Determinants of orthopedic physicians ’ self-reported compliance with surgical site infection prevention: results of the WACH-trial’s pilot survey on COM-B factors in a German university hospital
AbstractBackgroundPrevention of surgical site infections (SSIs), which due to their long-term consequences are especially critical in orthopedic surgery, entails compliance with over 20 individual measures. However, little is known about the psychosocial determinants of such compliance among orthopedic physicians, which impedes efforts to tailor implementation interventions to improve compliance. Thus, for this professional group, this pilot survey examined psychosocial determinants of self-reported compliance, which have been theoretically derived from the COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behavior) model.Met...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of a multimodal intervention to promote rational antibiotic use in primary care
ConclusionsThe multimodal intervention addressing education and communication was well accepted among GPs and could help in fostering rational use of antibiotics in primary care. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Expert commentary on the challenges and opportunities for surgical site infection prevention through implementation of evidence-based guidelines in the Asia –Pacific Region
ConclusionsReducing the risk of SSIs in APAC region will require: (a) ongoing consultation and collaboration among stakeholders with a high level of clinical staff engagement and (b) a strong institutional and national commitment to alleviate the burden of SSIs by embracing a safety culture and accountability. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Economic burden of antibiotic resistance in China: a national level estimate for inpatients
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - April 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries: a scattered picture
AbstractData on comprehensive population-based surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is lacking. In low- and middle-income countries, the challenges are high due to weak laboratory capacity, poor health systems governance, lack of health information systems, and limited resources. Developing countries struggle with political and social dilemma, and bear a high health and economic burden of communicable diseases. Available data are fragmented and lack representativeness which limits their use to advice health policy makers and orientate the efficient allocation of funding and financial resources on programs to mitigate r...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

How do the general population behave with facemasks to prevent COVID-19 in the community? A multi-site observational study
ConclusionsDuring the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the frequency and quality of facemask wearing remained low in the community setting. Young people in general, and men in particular, represent the priority targets for information campaigns. Simplifying the rules to require universal mandatory facemasking seemed to be the best approach for health authorities. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

There is no dose –response relationship between allogeneic blood transfusion and healthcare-associated infection: a retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsRBCs transfusion, platelets transfusion and FFPs transfusion were associated with HAI, but there was no dose –response relationship between them. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Barriers to implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs in three low- and middle-income country tertiary care settings: findings from a multi-site qualitative study
ConclusionsOur study highlighted several important barriers to implementing ASPs that were shared between three tertiary care centers in LMICs. Improving drug availability, enhancing availability of and trust in microbiologic data, creating local guidelines, and providing education to physicians regarding antimicrobial prescribing are important steps that could be taken by ASPs in these facilities. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Time for a renewed focus on the role of cleaners in achieving safe health care in low- and middle-income countries
AbstractWater, sanitation and hygiene, collectively known as WASH, is an enabler of infection prevention and control (IPC), both of which contribute to safe, quality health care and the prevention of spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This discussion paper considers the importance placed on the role of hygiene, including cleaning and those who clean, in health care facilities, within the context of existing data, guidelines and initiatives. Informed by this, the paper presents five areas for consideration that have the potential to strengthen and further demonstrate the value of this important cadre of staff and the...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genetic relatedness of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from humans, chickens and poultry environments
ConclusionMDRE.coli isolates were prevalent amongst poultry-workers, poultry, and the poultry farm/LBM environment. The emergence of MDRE. coli with novel ST in two isolates may be plasmid-mediated. Competent authorities should enforce AMR regulations to ensure prudent use of antimicrobials to limit the risk of transmission along the food chain. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 23, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Investigating potential transmission of antimicrobial resistance in an open-plan hospital ward: a cross-sectional metagenomic study of resistome dispersion in a lower middle-income setting
AbstractBackgroundAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a profound global health threat. Reducing AMR spread requires the identification of transmission pathways. The extent to which hospital wards represent a venue for substantial AMR transmission in low- and middle-income countries settings is poorly understood.MethodsRectal swabs were obtained from adult male inpatients in a “Nightingale” model general medicine ward in Yangon, Myanmar. Resistome characteristics were characterised by metagenomic sequencing. AMR gene carriage was related to inter-patient distance (representing inter-patient interaction) us...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence of pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae based on PCR capsular typing harbouring carbapenemases encoding genes in Uganda tertiary hospitals
