Mitochondrial-derived peptides in energy metabolism.
Abstract Mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) are small bioactive peptides encoded by short open reading frames (sORF) in mitochondrial DNA that do not necessarily have traditional hallmarks of protein-coding genes. To date, eight MDPs have been identified, all of which have been shown to have various cyto- or metabolo-protective properties. The 12S ribosomal RNA (MT-RNR1) gene harbors the sequence for MOTS-c, while the other seven MDPs, [humanin and small humanin-like peptides (SHLP) 1-6] are encoded by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Here we review the evidence that endogenous MDPs are sensitive to changes in metab...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Merry TL, Chan A, Woodhead JST, Reynolds JC, Kumaga H, Kim SJ, Lee C Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Overexpression of histone deacetylase SIRT1 exerts an anti-angiogenic role in diabetic retinopathy via miR-20a elevation and YAP/HIF1 α/VEGFA depletion.
Overexpression of histone deacetylase SIRT1 exerts an anti-angiogenic role in diabetic retinopathy via miR-20a elevation and YAP/HIF1α/VEGFA depletion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Aug 10;: Authors: Pan Q, Gao Z, Zhu C, Peng Z, Song M, Li L Abstract As a basic member of the Class III histone deacetylases, SIRT1 has been implicated in the occurrence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study aimed to investigate the roles of SIRT1/miR-20a/YAP/HIF1α/VEGFA in DR. The expression of SIRT1 was initially determined through RT-qPCR and western blot analysis following th...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Pan Q, Gao Z, Zhu C, Peng Z, Song M, Li L Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Intestinal NAPE-PLD contributes to short-term regulation of food intake via gut to brain axis.
CONCLUSIONS: In response to lipid, NapepldΔIEC mice displayed reduced OEA in brain and intestine, suggesting an impairment of the gut-brain axis in this model. We speculated that decreased level of OEA likely contributes to reduce GLP-1R activation, explaining the observed hyperphagia in this model. Altogether, weelucidated novel physiological mechanism regarding the gut-brain axis by which intestinal NAPE-PLD regulates appetite rapidly after lipid exposure. PMID: 32776827 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Rastelli M, Van Hul M, Terrasi R, Lefort C, Régnier M, Beiroa D, Delzenne NM, Everard A, Nogueiras R, Luquet S, Muccioli GG, Cani PD Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Testosterone supplementation up-regulates androgen receptor expression and translational capacity during severe energy deficit.
Abstract Testosterone supplementation during energy deficit promotes whole-body lean mass accretion, but the mechanisms underlying that effect remain unclear. To elucidate those mechanisms, skeletal muscle molecular adaptations were assessed from muscle biopsies collected before (Resting), 1 h (Post) and 6 h (Recovery) after exercise and a mixed meal (40 g protein, 1 h post-exercise) following 14 days of weight maintenance (WM) and 28 days of an exercise- and diet-induced 55% energy deficit (ED) in 50 physically active, non-obese men treated with 200 mg testosterone enanthate/week (TEST) or placebo (PLA) during th...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Howard EE, Margolis LM, Berryman CE, Lieberman HR, Karl JP, Young AJ, Montano MA, Evans WJ, Rodriguez NR, Johannsen NM, Gadde KM, Harris MN, Rood JC, Pasiakos SM Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endothelial dysfunction due to selective insulin resistance in vascular endothelium: insights from mechanistic modeling.
Abstract Previously, we have used mathematical modeling to gain mechanistic insight into insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent (PI3K) insulin signaling required for metabolic actions of insulin also regulates endothelium-dependent production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Vasodilation increases blood flow that augments direct metabolic actions of insulin in skeletal muscle. This is counterbalanced by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent insulin signaling in endothelium that promotes secretion of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1). In the present study, ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Muniyappa R, Chen H, Montagnani M, Sherman A, Quon MJ Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

May phytotherapy with polyphenols serve as a powerful approach for the prevention and therapy tool of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19)?
