Embryonic circulating endothelial progenitor cells
AbstractThe development of vascular system in vertebrates has been traditionally explained by early vasculogenic assembly of angioblasts followed by angiogenic outgrowth of pre-existing vessels. The discovery of adult endothelial progenitor cells (Asahara et al. in Science 275(5302):964 –967, 1997) challenged this view, since postnatal vascular growth could be accomplished by recruitment of circulating cells with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells. However, the existence of embryonic circulating endothelial progenitor cells and their actual contribution to vascul ar development is far less known. We ...
Source: Angiogenesis - July 1, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Arterial endoglin does not protect against arteriovenous malformations
ConclusionExpression of ENG is not required in arterial ECs to protect against AVM formation. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - June 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

RHOQ is induced by DLL4 and regulates angiogenesis by determining the intracellular route of the Notch intracellular domain
We describe a new feed-forward mechanism regulating DLL4/Notch signalling, whereby RHOQ is induced by DLL4/Notch and is essential for the NICD nuclear translocation. In the absence of RHOQ, Notch1 becomes targeted for degradation in the autophagy pathway and NICD is sequestered from the nucleus and targeted for degradation in lysosomes. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - June 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Angiopoietin-2 as a marker of endothelial activation is a good predictor factor for intensive care unit admission of COVID-19 patients
ConclusionAngiopoietin-2 is a relevant predictive factor for ICU direct admission in COVID-19 patients. This result showing an endothelial activation reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular dysfunction. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: importance of angiogenesis and antiangiogenic therapy
AbstractAngiogenesis is critical for the initiation and progression of solid tumors, as well as hematological malignancies. While angiogenesis in solid tumors has been well characterized, a large body of investigation is devoted to clarify the impact of angiogenesis on lymphoma development. B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) is the most common lymphoid malignancy with a highly heterogeneity. The malignancy remains incurable despite that the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapies provides substantial improvements. Several angiogenesis-related parameters, such as proangiogenic factors, circulating endothelial ...
Source: Angiogenesis - May 25, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Hedgehog signaling promotes angiogenesis directly and indirectly in pancreatic cancer
ConclusionInhibition of Hh signaling reduces tumor vascularity, suggesting that Hh plays a role in the maintenance or formation of the tumor vasculature. Whether the reduction in tumor growth and viability seen in the epithelium is a direct consequence of Hh pathway inhibition, or indirectly caused by its effect on the stroma and vasculature, remains to be evaluated. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - May 22, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Heterogeneity and chimerism of endothelial cells revealed by single-cell transcriptome in orthotopic liver tumors
AbstractThe liver is a common host organ for cancer, either through lesions that arise in liver epithelial cells [e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] or as a site of metastasis by tumors arising in other organs (e.g., colorectal cancer). However, the changes that occur in liver stromal cells in response to cancer have not been fully characterized, nor has it been determined whether the different sources of liver cancer induce distinct stromal changes. Here, we performed single-cell profiling of liver stromal cells from mouse models of induced spontaneous liver cancer or implanted colorectal liver metastases, with a focus...
Source: Angiogenesis - May 21, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Tumor-derived exosomes promote angiogenesis via adenosine A 2B receptor signaling
This study was performed to evaluate the role of adenosine receptors in TEX-induced angiogenesis.MethodsTEX produced by UMSCC47 head and neck cancer cell line were isolated by mini size exclusion chromatography (mini-SEC). Enzymatic activity of ectonucleotidases CD39/CD73 carried by TEX was measured by HPLC. Adenosine content of TEX was measured by UPLC –MS/MS. Primary human macrophages were co-incubated with TEX or exosomes derived from the plasma of head and neck cancer patients and their marker expression profile was analyzed by flow cytometry. The macrophage secretome was analyzed by angiogenesis arrays. The in v...
Source: Angiogenesis - May 18, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Endothelial deletion of ADAM10, a key regulator of Notch signaling, causes impaired decidualization and reduced fertility in female mice
AbstractDuring the initiation of pregnancy, the vasculature of the implantation site expands rapidly, yet little is known about this process or its role in fertility. Here, we report that endothelial-specific deletion of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10), an essential regulator of Notch signaling, results in severe subfertility in mice. We found that implantation sites develop until 5.5  days post conception (dpc) but are resorbed by 6.5 dpc inA10 ΔEC mice. Analysis of the mutant implantation sites showed impaired decidualization and abnormal vascular patterning compared to controls. Moreover, RNA-se...