ConclusionThe high prevalence of virulent and antibiotic resistantK. pneumoniae among clinical isolates obtained from the four tertiary hospital as revealed by this study pose a great threat to healthcare. Our findings underline the epidemiological and public health risks and implications of this pathogen. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

“Seconds save lives—clean your hands”: the 5 May 2021 World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign
(Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Candida tropicalis distribution and drug resistance is correlated with ERG11 and UPC2 expression
ConclusionsOverexpression of the ERG11 and UPC2 genes inC. tropicalis could increase resistance to azole antifungal drugs. The routine testing for ERG11 and UPC2 in high-risk patients in key departments would provide a theoretical basis for the rational application of azole antifungal drugs. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Characteristics and diversity of mutations in regulatory genes of resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux pumps in association with drug-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii
ConclusionsOur findings outlined the role of RND efflux pumps in resistance ofA. baumannii to multiple antibiotics particularly tigecycline, and pointed out the importance of a variety of single mutations in the corresponding regulatory systems. Further studies are required to decipher the precise role of RND efflux pumps in multidrug-resistant clinical isolates ofA. baumannii. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials aimed at improving antimicrobial stewardship in care homes
ConclusionThis COS is recommended to be used in clinical trials aimed at improving AMS in care homes. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Do we cause false positives? An experimental series on droplet or airborne SARS-CoV-2 contamination of sampling tubes during swab collection in a test center
AbstractThe rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic urged immense testing capacities as one cornerstone of infection control. Many institutions opened outpatient SARS-CoV-2 test centers to allow large number of tests in comparatively short time frames. With increasing positive test rates, concerns for a possible airborne or droplet contamination of specimens leading to false-positive results were raised. In our experimental series performed in a dedicated SARS-CoV-2 test center, 40 open collection tubes placed for defined time periods in proximity to individuals were found to be SARS-CoV-2 negative. These fin...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A large-scale investigation of alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) volume: hand coverage correlations utilizing an innovative quantitative evaluation system
ConclusionsHand sizes differ a lot among HCWs. After objectively measuring participants, the surface of the smallest hand was just over half compared to the largest hand (259 cm2 and 498 cm2, respectively). While a 3  ml ABHR volume is reasonable for medium-size hands, the need for an optimized volume of handrub for each individual is critical, as it offers several advantages. Not only it can ensure adequate hand hygiene quality, but also prevent unnecessary costs. Bluntly increasing the volume also increases s pillage and therefore waste of disinfectant in the case of smaller hands. In addition, adherence could poten...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Temporal trends, risk factors and outcomes of infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales in Swiss solid organ transplant recipients between 2012 and 2018
ConclusionsIn Swiss SOT-recipients, proportion of infections with ESBL-producing non-E. coli Enterobacterales increased in recent years. Antibiotic pre-treatment represents a risk factor for ESBL-E. Improving appropriateness of empiric antibiotic treatment might be an important measure to reduce unfavourable outcome, which was observed in almost half of SOT-recipients with ESBL-E infections. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A nationwide assessment of the burden of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use among surgical patients: results from Serbian point prevalence survey, 2017
AbstractBackgroundAs the only non-European Union (EU) country, Serbia participated in a second point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use (AMU) organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in the EU countries. Here, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of HAI and AMU in patients who had recently undergone a surgery and to compare risk profile, HAI rates, and AMU among surgical patients and non-surgical patients.MethodsA national PPS was performed in 65 Serbian acute-care hospitals, in November 2017. In this paper, the data of 61 hospitals for adult ...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of key quality indicators for appropriate antibiotic use in the Republic of Korea: results of a modified Delphi survey
ConclusionsWe identified key QIs to measure the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy to identify targets for improvement and to evaluate the effects of antibiotic stewardship intervention. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Impact of environmental cleaning on the colonization and infection rates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in patients within the intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii complex in Germany (2014 –2018): an analysis of data from the national Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance system
This study aimed to describe epidemiological trends and risk factors of carbapenem resistance inA. baumannii complex isolates in Germany between 2014 and 2018.MethodsWe analysed 43,948 clinicalA. baumannii complex isolates using 2014 to 2018 data from the GermanAntimicrobial Resistance Surveillance system. We applied descriptive statistics and uni- and multivariable regression analyses to investigate carbapenem resistance inA. baumannii complex isolates.ResultsThe proportion of carbapenem resistance in clinicalA. baumannii complex isolates declined from 7.6% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.4 –12.7%) in 2014 to 3....