MAY PHYTOTHERAPY WITH POLYPHENOLS SERVE AS A POWERFUL APPROACH FOR THE PREVENTION AND THERAPY TOOL OF NOVEL CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19)? Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Aug 05;: Authors: Levy E, Delvin E, Marcil V, Spahis S Abstract Much more serious than the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks, the novel SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread speedily, affecting 213 countries and causing ~17,300,000 million cases and ~672,000 (~+1500/day) deaths globally (as of July 31th, 2020). The potentially fatal COVID-19, caused by air droplets and airborne as the m...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Levy E, Delvin E, Marcil V, Spahis S Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Neurodegeneration in juvenile Iberian pigs with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
In conclusion, our results show evidence of neurodegeneration in FC of juvenile Iberian pigs, and establish a novel pediatric model to investigate the role of gut-liver-brain axis in diet-induced NAFLD. PMID: 32744096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Zeltser N, Meyer I, Hernandez GV, Trahan MJ, Fanter RK, Ismail MA, Glanz H, Strand CR, Burrin DG, La Frano MR, Manjarin R, Maj M Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hyperphosphorylation of fetal liver IGFBP-1 precedes slowing of fetal growth in nutrient restricted baboons and may be a mechanism underlying IUGR.
Abstract In cultured fetal liver cells, IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to hypoxia and amino acid deprivation is mediated by inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and activation of amino acid response (AAR) signalling and casein kinase CK2. We hypothesized that fetal liver mTOR inhibition, activation of AAR and CK2, and IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation occur prior to development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Pregnant baboons were fed a Control (C) or a Maternal Nutrient Restriction (MNR; 70% calories of Control) diet starting at gestational day (GD) 30 (Term GD185). Umbilical blood...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Kakadia JH, Jain BB, Biggar KK, Sutherland A, Nygard K, Li C, Nathanielsz PW, Jansson T, Gupta MB Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Role for endocannabinoids in early pregnancy: Recent advances and the effects of cannabis use.
Abstract The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is associated with several physiological processes including reproduction. This system consists of the cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoid ligands and enzymes which metabolize and degrade these fatty acids. Recent evidence shows that cannabinoid receptors are expressed in cells of the reproductive system including endometrial stromal cells, ovaries, and sperm cells. Emerging and recent research suggests that the ECS may play a significant role in reproduction. The endocannabinoid ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol are crucial for successful endometrium decid...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Ezechukwu HC, Diya CA, Shrestha N, Hryciw DH Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise training regulates serum extracellular vesicle miRNAs linked to obesity to promote their beneficial effects in mice.
es AC Abstract There is growing body of evidence that extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their cargo of RNA, DNA, and protein are released into the circulation with exercise and might mediate inter-organ communication. C57BL6/J male mice were diet-induced obesity and subjected to aerobic training on a treadmill for 8 weeks. The effect of aerobic training was evaluated in the liver, muscle, kidney and white/brown adipose tissue. In order to provide new mechanistic insight, we profiled miRNA from serum EVs of obese and obese trained mice. We demonstrate that aerobic training changes circulating EVs miRNA profile of ob...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: de Mendonça M, Rocha KC, de Sousa E, Pereira BMV, Oyama LM, Rodrigues AC Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor mediates the beneficial effect of Liraglutide in an acute lung injury mouse model involving the thioredoxin interacting protein.
Abstract Repurposing clinically used drugs is among important strategies in drug discovery. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its based diabetes drugs such as Liraglutide possess a spectrum of extra-pancreatic functions, while GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is most abundantly expressed in the lung. Recent studies have suggested that GLP-1-based drugs exert beneficial effects in chronic as well as acute lung injury rodent models. We show here that Liraglutide pretreatment reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury in mice. It significantly reduced lung injury score, wet/dry lung weight ratio, bronchoalve...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Zhou W, Shao W, Zhang Y, Liu D, Liu M, Jin T Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Sex-derived attributes contributing to SARS-CoV-2 mortality.