Source: Angiogenesis - May 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of distinct nerve and blood vessel patterns in dual Thy1-YFP and Flt1-DsRed transgenic mice
In this study, dual fluorescence transgenic reporter mice were utilized to observe blood vessels and nervous tissues in organs postnatally. Thy1-YFP and Flt1-DsRed (TYFD) mice were interbred to achieve dual fluorescence in the offspring, with Thy1-YFP yellow fluorescence expressed primarily in nerves, and Flt1-DsRed fluorescence expressed selectively in blood vessels. Using this dual fluorescent mouse strain, we were able to visualize the networks of nervous and vascular tissue simultaneously in various organ systems both in the physiological state and after injury. Using ex vivo high-resolution imaging in this dual fluore...
Source: Angiogenesis - May 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Constitutively active PIK3CA mutations are expressed by lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells in capillary lymphatic venous malformation
In this study, we hypothesized that endothelial cells (EC) carry thePIK3CA mutations and play a major role in the cellular origin of CLVM. We isolated EC from the lesions of seven patients with CLVM and identifiedPIK3CA hotspot mutations. The CLVM EC exhibited constitutive phosphorylation of the PI3K effector AKT as well as hyperproliferation and increased resistance to cell death compared to normal EC. Inhibitors of PIK3CA (BYL719) and AKT (ARQ092) attenuated the proliferation of CLVM EC in a dose-dependent manner. A xenograft model of CLVM was developed by injecting patient-derived EC into the flanks of immunocompromised...
Source: Angiogenesis - April 30, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Apatinib as targeted therapy for advanced bone and soft tissue sarcoma: a dilemma of reversing multidrug resistance while suffering drug resistance itself
AbstractBone and soft tissue sarcomas are rare malignant tumors originated from mesenchymal tissues. They harbor more than 50 distinct subtypes and differ in pathological features and clinical courses. Despite the significant improvements in modern multi-modality treatment, the outcomes and overall survival rates remain poor for patients with advanced, refractory, metastatic, or relapsed diseases. The growth and metastasis of bone and soft tissue sarcoma largely depend on angiogenesis, and VEGF/VEGFR pathway is considered as the most prominent player in angiogenesis. Therefore, blockade of VEGF/VEGFR pathways is a promisin...
Source: Angiogenesis - April 24, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Lymphatic MAFB regulates vascular patterning during developmental and pathological lymphangiogenesis
AbstractMAFB is a transcription factor involved in the terminal differentiation of several cell types, including macrophages and keratinocytes. MAFB is also expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and is upregulated by VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling. Recent studies have revealed that MAFB regulates several genes involved in lymphatic differentiation and that global Mafb knockout mice show defects in patterning of lymphatic vessels during embryogenesis. However, it has remained unknown whether this effect is LEC-intrinsic and whether MAFB might also be involved in postnatal lymphangiogenesis. We established conditional, l...
Source: Angiogenesis - April 19, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Raftlin is recruited by neuropilin-1 to the activated VEGFR2 complex to control proangiogenic signaling
ConclusionNrp1 is an important co-receptor for VEGFR2; however, its functions are still only partially understood. We show that raftlin works with Nrp1 in endothelial cells to control intracellular trafficking of the activated VEGFR2. This modulates the response to VEGF and controls endothelial cell migration. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - April 9, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

New insights into the role of mitochondria in cardiac microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury
AbstractAs reperfusion therapies have become more widely used in acute myocardial infarction patients, ischemia-induced myocardial damage has been markedly reduced, but reperfusion-induced cardiac injury has become increasingly evident. The features of cardiac ischemia –reperfusion (I/R) injury include microvascular perfusion defects, platelet activation and sequential cardiomyocyte death due to additional ischemic events at the reperfusion stage. Microvascular obstruction, defined as a no-reflow phenomenon, determines the infarct zone, myocardial function and p eri-operative mortality. Cardiac microvascular endothel...
