a substantial part of therapeutics were inappropriately prescribed. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was the most inappropriately prescribed drug, due to non-adherence to the guidelines and because dose adjustment to renal function was often not considered. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance in patients with clinical features of healthcare-associated infections in an urban tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study
AbstractBackgroundAvailable data on antibiotic resistance in sub-Saharan Africa is limited despite its increasing threat to global public health. As there is no previous study on antibiotic resistance in patients with clinical features of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Sierra Leone, research is needed to inform public health policies. Our study aimed to assess antibiotic resistance rates from isolates in the urine and sputum samples of patients with clinical features of HAIs.MethodologyWe conducted a cross-sectional study of adult inpatients aged ≥18 years at Connaught Hospital, an urban tertiary care...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequencing to explore nosocomial transmission and virulence in neonatal methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia
ConclusionTransmission of MSSA is a contributing factor to the occurrence ofS. aureus bacteremia in neonates.Sea andtsst-1 might play a role in neonatalS. aureus bacteremia. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae circulating in the Reunion Island, a French territory in the Southwest Indian Ocean
ConclusionsBecause the hospital of Reunion Island is the only reference healthcare setting of the SIOA, we can reasonably estimate that its CPE epidemiology reflects that of this area. Mauritius was the main provider of foreign CPE cases (35.5%). We also showed that autochthonous isolates of CPEs are mostly polyclonal, thus unrelated to cross-transmission. This demonstrates the local spread of carbapenemase-encoding genes (i.e.blaNDM) in a polyclonal bacterial population and raises fears that Reunion Island could contribute to the influx of NDM-carbapenemase producers into the French mainland territory. (Source: Antimicrob...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a structured, framework-based approach to implementation: the Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) Trial
ConclusionUsing a structured framework-based approach allows for pragmatic and successful implementation of clinical trials across diverse settings, and assists with quantitative evaluation of practice change.Trial registrationAustralia New Zealand Clinical Trial RegistryACTRN12615000325505, registered on 4 September 2015. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Flies from a tertiary hospital in Rwanda carry multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli sequence type 131
AbstractMultidrug-resistant gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria are a serious threat to global health. We used genomics to study MRGN obtained from houseflies in a tertiary Rwandan hospital. Our analysis revealed a high abundance of different MRGN includingE. coli pathogenic lineage ST131 suggesting the important role of flies in disseminating highly virulent pathogens in clinical settings and beyond. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk perception of antimicrobial resistance by infection control specialists in Europe: a case-vignette study
In this study, sixteen case-vignettes were developed to simulate hospitalised patient scenarios in the field of AMR and IC. A total of 245 IC specialists working in different hospitals from 15 European countries were contacted, among which 149 agreed to participate in the study. Using an online database, each participant scored five randomly-assigned case-vignettes, regarding the perceived risk associated with six different multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO). The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), varying from 0 (poor) to 1 (perfect), was used to assess the agreement for the risk on a 7-point Likert scale. High r...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk perception of the antimicrobial resistance by infection control specialists in Europe: a case-vignette study
In this study, sixteen case-vignettes were developed to simulate hospitalised patient scenarios in the field of AMR and IC. A total of 245 IC specialists working in different hospitals from 15 European countries were contacted, among which 149 agreed to participate in the study. Using an online database, each participant scored five randomly-assigned case-vignettes, regarding the perceived risk associated with six different multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO). The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), varying from 0 (poor) to 1 (perfect), was used to assess the agreement for the risk on a 7-point Likert scale. High r...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial use among adult inpatients at hospital sites within the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program: 2009 to 2016
This study presents benchmark antimicrobial use (AMU) rates for inpatient adult populations in acute-care hospitals across Canada.MethodsIn this retrospective surveillance study, acute-care adult hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) submitted annual AMU data on all systemic antimicrobials from 2009 to 2016. Information specific to intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICU wards were available for 2014 –2016. Data were analyzed using defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days (DDD/1000pd).ResultsBetween 2009 and 2016, 16 –18 CNISP adult hospitals participat...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk factors for fecal carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli : a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe findings indicate that dietary habit as well as past antimicrobial use and travel to high-risk country are associated with the risk of fecal carriage of drug-resistant commensalE. coli. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research