Abstract Epidemiological data in COVID-19 mortality indicate that men are more prone to die of SARS-CoV2 infection than women, but biologic causes for this sexual dimorphism are unknown. We discuss the prospective behavioral and biological differences between the sexes that could be attributed to this gender-based differentiation. The female sex hormones and the immune stimulatory genes including toll-like receptors, interleukins, micro-RNAs present on X-chromosome may impart lesser infectivity and mortality of the SARS-CoV-2 in females over males. The sex hormone estrogen interacts with the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldo...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Chanana N, Palmo T, Sharma K, Kumar R, Graham BB, Pasha Q Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Inotropic and lusitropic, but not arrhythmogenic, effects of adipocytokine resistin on human atrial myocardium.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The adipocytokine resistin is released from epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). Plasma resistin and EAT deposition are independently associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). The EAT secretome enhances arrhythmia susceptibility and inotropy of human myocardium. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of resistin on the function of human myocardium and how resistin contributes to the pro-arrhythmic effect of EAT. METHODS & RESULTS: EAT biopsies were obtained from 25 cardiac surgery patients. Resistin levels were measured by ELISA in 24-hour EAT culture media (n=8). The secretome resis...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Aitken-Buck HM, Babakr AA, Fomison-Nurse IC, van Hout I, Davis PJ, Bunton RW, Williams MJ, Coffey S, Jones PP, Lamberts RR Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The controversial role of IL-6 in adipose tissue on obesity-induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism.
Abstract Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleotropic cytokine with various physiological and pathophysiological functions in different cells and tissues. In cells residing within white adipose tissue, several and sometimes conflicting IL-6 actions have been described in the development of obesity-associated derangements of glucose metabolism. Herein, we aim to summarize opposing findings and discuss recent evidence that IL-6 signaling in adipose tissue is regulated in a depot and cell specific manner. PMID: 32715746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Wueest S, Konrad D Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat as Mediators of the Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Plasma Glucose/Insulin Homeostasis.
Després JP Abstract Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is positively associated with insulin sensitivity, whereas excessive levels of visceral adipose tissue (AT) and liver fat (LF) are both associated with insulin resistance and impaired plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. To what extent levels of visceral AT and LF content contribute to the relationship between CRF and indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis is uncertain. Our objective was to explore the interactions between CRF, visceral AT and LF with glucose tolerance/insulin levels in asymptomatic and apparently healthy individuals. CRF was measure...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Chartrand D, Larose E, Poirier P, Mathieu P, Alméras N, Pibarot P, Lamarche B, Rhéaume C, Després JP Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Adipose depot-specific upregulation of Ucp1 or mitochondrial oxidative complex proteins are early consequences of genetic insulin reduction in mice.
JD Abstract Hyperinsulinemia plays a causal role in adipose expansion. Mice with reduced insulin have increased energy expenditure, but the mechanisms remained unclear. We investigated the effects of genetically reducing insulin production on uncoupling and oxidative mitochondrial proteins in liver, skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue (WAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Male Ins1+/+ or Ins1+/- littermates were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks, starting at 8 weeks of age. Replicating our previous observations, HFD increased fasting hyperinsulinemia, and Ins1+/- mice had sig...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Botezelli JD, Overby P, Lindo L, Wang S, Haïda O, Lim GE, Templeman NM, Pauli JR, Johnson JD Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

No effect of the endurance training status on senescence despite reduced inflammation in skeletal muscle of older individuals.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine if the training status decreases inflammation, slows down senescence and preserves telomeres health in skeletal muscle in older compared to younger subjects, with a specific focus on satellite cells. Analyses were conducted on skeletal muscle and cultured satellite cells from vastus lateralis biopsies (n=34) of male volunteers divided into four groups: young sedentary (YS), young trained cyclists (YT), old sedentary (OS) and old trained cyclists (OT). The senescence state and inflammatory profile were evaluated by telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF) quanti...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Balan E, De Groote E, Bouillon M, Viceconte N, Mahieu M, Naslain D, Nielens H, Decottignies A, Deldicque L Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Coupling of energy intake and energy expenditure across a temperature spectrum: impact of diet-induced obesity in mice.