Source: Angiogenesis - April 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Angiostatic effects of ascorbic acid: current status and future perspectives
AbstractAnti-angiogenesis effect of ascorbic acid (AA) is still controversial. However, most of the scientific evidence suggests that AA has anti-angiogenesis effects on a number of test systems, including laboratory animals, human beings, and their derived cell lines. The information provided in this paper suggests that AA may be a hopeful angiostatic agent for the treatment of cancer. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - April 2, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Lymphangiogenesis and accumulation of reparative macrophages contribute to liver repair after hepatic ischemia –reperfusion injury
AbstractHepatic tissue repair plays a critical role in determining the outcome of hepatic ischemia –reperfusion (I/R) injury. Hepatic lymphatics participate in the clearance of dead tissues and contribute to the reparative process after acute hepatic injury; however, it remains unknown whether lymphangiogenesis in response to hepatic inflammation is involved in liver repair. Herein, we determin ed if hepatic lymphangiogenesis improves liver repair after hepatic I/R injury. Using a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury, we investigated hepatic lymphatic structure, growth, and function in injured murine livers. Hepatic I/R...
Source: Angiogenesis - March 11, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Semaphorin 4D cooperates with VEGF to promote angiogenesis and tumor progression
The Editors-in-Chief have retracted this article [1] following an investigation by the University of Maryland. The institution found that in Figures 1B and 1D, the cell lines are different and all published histograms show SEMA4D mRNA level whereas Excel data have two histograms showing SEMA4D expression and two histograms showing VEGF expression. In Figure 2B, the metadata for one image shows different treatment conditions than those reported in the article. The published image labelled “VEGF + VEGFR-2 shRNA” has a metadata label of S4d-plexinB1 shRNA2”. In Figure 2E, statistical significance was shown i...
Source: Angiogenesis - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

d -Peptide analogues of Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe-COOH induce neovascularization via endothelial N -formyl peptide receptor 3
In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the angiogenic activity ofd-Succ-F3 is due to the engagement and activation of FPR3 expressed by endothelial cells, thus shedding a new light on the biological function of this chemoattractant receptor. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - March 9, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Free fatty acid receptor 4 activation protects against choroidal neovascularization in mice
AbstractTo examine whether free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4) activation can protect against choroidal neovascularization (CNV), which is a common cause of blindness, and to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition, we used the mouse model of laser-induced CNV to mimic angiogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Laser-induced CNV was compared between groups treated with an FFAR4 agonist or vehicle, and between FFAR4 wild-type (Ffar4+/+) and knock out (Ffar4−/−) mice on a C57BL/6J/6N background. The ex vivo choroid-sprouting assay, including primary retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and...
Source: Angiogenesis - March 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Intranasal Efudix reduces epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
ConclusionUnilateral application of 5-FU on a nasal tampon diminished the severity and frequency of epistaxis in all HHT patients. This effect sustained up to three  months post-treatment, despite the fact that the contralateral side remained untreated. Subsequently, hemoglobin levels increased. Intranasal 5-FU is a promising entity for further research on epistaxis treatment in HHT patients. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - February 28, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

TMEM100 is a key factor for specification of lymphatic endothelial progenitors
ConclusionTMEM100 plays an important role in the specification of LECs in the cardinal veins, at least in part, by regulating the NOTCH signaling. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - February 28, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: The Semaphorin 4D-Plexin-B1-RhoA signaling axis recruits pericytes and regulates vascular permeability through endothelial production of PDGF-B and ANGPTL4
The Editors-in-Chief have retracted this article [1] following an investigation by the University of Maryland. The institution found that in Figure 1C, the graph showing PDGF-B does not match the original data for the 24-hour time point. The graph shows the value to be over 1000 pg/ml, but the original data have a value of 106.626. In Figure 1F, the data were entered manually to create the standard deviation bars. The data manually entered do not match the original data. When the standard deviations for the original data were calculated, the p values were no longer significant using a paired student t test. In Figure 2C, t...
Source: Angiogenesis - February 26, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Rho-mediated activation of PI(4)P5K and lipid second messengers is necessary for promotion of angiogenesis by Semaphorin 4D
Figure 3c of this article originally contained standard deviation values which had not been calculated correctly. A single standard deviation value was used for all 5 time points for each condition. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - February 25, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Decylubiquinone suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis via the ROS/p53/ BAI1 signaling pathway
In this study, we identify decylubiquinone (DUb), a coenzyme Q10 analog, as a promising anti-breast cancer agent through suppressing tumor-induced angiogenesis. We screened a library comprising FDA-approved drugs and found that DUb significantly inhibits blood vessel formation using in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and yolk sac membrane (YSM) models. DUb was further identified to inhibit angiogenesis in the rat aortic ring and Matrigel plug assay. Moreover, DUb was found to suppress breast cancer growth and metastasis in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse and human xenograft tumor models. To explore whether ...