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Systematic screening on admission for SARS-CoV-2 to detect asymptomatic infections
AbstractThe proportion of asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains elusive and the potential benefit of systematic screening during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic is controversial. We investigated the proportion of asymptomatic inpatients who were identified by systematic screening for SARS-CoV-2 upon hospital admission. Our analysis revealed that systematic screening of asymptomatic inpatients detects a low total number of SARS-CoV-2 infections (0.1%), questioning the cost –benefit ratio of this intervention. Even when the population-wide prevalence was low, the proporti...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Taxonomy, virulence determinants and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. isolated from bacteremia in southeastern China
ConclusionsThe prevalence and dangerousness ofAeromonas infections, especiallyA. dhakensis, are underestimated in clinic. Continuous monitoring is essential to keep track of MDRAeromonas due to the increasing prevalence recently and a more effective measure is required to control the spread of resistance determinants. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Foley catheter with noble metal alloy coating for preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections: a large, multi-center clinical trial
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the noble metal alloy (NMA) coated BIP Foley Catheter in preventing the incidence of sym ptomatic CAUTI in a large cohort of patients in India.MethodsThis multi-center, prospective study included 1000 adult patients admitted to six hospitals across India for urology, surgery and ICU requiring urethral catheterization and admission for  ≥ 48 h. Patients were allocated to the NMA-coated BIP Foley Catheter group or a non-coated control catheter group, with a randomization ratio of 3:1. CAUTI surveillance was conducted at study entry, upon cathet...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A new model for COVID-19 control and its implementation in the city of Honghu, China: a case report
ConclusionsThis management strategy is called the ‘Honghu Model’ which can be generalized to enable the prevention and management of COVID-19 worldwide. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of nosocomial, healthcare-associated, and community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in Guangzhou, China
This study aimed to compare the clinical and microbiological characteristics of nosocomial, healthcare-associated (HCA), and community-acquired (CA)K. pneumoniae infections.MethodsClinical data were extracted from electronic medical records and analyzed retrospectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production were determined for all identified strains. Carbapenemase and ESBL genes were amplified by PCR. Genotyping of carbapenem-resistantK. pneumoniae (CRKP) and ESBL-producing strains was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).ResultsOf 379  K. pneumoniae infect...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Core components of infection prevention and control programs at the facility level in Georgia: key challenges and opportunities
ConclusionsAmong the recommended WHO IPC core components, existing programs, infrastructure, IPC staffing, workload and supplies present within Georgian healthcare hospitals should allow for implementation of effective IPC. Development and dissemination of IPC Guidelines, implementation of an effective IPC training system and systematic monitoring of IPC practices will be an important first step towards implementing targeted IPC improvement plans in hospitals. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Management of a hospital-wide vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium outbreak in a Dutch general hospital, 2014 –2017: successful control using a restrictive screening strategy
ConclusionWe implemented a control strategy based on targeted screening and isolation in combination with implementation of general precautions and environmental cleaning. The strategy was less stringent than the Dutch national guideline for VRE control. This strategy successfully controlled the outbreak, while it was associated with a reduction in the number of isolation days and the number of cultures taken. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vaginal colonization with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among women in labor in central Uganda: prevalence and associated factors
ConclusionMost of the women included in our study were vaginally colonized with potentially pathogenic MDR and other clinically important AMR bacteria. The high prevalence of colonization with these bacteria is likely to further increase the incidence of difficult-to-treat neonatal sepsis. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence of nosocomial associated opportunistic pathogens in the gut microbiome after antibiotic treatment
ConclusionsOral antibiotic therapy may select for common opportunistic pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. In this study opportunistic pathogens present after antibiotic therapy harbored more antibiotic resistant genes than populations of opportunistic pathogens before treatment. Our results demonstrate the effects of antibiotic therapy on induced dysbiosis and expansion of opportunistic pathogen populations and antibiotic resistant subpopulations of those pathogens. Follow-up studies with larger samples sizes and potentially controlled clinical investigations should be performed to confirm our findings. (Sour...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Systematic review on use, cost and clinical efficacy of automated decontamination devices
ConclusionThere were mixed results for patient benefit from this review of automated devices using H202 or UV for surface decontamination. Most non-outbreak studies lacked an appropriate control group and were potentially compromised by industry sponsorship. Concern over HAI encourages delivery of powerful disinfectants for eliminating pathogens without appreciating toxicity or cost benefit. Routine use of these devices requires justification from standardized and controlled studies to understand how best to manage contaminated healthcare environments. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

NeoCLEAN: a multimodal strategy to enhance environmental cleaning in a resource-limited neonatal unit
AbstractBackgroundContamination of the hospital environment contributes to neonatal bacterial colonization and infection. Cleaning of hospital surfaces and equipment is seldom audited in resource-limited settings.MethodsA quasi-experimental study was conducted to assess the impact of a multimodal cleaning intervention for surfaces and equipment in a 30-bed neonatal ward. The intervention included cleaning audits with feedback, cleaning checklists, in-room cleaning wipes and training of staff and mothers in cleaning methods. Cleaning adequacy was evaluated for 100 items (58 surfaces, 42 equipment) using quantitative bacteri...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ultraviolet disinfection robots to improve hospital cleaning: Real promise or just a gimmick?