Conclusions: (1) systems controlling Ta-dependent acute EI/EE coupling remained intact in obese mice, and (2) Rapid coupling of EI/EE at cooler temperatures is an important adaptation to maintain energy stores and defend body temperature, but less critical at thermoneutrality. A post hoc analysis using digestible EI plus IC-calculated EE suggests that standard IC assumptions for EE calculation require further validation in the setting of DIO. The experimental paradigm provides a platform to query the hypothalamic, somatosensory, and sympathetic mechanisms that drive Ta-associated EI/EE coupling. PMID: 32691631 [PubMed...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Ono-Moore KD, Rutkowsky JM, Pearson NA, Williams DK, Grobe JL, Tolentino T, Lloyd KCK, Adams SH Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hydroxysteroid (17 β) dehydrogenase 12 is essential for the metabolic homeostasis in adult mice.
HYDROXYSTEROID (17β) DEHYDROGENASE 12 IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE METABOLIC HOMEOSTASIS IN ADULT MICE. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Jul 21;: Authors: Heikelä H, Ruohonen ST, Adam M, Viitanen R, Liljenbäck H, Eskola O, Gabriel M, Mairinoja L, Pessia A, Velagapudi V, Roivainen A, Zhang FP, Strauss L, Poutanen M Abstract Hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 12 (HSD17B12) is suggested to be involved in the elongation of very long chain fatty acids. Previously, we have shown a pivotal role for the enzyme during mouse development. In the present study we generated a conditional Hsd17b12 knock...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Heikelä H, Ruohonen ST, Adam M, Viitanen R, Liljenbäck H, Eskola O, Gabriel M, Mairinoja L, Pessia A, Velagapudi V, Roivainen A, Zhang FP, Strauss L, Poutanen M Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The contribution of the mouse tail to thermoregulation is modest.
an ML Abstract Understanding mouse thermal physiology informs the usefulness of mice as models of human disease. It is widely assumed that the mouse tail contributes greatly to heat loss (as it does in rat), but this has not been quantitated. We studied C57BL/6J mice after tail amputation. Tailless mice housed at 22 °C did not differ from littermate controls in body weight, lean or fat content, or energy expenditure. With acute changes in ambient temperature from 19 to 39 °C, tailless and control mice demonstrated similar body temperatures (Tb), metabolic rates, and heat conductances and no difference in t...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Škop V, Liu N, Guo J, Gavrilova O, Reitman ML Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Nutritional and metabolic regulation of the metabolite Dimethylguanidino Valeric Acid - an early marker of cardiometabolic disease.
We report that a high sucrose diet induced conversion of ADMA exclusively into DMGV (supporting the relationship with sugary beverage intake in humans), while a high-fat diet promoted conversion of ADMA to both DMGV and citrulline. On the contrary, replacing dietary native starch with high fiber-resistant starch increased ADMA concentrations and induced its conversion to citrulline, without altering DMGV concentrations. In a cohort of obese non-diabetic adults, circulating DMGV concentrations increased and ADMA levels decreased in those with either liver or muscle insulin resistance. This was similar to changes in DMGV and...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Wali JA, Koay YC, Chami J, Wood C, Corcilius L, Payne RJ, Rodionov RN, Birkenfeld AL, Samocha-Bonet D, Simpson SJ, O'Sullivan JF Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Withdrawing from obesogenic diets: Benefits and barriers in the short- and long-term in rodent models.
Abstract There is accumulating evidence of dietary impact on several metabolic parameters. Unhealthy diets are estimated to be responsible for about twenty percent of the deaths worldwide. The recommendation is to improve the dietary pattern, aiming to prevent further harm. In this context, we reviewed the benefits and barriers of withdrawing from continuous obesogenic diet intake in the short- and long-term, which were found in rodent models. While dietary modifications demand a re-establishment of the equilibrium, withdrawing was seen as a homeostatic insult, and thus elicited several responses to protect the or...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Casagrande BP, Estadella D Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Inhibition of AMPK activity in response to insulin in adipocytes - involvement of AMPK pS485, PDEs and cellular energy levels.