Source: Angiogenesis - February 4, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Matrix deformations around angiogenic sprouts correlate to sprout dynamics and suggest pulling activity
AbstractAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature. It is essential for normal tissue growth and regeneration, and also plays a key role in many diseases [Carmeliet in Nat Med 9:653 –660, 2003]. Cytoskeletal components have been shown to be important for angiogenic sprout initiation and maintenance [Kniazeva and Putnam in Am J Physiol 297:C179–C187, 2009] as well as endothelial cell shape control during invasion [Elliott et al. in Nat Cell Biol 17:137–147, 2015]. The exac t nature of cytoskeleton-mediated forces for sprout initiation and progression, however, rema...
Source: Angiogenesis - January 29, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Positive and negative feedback mechanisms controlling tip/stalk cell identity during sprouting angiogenesis
AbstractVascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A/VEGF) interaction with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is key for sprouting angiogenesis in health and disease. VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling promotes endothelial proliferation and migration, as well as the hierarchical organization into leader (tip) and follower (stalk) cells via a dynamic interplay with Notch. Recent studies reveal novel molecular mechanisms to fine-tune VEGF/Notch signaling and tip/stalk cell function during sprouting angiogenesis. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - January 28, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Age-related structural alterations of skeletal muscles and associated capillaries
AbstractAging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle mass, strength, and quality. We have previously demonstrated the important role of the blood vasculature system in ultraviolet (UV) light-induced changes in skin and its molecular mechanisms. Whereas recent findings revealed structural alterations of the cutaneous vasculature in aged and photoaged human skin, structural changes of blood vessels in skeletal muscles with age have remained unclear. Although, facial skeletal muscles could be involved in skin-aging, here, we show —for the first time—that, in the lateral great muscle, the cross-sectiona...
Source: Angiogenesis - January 28, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Targeting endothelial thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) protects from metabolic disorder-related impairment of vascular function and post-ischemic revascularisation
ConclusionCollectively, these results show that targeting endothelial TXNIP in metabolic disorders is essential to maintaining endothelial function, vascular function and improving ischemia-induced revascularisation, making TXNIP a potential therapeutic target for therapy of vascular complications related to metabolic disorders. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - January 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Continuous endoglin (CD105) overexpression disrupts angiogenesis and facilitates tumor cell metastasis
AbstractEndoglin (CD105) is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TFG- β superfamily. Whereas it has been demonstrated that the deficiency of endoglin leads to minor and defective angiogenesis, little is known about the effect of its increased expression, characteristic of several types of cancer. Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, so high levels of proangiog enic molecules, such as endoglin, are supposed to be related to greater tumor growth leading to a poor cancer prognosis. However, we demonstrate here that endoglin overexpression do not stimulate sprouting or vascularization in several in vitro and in...
Source: Angiogenesis - January 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Impaired vascular endothelial growth factor expression and secretion during in vitro differentiation of human primary term cytotrophoblasts
AbstractVascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the main growth factors involved in placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, but its placental expression is still ambiguous. During in vitro cultures of primary term cytotrophoblasts, VEGF could not be detected in the supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). One hypothesis is that VEGF is immediately and completely bound to its soluble receptor after secretion, and cannot be recognized by the antibodies used in the commercial ELISA kits. We decided to verify this hypothesis by measuring VEGF-A expression during in vitro cultures of primar...
Source: Angiogenesis - January 1, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Vessel co-option and resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy
AbstractVessel co-option is a non-angiogenic mechanism of tumour vascularisation in which cancer cells utilise pre-existing blood vessels instead of inducing new blood vessel formation. Vessel co-option has been observed across a range of different tumour types, in both primary cancers and metastatic disease. Importantly, vessel co-option is now implicated as a major mechanism that mediates resistance to conventional anti-angiogenic drugs and this may help to explain the limited efficacy of this therapeutic approach in certain clinical settings. This includes the use of anti-angiogenic drugs to treat advanced-stage/metasta...
Source: Angiogenesis - December 21, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of VEGFs in metabolic disorders
AbstractObesity and metabolic disorders are important public health problems. In this review, the role of vasculature network and VEGF in the adipose tissue maintenance and supplementation is discussed. Angiogenesis is a key process implicated in regulation of tissues homeostasis. Dysregulation of new blood vessels formation may be crucial and contribute to the onset of several pathological conditions, including metabolic syndrome-associated disorders. Adipose tissue homeostasis is fine regulated by vascular network. Vessels support adipose structure. Vasculature modulates the balance between positive and negative regulato...