AbstractThe global COVID-19 pandemic due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has challenged the availability of traditional surface disinfectants. It has also stimulated the production of ultraviolet-disinfection robots by companies and institutions. These robots are increasingly advocated as a simple solution for the immediate disinfection of rooms and spaces of all surfaces in one process and as such they seem attractive to hospital management, also because of automation and apparent cost savings by reducing cleaning staff. Yet, there true potential in the hospital setting needs to be carefully evaluated. Presently, disi...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A road-map for addressing antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries: lessons learnt from the public private participation and co-designed antimicrobial stewardship programme in the State of Kerala, India
ConclusionThrough 7  years of stakeholder engagement, lobbying with government, and driving change through co-development and implementation, the PPP successfully delivered an antimicrobial stewardship plan across the state. The roadmap for the implementation of the Kerala PPP strategic AMR plan can provide learning f or other states and countries aiming to implement action plans for AMR. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sustainable neonatal CLABSI surveillance: consensus towards new criteria in the Netherlands
ConclusionsThe newly developed Dutch neonatal CLABSI SC are concise, specified to the neonatal population and comply with a single blood culture policy in actual neonatal clinical practice. International agreement upon neonatal CLABSI SC is needed to identify best practices for infection prevention and control. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Efficacy of a coordinated strategy for containment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria carriage in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the context of an active surveillance program
AbstractBackgroundAntimicrobial resistance in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients is a threat, due to the frequent use of antimicrobial treatment and invasive devices in fragile babies. Since 2014 an active surveillance program of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) carriage has been in place in the five NICUs of Palermo, Italy. In 2017 an increase in the prevalence of MDR-GNB, and in particular of extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producingKlebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), was observed in “Civico” hospital NICU.AimTo assess the impact of a coordinated intervention strategy in achievi...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of targeted educational intervention towards public knowledge and perception of antibiotic use and resistance in the state of Perak, Malaysia
This study determined the impact of a self-developed educational leaflet for addressing specific knowledge gaps in antibiotic use among the public.MethodsThis was an experimental study conducted at five hospitals and 20 primary health care clinics in the state of Perak. Adults over 18  years of age were recruited using sequential sampling. The first phase of data collection consisted of a pre-intervention assessment, an educational session, and an immediate post-intervention assessment. Each educational session was conducted by trained pharmacists and lasted approximately 15 mi n for each participant. A two-week ...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on antimicrobial prevalence and prescribing in a tertiary hospital in Singapore
AbstractBackgroundThe deployment of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) teams to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic can lead to a loss of developed frameworks, best practices and leadership resulting in adverse impact on antimicrobial prescribing and resistance. We aim to investigate effects of reduction in AMS resources during the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial prescribing.MethodsOne of 5 full-time equivalent AMS pharmacists was deployed to support pandemic work and AMS rounds with infectious disease physicians were reduced from 5 to 2 times a week. A survey in acute inpatients was conducted using the Global Point Prevalence...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cutibacterium avidum resists surgical skin antisepsis in the groin —a potential risk factor for periprosthetic joint infection: a quality control study
ConclusionStandard skin antisepsis was not effective to completely eliminate colonizingC. avidum on the skin in the groin of patients undergoing THA. Colonizing withC. avidum might pose an increased risk for PJI when considering a THA. Novel more effective antisepsis strategies are needed.Trial registration No clinical trial (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Bacterial contamination of neonatal intensive care units: How safe are the neonates?