nsson O Abstract Insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been shown to be associated with decreased de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis in adipose tissue. It is known that insulin can acutely stimulate FA synthesis in adipocytes, however the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. The rate-limiting step in FA synthesis is catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), known to be regulated through inhibitory phosphorylation at S79 by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Previous results from our laboratory showed an inhibition of AMPK activity by insulin, which was accompanied by PKB-depen...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Kopietz F, Rupar K, Berggreen C, Säll J, Vertommen D, Degerman E, Rider M, Göransson O Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Ovariectomy modifies lipid metabolism of retroperitoneal white fat in rats: a proteomic approach.
ro EB Abstract Menopause is often accompanied by visceral obesity. With the aim of exploring the consequences of ovarian failure on visceral fat, we evaluated the effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on the proteome/phosphoproteome and on the fatty acids profile of the retroperitoneal adipose depot (RAT) of rats. Eighteen three months old female Wistar rats were either ovariectomized or sham-operated and fed with standard chow for three months. A sub-group of ovariectomized rats received estradiol replacement. RAT samples were analyzed using data-independent acquisitions LC-MS/MS and pathway analysis wa...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Boldarine VT, Pedroso AP, Brandão-Teles C, LoTurco EG, Nascimento CMO, Oyama LM, Bueno AA, Martins-de-Souza D, Ribeiro EB Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Type 2 Diabetes: One Disease, Many Pathways.
Abstract Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease that calls for longitudinal data and analysis. We introduce a longitudinal mathematical model that is capable of representing the metabolic state of an individual at any point in time during their progression from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes (T2D) over a period of years. As an application of the model, we account for the diversity of pathways typically followed, focusing on two extreme alternatives, one that goes through impaired fasting glucose (IFG) first, and one that goes through impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) first. These two pathways are w...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Ha J, Sherman A Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Inositol polyphosphate multikinase in adipocytes is dispensable for regulating energy metabolism and whole-body metabolic homeostasis.
Abstract Adipose tissue plays a central role in regulating whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis at both organ and systemic levels. Inositol polyphosphates, such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7), reportedly control adipocyte functions and energy expenditure. However, the physiological roles of the inositol polyphosphate (IP) pathway in the adipose tissue are not yet fully defined. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), a key enzyme in the IP metabolism, plays a critical role in adipose tissue biology and obesity. We generated adip...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Lee S, Beon J, Kim MG, Kim S Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

COVID-19 and SIADH relations: impact of the positive pressure ventilation.
PMID: 32597699 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Khalangot M Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Spinophilin-deficient Mice are Protected from Diet-induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance.
Abstract Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been shown to reduce obesity and obesity-related complications suggesting that factors that promote WAT browning may have applications in the development of therapeutic strategies for treating obesity. Here, we show that ablation of spinophilin (SPL), a ubiquitously expressed, multidomain scaffolding protein, increases metabolism and improves energy balance. Male and female SPL knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) littermate controls were fed a Chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD). Body weight, hepatic steatosis, glucose and insulin tolerance, physical activity and exp...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Zhang Y, Song L, Dong H, Kim DS, Sun Z, Boger H, Wang Q, Wang H Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Impact of human visceral and glutealfemoral adipose tissue transplant on glycemic control in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.
Abstract Regional distribution of adipose tissue is an important factor in conferring cardiometabolic risk and obesity-related morbidity. We tested thehypothesis that human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) impairs glucose homeostasis, whereas subcutaneous glutealfemoral adipose tissue (GFAT)protects against the development of impaired glucose homeostasis in mice.VAT and GFAT were collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery and grafted onto the epididymal adipose tissue of weight and age-matched severe combined immunodeficient mice. SHAM mice underwent surgery without transplant of tissue. Mice were fed a hig...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Tsiloulis T, Raajendiran A, Keenan SN, Ooi G, Taylor RA, Burton P, Watt MJ Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Deficiency of bone morphogenetic protein-3b induces metabolic syndrome and increases adipogenesis.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether Bmp3b, a glycoprotein synthetized and secreted by adipose tissue, is necessary to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, adipogenesis and cardiovascular remodeling. Over the course of 4 months, Bmp3b knock-out (Bmp3b-/-) mice gained more weight than WT mice. The plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in Bmp3b-/- mice than in WT mice. Bmp3b-/- mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The basal heart rate was higher in Bmp3b-/- mice than in WT mice and echocardiography revealed eccentric remodeling in Bmp3b-/- mice. The expression of...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Martí-Pàmies I, Thoonen R, Seale P, Vite A, Caplan A, Tamez J, Graves L, Han W, Buys ES, Bloch DB, Scherrer-Crosbie M Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Frequent and mild scrotal heat stress in mice epigenetically alters glucose metabolism in the male offspring.