Source: Angiogenesis - December 18, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

BMP10-mediated ALK1 signaling is continuously required for vascular development and maintenance
AbstractHereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular disorder characterized by development of high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that can lead to stroke or high-output heart failure. HHT2 is caused by heterozygous mutations inACVRL1, which encodes an endothelial cell bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor, ALK1. BMP9 and BMP10 are established ALK1 ligands. However, the unique and overlapping roles of these ligands remain poorly understood. To define the physiologically relevant ALK1 ligand(s) required for vascular development and maintenance, we generated zebrafish harboring mu...
Source: Angiogenesis - December 11, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Introduction to special issue: vascular co-option in cancer
(Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - December 4, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of CEC count in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients treated with bevacizumab and chemotherapy: a prospective validation study (UCBG COMET)
We report the results obtained in an independent prospective validation cohort (COMET study, NCT01745757).MethodsThe main baseline criteria were HER2-negative mBC, performance status 0 –2 and no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. CECs were detected by CellSearch® from 4 ml of blood at baseline and after 4 weeks of weekly paclitaxel and bevacizumab therapy. CEC counts (considered both as a continuous variable and using the previously described 20 CEC/4 ml cutoff) were associated with clinical characteristics and progression-free survival (PFS).ResultsCEC count was obtained in 251 patients at...
Source: Angiogenesis - November 26, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The potassium channel Kcne3 is a VEGFA-inducible gene selectively expressed by vascular endothelial tip cells
AbstractAngiogenesis is largely driven by motile endothelial tip-cells capable of invading avascular tissue domains and enabling new vessel formation. Highly responsive to Vascular Endothelial Growth-Factor-A (VEGFA), endothelial tip-cells also suppress angiogenic sprouting in adjacent stalk cells, and thus have been a primary therapeutic focus in addressing neovascular pathologies. Surprisingly, however, there remains a paucity of specific endothelial tip-cell markers. Here, we employ transcriptional profiling and alacZ reporter allele to identifyKcne3 as an early and selective endothelial tip-cell marker in multiple angi...
Source: Angiogenesis - November 21, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Angiotropism, pericytic mimicry and extravascular migratory metastasis: an embryogenesis-derived program of tumor spread
AbstractIntravascular dissemination of tumor cells is the accepted mechanism of cancer metastasis. However, the phenomenon of angiotropism, pericyte mimicry (PM), and extravascular migratory metastasis (EVMM) has questioned the concept that tumor cells metastasize exclusively via circulation within vascular channels. This new paradigm of cancer spread and metastasis suggests that metastatic cells employ embryonic mechanisms for attachment to the abluminal surfaces of blood vessels (angiotropism) and spread via continuous migration, competing with and replacing pericytes, i.e., pericyte mimicry (PM). This is an entirely ext...
Source: Angiogenesis - November 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Reconciling the distinct roles of angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors in the placenta and maternal circulation of normal and pathological pregnancies
AbstractA branched vascular network is crucial to placental development and is dependent on factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) to regulate blood vessel growth. Imbalances in these factors can lead to aberrant placental vascular development. Throughout pregnancy, these factors are also released into the maternal circulation to aid in adapting the maternal cardiovascular system to pregnancy. Increased secretion of anti-angiogenic factors can lead to th...
Source: Angiogenesis - November 9, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Vascular co-option in brain metastasis
AbstractVascular co-option by brain metastasis-initiating cells has been demonstrated as a critical step in organ colonization. The physical interaction between the cancer cell and the endothelial cell is mediated by integrins and L1CAM and could be involved in aggressive growth but also latency and immune evasion. The key involvement of vascular co-option in brain metastasis has created an emerging field that aims to identify critical targets as well as effective inhibitors with the goal of preventing brain metastases. (Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - November 7, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

13th International HHT Scientific Conference
(Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - November 6, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Vessel co-option in glioblastoma: emerging insights and opportunities
AbstractVessel co-option is the movement of cancer cells towards and along the pre-existing vasculature and is an alternative to angiogenesis to gain access to nutrients. Vessel co-option has been shown as a strategy employed by some glioblastoma (GBM) cells to invade further into the brain, leading to one of the greatest challenges in treating GBM. In GBM, vessel co-option may be an intrinsic feature or an acquired mechanism of resistance to anti-angiogenic treatment. Here, we describe the histological features and the dynamics visualized through intravital microscopy  of vessel co-option in GBM, as well as the ...
