Biofilm exacerbates antibiotic resistance: Is this a current oversight in antimicrobial stewardship?
ConclusionBiofilm must be considered synonymously with antibiotic resistance because of its proficiency in transferring resistance genes as well as its innate phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. Although biofilm falls outside of the current definition of antimicrobial stewardship, greater awareness of the existence, ubiquity, and consequences of environmental biofilm amongst healthcare practitioners is crucial to improving hygiene practices and controlling the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in healthcare facilities. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The prevalence and mechanism of triclosan resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples in Wenzhou, China
ConclusionsThis is the first study to report that short-term triclosan exposure in vitro increases triclosan resistance in susceptibleE. coli isolates. After acquiring resistance, these strains may present MDR or cross-resistance phenotypes. Moreover, triclosan resistance mainly involves the overexpression offabI and efflux pumps inE. coli isolates. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - October 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influence of severity of infection on the effect of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremic pneumonia
ConclusionAppropriate antimicrobial therapy decreases 14-day mortality of the most severely ill patients withA. baumannii bacteremic pneumonia. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance in Clostridioides ( Clostridium ) difficile derived from humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionResistance to metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam is reported rarely. From the alternative CDI drug treatments, tigecycline had a lower resistance rate than rifampin. The high-risk antimicrobials for CDI development showed a high level of resistance, the highest was seen in the second generation of fluoroquinolones and clindamycin; amoxicillin/clavulanate showed almost no resistance. Tetracycline resistance was present in one fifth of human clinicalC. difficile isolates. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effects of restrictive-prescribing stewardship on antibiotic consumption in primary care in China: an interrupted time series analysis, 2012 –2017
ConclusionsRestrictive-prescribing stewardship in primary care was effective in reducing total antibiotic consumption, especially the use of penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides/lincosamides/streptogramins. However, the intervention effects were limited regarding the use of combinations of penicillins with ß-lactamase inhibitors, the third and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and parenteral antibiotics. Stronger administrative regulations focusing on specific targeted antibiotics, especially the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral antibiotics, are in urgent need in the future. (So...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Increasing use of linezolid in a tertiary NICU during a 10-year period: reasons and concerns for the future
ConclusionsA rapid increase in linezolid prescriptions has been observed in our tertiary NICU, from 2014 to 2019, with 33% inadequate uses. This worrisome trend should lead to search for therapeutic alternatives and to work on antibiotic stewardship to prevent the emergence of new antimicrobial bacterial resistance. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of national policy on hand hygiene promotion activities in hospitals in Korea
ConclusionsAfter the new national policy was implemented, the number of infection control professionals increased, and hand hygiene promotion activities were strengthened across Korean hospitals. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology and risk factors of rectal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among high-risk patients from ICU and HSCT wards in a university hospital
ConclusionsThis study revealed a high prevalence of rectal CPE colonization in high-risk patients from ICU and HSCT wards, and a predominant colonization of the KPC-producingK. pneumoniae clone ST11. Stricter infection control measures are urgently needed to limit the dissemination of CPE strains, especially in patients who were afflicted by urinary system diseases, have underwent bronchoscopy, and were previously exposed to combined antibiotic use. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A nosocomial cluster of vancomycin resistant enterococci among COVID-19 patients in an intensive care unit
ConclusionsOur results illustrate the importance of continued adherence to infection prevention and control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent VRE transmission and healthcare associated infections. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Etiology and antimicrobial resistance of secondary bacterial infections in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective analysis
ConclusionsSBIs may occur in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to high mortality. The incidence of SBIs was associated with the severity of illness on admission. Gram-negative bacteria, especiallyA. baumannii andK. pneumoniae, were the main bacteria, and the resistance rates of the major isolated bacteria were generally high. This was a single-center study; thus, our results should be externally examined when applied in other institutions. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Silica nanoparticles with encapsulated DNA (SPED) – a novel surrogate tracer for microbial transmission in healthcare