Abstract Several studies have reported that health problems occur in assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived offspring. Recently, investigations have demonstrated that paternal environmental conditions influence offspring health. However, it is unclear whether the factors that cause male infertility per se affect offspring health and contribute to health problems in ART-born children. Scrotal heat stress represents a common cause for oligoasthenozoospermia, and in these cases, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is typically recommended for those individuals trying to conceive. We exposed C57B...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Wan X, He X, Liu Q, Wang XT, Ding X, Li H Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the intercellular communication for exercise-induced adaptations.
Abstract Complex organisms rely heavily on intercellular communication. The rapidly expanding field of extracellular vesicle biology has made it clear that the necessary intercellular communication occurs partly through their paracrine and endocrine actions. Extracellular vesicles are nanoscale lipid membranes (30-2000 nm in diameter) that shuttle functional biological material between cells. They are released from numerous tissues and are isolated from nearly all biofluids and cell cultures. Although their biogenesis, cell targeting and functional roles are incompletely understood, they appear to have crucial rol...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Denham J, Spencer SJ Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Maternal and Neonatal Response to COVID-19.
Abstract The risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to maternal and newborn health has yet to be determined. Several reports suggest pregnancy does not typically increase the severity of disease, however, several cases of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth have been reported. Reports of placental infection and vertical transmission are rare. Interestingly, despite lack of SARS-CoV-2 placenta productive infection there are several reports of significant abnormalities in placenta morphology. Continued research on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 and their offspri...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 23, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Golden TN, Simmons RA Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

NUPR1 preserves insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells during inflammatory stress by multiple low dose streptozotocin and high fat diet.
NUPR1 preserves insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells during inflammatory stress by multiple low dose streptozotocin and high fat diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Jun 23;: Authors: Päth G, Mehana AE, Pilz IH, Alt M, Baumann J, Sommerer I, Hoffmeister A, Seufert J Abstract Obesity is associated with dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation that promotes metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The nuclear protein, transcriptional regulator 1 (NUPR1) responds to cellular stresses and features tissue protective properties. To charac...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 23, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Päth G, Mehana AE, Pilz IH, Alt M, Baumann J, Sommerer I, Hoffmeister A, Seufert J Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Sugar causes obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice independently of sweet taste.
Abstract Intake of sugars and especially the fructose component, is strongly associated with the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but the relative role of taste versus metabolism in driving preference, intake and metabolic outcome is not fully understood. To this end, we aimed to evaluate the preference for sweet substances and the tendency to develop metabolic syndrome in response to these sugars in mice lacking functional taste signaling (P2X2/P2X3 double knockout mice) and mice unable to metabolize fructose (fructokinase knockout mice). Our data indicate that despite their inability to taste sweet...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 23, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Andres-Hernando A, Kuwabara M, Orlicky DJ, Vandenbeuch A, Cicerchi C, Kinnamon SC, Finger TE, Johnson RJ, Lanaspa MA Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Cholesterol: A new game player accelerating endothelial injuries caused by SARS-CoV-2?
Abstract The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global threat to public health. Functional impairments in multiple organs have been reported in COVID-19 including lungs, heart, kidney, liver, brain and vascular system. Patients with metabolic-associated preconditions such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes are susceptible to experience severe symptoms. The recent emerging evidence of coagulation disorders in COVID-19 suggests that vasculopathy appears to be an independent risk factor promoting disease severity and mortality of affected patients. We have recently found that the decrease...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Cao X, Yin R, Albrecht H, Fan D, Tan W Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Reply to Jakovac; Severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with phenylketonuria: is vitamin D status protective?