Source: Angiogenesis - November 2, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Oxygen sensing decoded: a Nobel concept in biology
AbstractOxygen is essential to most organisms as it is a necessity for aerobic metabolism and energy production. Too much or too little oxygen can be deadly, such that mechanisms for fast and titrated response to changing oxygen levels are crucial. These mechanisms have evolved from the studies ofGregg L. Semenza, William G. Kaelin andPeter J. Ratcliffe. It is through the work of their three laboratories, performed in the 1990s, that the cellular oxygen sensing mechanisms have been decoded. Their discoveries have had major impact for innovation in medicine, especially in the field of angiogenesis research, where oxygen sen...
Source: Angiogenesis - October 31, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived WNT2 increases tumor angiogenesis in colon cancer
AbstractWNT2 acts as a pro-angiogenic factor in placental vascularization and increases angiogenesis in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (ECs) and other ECs. Increased WNT2 expression is detectable in many carcinomas and participates in tumor progression. In human colorectal cancer (CRC), WNT2 is selectively elevated in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), leading to increased invasion and metastasis. However, if there is a role for WNT2 in colon cancer, angiogenesis was not addressed so far. We demonstrate that WNT2 enhances EC migration/invasion, while it induces canonical WNT signaling in a small subset of cells. Kno...
Source: Angiogenesis - October 30, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Pathological features of vessel co-option versus sprouting angiogenesis
AbstractCancer cells can use existing blood vessels to acquire a vasculature. This process is termed ‘vessel co-option’. Vessel co-option is an alternative to the growth of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, and is adopted by a wide range of human tumour types growing within numerous tissues. A complementary aspect of this process is extravascular migratory tumour spread using the co-opted blo od vessels as a trail. Vessel co-opting tumours can be discriminated from angiogenic tumours by specific morphological features. These features give rise to distinct histopathological growth patterns that reflect the int...
Source: Angiogenesis - October 26, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of melatonin in controlling angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions
AbstractAngiogenesis depends on proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules that regulate endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Well-regulated angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in many physiological conditions such as reproduction and embryonic development, while abnormal angiogenesis is also the basis of a variety of pathological processes including tumor metastasis and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Melatonin has a variety of biological effects, including inhibition of tumor metastasis, stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques, and the regulation of seasonal reproductive rhythms, etc. During certain pathophysiologi...
Source: Angiogenesis - October 24, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Models and molecular mechanisms of blood vessel co-option by cancer cells
AbstractCancer cells have diverse mechanisms for utilizing the vasculature; they can initiate the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones (sprouting angiogenesis) or they can form cohesive interactions with the abluminal surface of preexisting vasculature in the absence of sprouting (co-option). The later process has received renewed attention due to the suggested role of blood vessel co-option in resistance to antiangiogenic therapies and the reported perivascular positioning and migratory patterns of cancer cells during tumor dormancy and invasion, respectively. However, only a few molecular mechanisms have ...
Source: Angiogenesis - October 18, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The tumor vasculature an attractive CAR T cell target in solid tumors
AbstractT cells armed with a chimeric antigen receptor, CAR T cells, have shown extraordinary activity against certain B lymphocyte malignancies, when targeted towards the CD19 B cell surface marker. These results have led to the regulatory approval of two CAR T cell approaches. Translation of this result to the solid tumor setting has been problematic until now. A number of differences between liquid and solid tumors are likely to cause this discrepancy. The main ones of these are undoubtedly the uncomplicated availability of the target cell within the blood compartment and the abundant expression of the target molecule o...
Source: Angiogenesis - October 18, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Highlights of the 13th International Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Scientific conference
(Source: Angiogenesis)
Source: Angiogenesis - October 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 contributes to the regulation of the Notch-signaling pathway and sprouting angiogenesis
AbstractThe Dll4-Notch-signaling pathway regulates capillary sprouting via the specification of endothelial tip cells. While VEGF is a potent inducer of Dll4 expression, the intracellular mediators that stimulate its expression remain poorly defined. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 is required for angiogenesis in normal or pathological contexts through its modulation of VEGF signaling. Here, we show that in DEP-1 KO mice, retinas at post-natal day 5 show enlarged blood vessels, as well as an increased number of tip cells and vessel branching points at the migrating front of the vascular plexus. Consistent with...
Source: Angiogenesis - October 9, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research