ConclusionsSPED represent a convenient and safe instrument to simulate pathogen spread by contact transmission simultaneously from an infinite number of sites. They can be further developed as a central asset for successful infection prevention in healthcare. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Use of medical face masks versus particulate respirators as a component of personal protective equipment for health care workers in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Parental self-medication with antibiotics for children promotes antibiotic over-prescribing in clinical settings in China
ConclusionsTailored health education for parents is required in both community and clinical settings to discourage parental SMA for children. The doctors should not prescribe unnecessary antibiotics to reinforce parents ’ SMA behaviors. We recommend expanding the current IV antibiotics ban in outpatient settings of China to cover outpatient pediatrics. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in three hospitals in North-Eastern Tanzania
ConclusionOur study shows a rate of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in Tanzanian hospitals and prolonged surgical antibiotic prophylaxis being a common practice. PPS is an important tool to improve future antibiotic use in Tanzania hospitals. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design comparison between COVID-19 infection control guidelines ’ applicability and their protective value as perceived by Israeli healthcare workers, and healthcare executives’ response
ConclusionsHCWs need the support of the healthcare authorities not only to provide missing equipment, but also to communicate the risk to them. Conveying the information with full transparency, while addressing the uncertainty element and engaging the HCWs in evaluating the guidelines, are critical for establishing trust. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Using an ultraviolet cabinet improves compliance with the World Health Organization ’s hand hygiene recommendations by undergraduate medical students: a randomized controlled trial
This study evaluated if the use of Ultraviolet-cabinets (UVc) for fluorescent-alcohol-based handrubs (AHR) during an undergraduate medical student training improved the compliance rate to the WHO hand hygiene recommendations (completeness of AHR application and HH opportunities).MethodsThis randomized trial compared a HH training with personal feedback (using UVc) to a control group. The first year, the students (2nd degree) were convened by groups (clusters) of 6 –9 for a demonstration of the correct execution of WHO procedure. Randomization by cluster was done prior HH training. In the control group, the students h...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - September 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance preparedness in sub-Saharan African countries
ConclusionsThe low mean AMR preparedness score compared to overall JEE score, along with the majority of countries lacking implemented National Action Plans, suggests that until now AMR has not been a priority for most SSA countries. By identifying regional and One Health strengths, AMR preparedness can be fortified across SSA with a multisectoral approach. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use among inpatients in a tertiary hospital in Fiji: a point prevalence survey
ConclusionsThe prevalence of HAIs in Fiji was similar to neighbouring high-income countries, but may have been reduced by the high proportion of paediatric and obstetrics patients, or by lower rates of inpatient investigations. AMU was very high, with duration of surgical prophylaxis an important target for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

First case of Dolutegravir and Darunavir/r multi drug-resistant HIV-1 in Cameroon following exposure to Raltegravir: lessons and implications in the era of transition to Dolutegravir-based regimens
ConclusionsAs African countries transition to dolutegravir-based regimens, prior raltegravir-exposure may prompt selection (and potential transmission) of dolutegravir-resistance, supporting case surveillance. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sepsis related mortality of extremely low gestational age newborns after the introduction of colonization screening for multi-drug resistant organisms
AbstractBackgroundIn 2013 German infection surveillance guidelines recommended weekly colonization screening for multidrug-resistant (MDRO) or highly epidemic organisms for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and extended hygiene measures based on screening results. It remains a matter of debate whether screening is worth the effort. We therefore aimed to evaluate sepsis related outcomes before and after the guideline update.MethodsThe German Neonatal Network (GNN) is a prospective cohort study including data from extremely preterm infants between 22  + 0 and 28 + 6 gestational weeks born in 6...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cross-contamination by disinfectant towelettes varies by product chemistry and strain
ConclusionDisinfectant wipes can cross-contaminate hard nonporous surfaces and retain viable bacterial cells post-disinfection, especially over larger surface areas. This highlights a need to further investigate the risk disinfectant wipes pose during and post-disinfection and guidance on maximum surface areas treated with a single towelette. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Infection prevention and control research priorities: what do we need to combat healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance? Results of a narrative literature review and survey analysis