PMID: 32479158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Rocha JC, Calhau C, MacDonald A Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Related molecular mechanisms of COVID-19, hypertension, and diabetes.
PMID: 32479159 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Akkus E, Sahin M Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 perturbs the Renin-Angiotensin System and energy metabolism.
This article discusses the potential mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 modulates the RAS and energy metabolism in individuals with obesity and diabetes mellitus. The article aims to highlight the appropriate strategies for combating the COVID-19 pandemic in the clinical setting and emphasize on the areas that require further investigation in relation to COVID-19 infections in patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus, from the viewpoint of endocrinology and metabolism. PMID: 32469255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Mori J, Oudit GY, Lopaschuk GD Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Local myostatin inhibition improves skeletal muscle glucose uptake in insulin resistant high fat diet-fed mice.
Abstract Myostatin inhibition is thought to improve whole body insulin sensitivity and mitigate the development of insulin resistance in models of obesity. However, although myostatin is known to be a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass, the direct effects of myostatin inhibition in muscle on glucose uptake and the mechanisms which may underlie this are still unclear. We investigated the effect of local myostatin inhibition by adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of the myostatin pro-peptide on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose disposal in chow-fed or high fat diet-fed mice and evaluated the...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Eilers W, Chambers D, Cleasby M, Foster K Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity and COVID-19: Immune and metabolic derangement as a possible link to adverse clinical outcomes.
Abstract Recent reports have shown a strong association between obesity and the severity of COVID-19 infection, even in the absence of other co-morbidities. After infecting the host cells, SARS-CoV-2 may cause a hyper-inflammatory reaction through the excessive release of cytokines, a condition known as "cytokine storm", while inducing lymphopenia and a disrupted immune response. Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and immune dysregulation, but the exact mechanisms through which it exacerbates COVID-19 infection are not fully clarified. The production of increased amounts of cytokin...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Korakas E, Ikonomidis I, Kousathana F, Balampanis K, Kountouri A, Raptis A, Palaiodimou L, Kokkinos A, Lambadiari V Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) knockout potentiates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.
Abstract Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are implicated in muscle inflammation/cell stress and insulin resistance, but the catalog of factors involved is incomplete. SFA derivatives that accumulate with mismatched FA availability and FA oxidation (FAO) are likely involved, and evidence has emerged that select acylcarnitines should be considered. To understand if excessive long-chain acylcarnitine accumulation and limited FAO associate with lipotoxicity, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 knockout C2C12 cells were generated (CPT2 KO). CPT2 KO was confirmed by Western blot, increased palmitoylcarnitine accumulation and l...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Blackburn ML, Ono-Moore K, Sobhi HF, Adams SH Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Differential changes to splanchnic and peripheral protein metabolism during the diet-induced development of metabolic syndrome in rats.
In conclusion, MS development is associated with a greater gain of both fat and protein masses, with higher protein anabolism that mainly occurs in the liver while muscles probably develop anabolic resistance due to insulin resistance. PMID: 32459526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Mantha OL, Huneau JF, Mathe V, Hermier D, Khodorova N, Mariotti F, Fouillet H Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Bromocriptine Mesylate Improves Glucose Tolerance and Disposal in a High-Fat-Fed Canine Model.
Abstract Bromocriptine mesylate treatment was examined in dogs fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks on HFD, daily bromocriptine (Bromo; n=6) or vehicle (CTR; n=5) injections were administered. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed before beginning HFD (OGTT1), 4 weeks after HFD began (Bromo only), and after 7.5 weeks on HFD (OGTT3). After 8 weeks on HFD, clamp studies were performed, with infusion of somatostatin and intraportal replacement of insulin (4xbasal) and glucagon (basal). From 0-90 min (P1), glucose was infused via peripheral vein to double the hepatic glucose load (HGL); and from ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Moore MC, Smith MS, Swift LL, Cincotta AH, Ezrokhi M, Cominos N, Zhang Y, Farmer B, Cherrington AD Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Is there an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on male fertility? The ACE2 connection.