ConclusionHigh degree of bacterial contamination of objects/instruments in NICU was recorded. Isolation of potential pathogens likeE. coli,Klebsiella species andS. aureus is a major threat of nosocomial infections. Blood culture data of NICU reflects possibility of nosocomial infections from contaminated sites. Gentamicin and amikacin may be used for empirical therapy in suspected cases of nosocomial infections in NICU. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 30, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergency ward ultrasound: clinical audit on disinfection practices during routine and sterile examinations
ConclusionThis study details areas for quality improvement in the disinfection of emergency ultrasound scanner use. Consequently, we propose a standardized protocol based upon the recommendations used for the questionnaire drafting, with a visual focus on the low compliance points that have been revealed in this audit. This protocol has been distributed to all the medical emergency services audited and included in the emergency resident ’s ultrasound learning program. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 30, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from cerebrospinal fluid among children with bacterial meningitis in China from 2016 to 2018: a multicenter retrospective study
ConclusionsS. epidermidis,E. coli andS. pneumoniae were the predominant pathogens causing PBM in Chinese patients. The distribution of PBM causative organisms varied by age. The resistance of CoNS to methicillin and the high incidence of ESBL production amongE. coli andK. pneumoniae isolates were concerning. CRKP poses a critical challenge for the treatment of PBM. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 30, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Simultaneous detection and ribotyping of Clostridioides difficile , and toxin gene detection directly on fecal samples
ConclusionC. difficile ribotyping directly on fecal DNA is feasible, with sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of diagnostic toxin gene qPCR and with ribotype assignment similar to that obtained by conventional typing on DNA from cultured isolates. This supports simultaneous diagnosis and typing to recognize an outbreak. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial multidrug resistance in the era of COVID-19: a forgotten plight?
ConclusionThe authors stress the importance of an integrated preparedness strategy to tackle this public health peril. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Infections and antimicrobial resistance in intensive care units in lower-middle income countries: a scoping review
AbstractBackgroundIntensive care units (ICUs) in lower-middle income countries (LMICs) are suspected to constitute a special risk for patients of acquiring infection due to multiple antibiotic resistant organisms. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to present the data published on ICU-acquired infections and on antimicrobial resistance observed in ICUs in LMICs over a 13-year period. A systematic scoping review was conducted according to the PRISMA extension guideline for scoping reviews and registered in the Open Science Framework.Main body of the abstractArticles were sought that reported on ICU-acquired infec...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Enhancing engagement beyond the conference walls: analysis of Twitter use at #ICPIC2019 infection prevention and control conference
ConclusionsWe observed the participation of numerous Tweet authors and followers from diverse professional backgrounds potentially supporting the benefit of including patients in conferences to reach a more general, non-specialized public. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone-iodine-alcohol versus chlorhexidine-alcohol for surgical skin preparation on the aerobic and anaerobic skin flora of the shoulder region
AbstractBackgroundCutibacterium acnes is part of the anaerobic skin microbiome and resides in deeper skin layers. The organism is an agent of surgical site infections (SSI) in shoulder surgery. We hypothesized that prolonged skin preparation with an agent that penetrates deeply into the skin would be beneficial. Thus, we compared two classes of antiseptics, each combined with alcohol, each applied with two different contact times.MethodsUsing a cross-over arrangement, shoulders of 16 healthy volunteers were treated for 2.5  min (standard) or 30 min (prolonged) with alcohol-based chlorhexidine (CHG-ALC) or alcohol...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Carriage of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a high-density informal settlement in Kenya is associated with environmental risk-factors
ConclusionsAntibiotic use provided little explanatory power for the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Transmission of resistant bacteria in this setting through unsanitary living conditions likely overwhelms incremental changes in antibiotic use. Under such circumstances, sanitation, hygiene, and disease transmission are the limiting factors for reducing the prevalence of resistant bacteria. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - January 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research