ConclusionsWe formulated a list of sixteen research priorities and identified three urgent needs. Now, we encourage researchers, funding agencies, policymakers and relevant stakeholders to start addressing the identified gaps. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: High rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative infections and associated mortality in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hand hygiene improvement or antibiotic restriction to control the household transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli : a mathematical modelling study
ConclusionsThe transmission of ESBL-EC is frequent in households and especially those with a baby. Antibiotic reduction had little impact on ESBL-EC. Improvement of hygiene in the community could help prevent transmission of ESBL-EC. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Estimating length of stay and inpatient charges attributable to hospital-acquired bloodstream infections
AbstractBackgroundHospital-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality and increases patients ’ length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges. Our goals were to calculate LOS and charges attributable to BSI and compare results among different models.MethodsA retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in 2017 in a large general hospital, in Beijing. Using patient-level data, we compared the attributable LOS and charges of BSI with three models: 1) conventional non-matching, 2) propensity score matching controlling for the impact of potential confounding variables, and 3...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Azithromycin resistant gonococci: a literature review
ConclusionsWith no alternative antimicrobial treatment options for gonorrhoea and only a few new drugs in the development pipeline, it is necessary to monitor drug resistance and optimize treatment regimens regularly. Moreover, investigations for novel drugs should be wired. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Infection prevention knowledge, practice, and its associated factors among healthcare providers in primary healthcare unit of Wogdie District, Northeast Ethiopia, 2019: a cross-sectional study
ConclusionA significant proportion of healthcare providers had inadequate knowledge and unsafe practice of infection prevention. To improve healthcare worker ’s knowledge of infection prevention, adequate pre-service as well as on job training should be given. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence of fosfomycin resistance and gene mutations in clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
ConclusionsAn increased fosfomycin resistance rate of MRSA isolates was observed in our present study, mostly due to mutations in theglpT anduhpT genes. Clonal spread probably contributed to the increased fosfomycin resistance. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A rapid model for developing dry surface biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for in vitro disinfectant efficacy testing
ConclusionA rapid model for developing DSB with characteristic EPS was developed for disinfectant efficacy testing against DSB. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Scope of a weekly infection control team rounding in an acute-care teaching hospital: a pilot study
AbstractRegular and well-organized inspection of infection control is an essential element of an infection control program. The aim of this study was to identify the functional scope of weekly infection control team rounding (ICTR) in an acute care hospital. We conducted weekly ICTR between January 18 and December 26, 2018 to improve the compliance to infection control and prevention measures at a 734-bed academic hospital in the Republic of Korea and analyzed the results retrospectively. We categorized the results into five groups: “well maintained,” “improvement needed,” “long-term support, ...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Predictive factors for sepsis by carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in adult critical patients in Rio de Janeiro: a case-case-control design in a prospective cohort study
ConclusionsThe investigation of recurrent and not only bacteremic episodes of sepsis was the differential of this study. The results are in agreement with the basic information in the literature. This may help improve management strategies and future studies on sepsis by CR-GNB. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A seven-year surveillance study of the epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility, risk factors and mortality of candidaemia among paediatric and adult inpatients in a tertiary teaching hospital in China
ConclusionsThe epidemiological data of candidaemia in paediatric and adult patients are only different in the distributions ofCandida species and the mean annual incidence of candidaemia. Flucytosine and amphotericin B can be used as first-choice agents when no antifungal susceptibility test results are available. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Enterococcus faecium : from microbiological insights to practical recommendations for infection control and diagnostics