Abstract The viral pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), generated by a novel mutated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is turning into a serious worldwide public health emergency, evolving exponentially. While the main organ targeted in this diseased are the lungs, other vital organs such as the heart and kidney may be implicated. The main host receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a major component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The ACE2 is also involved in testicular male regulation of steroidogenesis, and spermatogene...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Younis JS, Abassi Z, Skorecki K Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Statins activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and impair insulin signalling via p38 and mTOR.
Abstract Statins lower cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease. Statins can increase blood glucose and risk of new onset diabetes. It is unclear why statins can have opposing effects on lipids versus glucose. Statins have cholesterol-independent pleiotropic effects that influence both insulin and glucose control. Statin lowering of isoprenoids required for protein prenylation promotes pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and adipose tissue insulin-resistance. Protein prenylation influences immune function and statin-mediated adipose tissue insulin resistance involves the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1b. However, t...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Henriksbo BD, Tamrakar AK, Phulka JS, Barra NG, Schertzer JD Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Glucagon-Dependent Suppression of mTORC1 is Associated with Upregulation of Hepatic FGF21 mRNA Translation.
Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a peptide hormone that acts to enhance insulin sensitivity and reverse many of the metabolic defects associated with consumption of a high-fat diet. Recent studies show that the liver is the primary source of FGF21 in the blood, and that hepatic FGF21 expression is upregulated by glucagon. Interestingly, glucagon acts to upregulate FGF21 production by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and H4IIE and HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells independent of changes in FGF21 mRNA abundance, suggesting that FGF21 protein expression is regulated post-transcriptionally. Based on these ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Welles JE, Dennis MD, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

CTRP12 ablation differentially affects energy expenditure, body weight, and insulin sensitivity in male and female mice.
Abstract Secreted hormones facilitate tissue crosstalk to maintain energy balance. We have previously described C1q/TNF-related protein 12 (CTRP12) as a novel metabolic hormone. Gain-of-function and partial deficiency mouse models have highlighted important roles for this fat-derived adipokine in modulating systemic metabolism. Whether CTRP12 is essential and required for metabolic homeostasis is unknown. We show here that homozygous deletion of Ctrp12 gene results in sexually dimorphic phenotypes. Under basal conditions, complete loss of CTRP12 has little impact on male mice, whereas it decreased body weight (dri...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Tan SY, Lei X, Little HC, Rodriguez S, Sarver DC, Cao X, Wong GW Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

ß-Hydroxybutyrate is Reduced in Humans with Obesity-Related NAFLD and Displays a Dose-Dependent Effect on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Vitro.
ß-Hydroxybutyrate is Reduced in Humans with Obesity-Related NAFLD and Displays a Dose-Dependent Effect on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Vitro. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 12;: Authors: Mey JT, Erickson ML, Axelrod CL, King WT, Flask CA, McCullough AJ, Kirwan JP Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Reduced hepatic ketogenesis may promote these pathologies, but data are inconclusive in humans and the link between NAFLD and exacerbated skeletal muscle insulin resistance rema...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 12, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Mey JT, Erickson ML, Axelrod CL, King WT, Flask CA, McCullough AJ, Kirwan JP Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular A7 restrains estrogen-negative feedback of luteinizing hormone via ephrin A5 in the hypothalamus of female rats.
In this study, we aimed to identify the mechanism and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis level underlying the promotion of LH secretion by EPHA7. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, in conjunction with low-dose estradiol (E2) treatment, we investigated the association between EPHA7-ephrin (EFN) A5 signaling and E2-negative feedback. Various rat models (OVX, E2-treated OVX, and abarelix-treated) were injected with the recombinant EPHA7-Fc protein through the caudal vein to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of LH secretion by EPHA7. Efna5 was observed strongly expressed in the arcuate nuc...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 12, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Li S, Zhai J, Xu B, Liu J, Chu W, Wang D, Geng X, Chen ZJ, Du Y Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research