AbstractEarly in its evolution,Enterococcus faecium acquired traits that allowed it to become a successful nosocomial pathogen.E. faecium inherent tenacity to build resistance to antibiotics and environmental stressors that allows the species to thrive in hospital environments. The continual wide use of antibiotics in medicine has been an important driver in the evolution ofE. faecium becoming a highly proficient hospital pathogen.For successful prevention and reduction of nosocomial infections with vancomycin resistantE. faecium (VREfm), it is essential to focus on reducing VREfm carriage and spread. The aim of this revie...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

CRISPR-Cas system: a potential alternative tool to cope antibiotic resistance
AbstractAntibiotic exposure leads to massive selective pressures that initiate the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in commensal and pathogenic bacteria. The slow process of developing new antibiotics makes this approach counterintuitive for combatting the rapid emergence of new antibiotic resistant pathogens. Therefore, alternative approaches such as, the development of nucleic acid-based anti-bacterial treatments, anti-bacterial peptides, bacteriocins, anti-virulence compounds and bacteriophage therapies should be exploited to cope infections caused by resistant superbugs. In this editorial, we discuss how t...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

High rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative infections and associated mortality in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This study collates data from published information on the rates and clinical implications of infection with ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria in Ethiopia. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline, Science Direct and Google scholar from October 2018 to March 2019. Eligible studies were identified by applying quality criteria. The pooled proportion of ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria was estimated based on a random effect model. The publication bias and the variation in proportion estimates attributed to heterogeneity were assessed.ResultsFourteen studies with relevant data...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Potential methanol toxicity and the importance of using a standardised alcohol-based hand rub formulation in the era of COVID-19
AbstractObjectivesHand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations.MethodsWe explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients.Short conclusionWe advise those producing hand sanitisers to fo...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genetic diversity and risk factors for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance across human, animals and environmental compartments in East Africa: a review
ConclusionThe high diversity of the AMR genes suggests there may be multiple sources of resistance bacteria, or the possible exchange of strains or a flow of genes amongst different strains due to transfer by mobile genetic elements. Therefore, there should be harmonized One Health guidelines for the use of antibiotics, as well as regulations governing their importation and sale. Moreover, the trend of ESBLs, MRSA and carbapenem resistant (CAR) carriage rates is dynamic and are on rise over time period, posing a public health concern in East Africa. Collaborative surveillance of AMR in partnership with regional and externa...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Use of medical face masks versus particulate respirators as a component of personal protective equipment for health care workers in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic
AbstractCurrently available evidence supports that the predominant route of human-to-human transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 is through respiratory droplets and/or contact routes. The report by the World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China supports person-to-person droplet and fomite transmission during close unprotected contact with the vast majority of the investigated infection clusters occurring within families, with a household secondary attack rate varying between 3 and 10%, a finding that is not consistent with airborne transmission. The reproduction number (R0) for t...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Finding the match between healthcare worker and expert for optimal audit and feedback on antimicrobial resistance prevention measures
ConclusionsTo unlock the learning and improvement potentials of audit and feedback, HCW ’ and AMR-experts’ perspectives should be balanced throughout the whole AF-loop (incl. data collection, analysis, visualization, feedback and planning, implementing and monitoring actions). APM-AF should be flexible, so that both audit (incl. collecting and combining the right data in an efficie nt and transparent manner) and feedback (incl. persuasive and actionable feedback) can be tailored to the needs of various target groups. To balance HCW’ and AMR-experts’ perspectives a participatory holistic AF developme...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of in vitro resistance to fluoroquinolones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
In this study, we investigated the dynamics of different resistance mechanisms inP. aeruginosa populations that have evolved under fluoroquinolone pressure, as well as the interactions between these mechanisms in evolutionary trajectories. Bacteria of strain ATCC27853 were selected under different concentrations of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin for six parallel lineages, followed by amplification of four target genes in the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR) and Sanger sequencing to identify the mutations. The expression of four efflux pump proteins was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using th...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Are three antiseptic paints needed for safe preparation of the surgical field? A prospective cohort study with 239 patients
ConclusionsIn non-emergency surgical patients, three antiseptic paints may be superior to two paints in reducing microbial skin colonization prior to surgery. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Treating infections with ionizing radiation: a historical perspective and emerging techniques
ConclusionThe novel prospects of radiation treatment strategies against planktonic and biofilm-related microbial infections seem feasible and are worth investigating further. However, potential risks involving radiation treatment must be considered in each individual patient. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Indirect comparison of efficacy between different antibiotic prophylaxis against the intracranial infection after craniotomy
ConclusionThe current evidence shows that low-grade antibacterial drugs can be selected to prevent ICI after craniotomy, but this may be due to the limited number of studies per antibiotic. It still needs more high-quality, large sample RCT to confirm.Systemic review registrationPROSPERO CRD42019133369. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among undocumented migrants and uninsured legal residents in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study
AbstractBackgroundNasal carriage of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with an increased risk of infection. Colonization with MRSA is observed in
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Severe recurrent Streptobacillus moniliformis endocarditis in a pregnant woman, and review of the literature
AbstractBackgroundRat bite fever is a systemic febrile illness caused by infection with the Gram-negative bacillusStreptobacillus moniliformis following a bite, scratch, or contact with excrement. Only 26 cases of native valve endocarditis have been reported to date. We could find no other reports of severeStreptobacillus endocarditis requiring valve replacement in a young, pregnant patient.Case presentationA pregnant patient sought care for right leg pain, fevers, left upper quadrant pain, generalized weakness, fatigue, and inability to bear weight on her right leg. She had a syncopal episode 9 months earlier, resulting i...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outbreak of Ralstonia mannitolilytica bacteraemia in patients undergoing haemodialysis at a tertiary hospital in Pretoria, South Africa
ConclusionsAll patients were septic and received directed antibiotic therapy. There was 1 mortality. The source of theR. mannitolilytica infection in these patients was most likely the dialysis water as the identical organism was cultured from the dialysis water and the patients. The hospital management intervened and repaired the dialysis water system following which no further casesof R. mannitolilytca infections were detected. A multidisciplinary approach is required to control healthcare associated infections such as these. Routine maintenance of water systems in the hospital is essential to prevent clinical infections...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence and abundance of selected genes conferring macrolide resistance genes in COPD patients during maintenance treatment with azithromycin
ConclusionsThe acquisition rate of macrolide resistance genes in COPD patients treated with azithromycin maintenance therapy was limited, but the relative abundance of macrolide resistance genes increased significantly over time compared to placebo.This study was part of the COLUMBUS trial (Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT00985244). (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparative efficacy of hospital disinfectants against nosocomial infection pathogens
ConclusionsAccording to the findings of this study, the most effective disinfectants against bothE. faecalis andB.cepacia were Steranios 2%, Microzed Quatenol, and Deconex HLDPA in order. Considering the importance of these bacterial strains in healthcare-associated infections, the use of these effective disinfectants is recommended in the hospitals. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Identifying targets for antibiotic stewardship interventions through analysis of the antibiotic prescribing process in hospitals - a multicentre observational cohort study
ConclusionsAnalysing the process of antibiotic prescribing in hospitals with patient-level data identified important targets for antibiotic stewardship interventions in hospitals. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A multimodal intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in peripheral wards of a tertiary care university centre: a cluster randomised controlled trial
AbstractBackgroundInterventions to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance are a key element in the practice infection prevention and control. It was our objective to assess the effect of a multimodal intervention on HH compliance at a tertiary care university hospital. As a secondary objective, we investigated the effect of the intervention on the occurrence of device-associated bloodstream infections.MethodsWe performed a single centre cluster randomised controlled trial at a university hospital in Germany. Twenty peripheral wards were invited to participate and randomly assigned to either the intervention (n =&thins...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research