Stop What You're Doing! —An fMRI Study on Comparisons of Neural Subprocesses of Response Inhibition in ADHD and Alcohol Use Disorder

Conclusions: Even though deficits in response inhibition are related to both ADHD and AUD, neural activation and recruited networks during response inhibition differ regarding both neuronal subprocesses and examined groups. While a replication of this study is needed in a larger sample, the results suggest that tasks have to be carefully selected when examining neural activation patterns of response inhibition either in research on various psychiatric disorders or transdiagnostic questions.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: From a genetic perspective, AUD differs substantially as a function of AAO, recurrence, mode of ascertainment and patterns of comorbidity, suggesting caution in cross-sample comparisons of AUD cohorts that differ in these features.PMID:34620257 | DOI:10.1017/S0033291721003317
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: ADHD in adults with tramadol use is common and is associated with early-onset, high dose, and long duration of tramadol use.SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to investigate the co-occurrence of ADHD and tramadol misuse among adults.PMID:34608707 | DOI:10.1111/ajad.13231
Source: American Journal on Addictions - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small and unequal sample size, our study suggests common neurobiological alterations in AUD and ADHD, supporting the hypothesis that ADHD might be a risk factor for the development of an AUD. The results highlight the importance of an early ADHD diagnosis and treatment to reduce this risk for a subsequent AUD.PMID:33690916 | DOI:10.1111/acer.14593
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur findings support the hypothesis that ADHD additionally diminishes inhibition ability in individuals with AUD. This may increase relapse risk when confronted with alcohol cues. Further, it is crucial for patients with comorbid AUD and ADHD to take into account not only reduced cognitive control over behavioral inhibition but also simultaneously heightened alcohol cue-reactivity.
Source: Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study found that HIV-infected pubertal children showed a delayed cortical maturation with atrophy. This abnormal pattern of cortical development may be the structural basis for cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children. Introduction Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related encephalopathy is one of the most serious complications of AIDS and is more common in children than in adults (1). At present, there are nearly 2 million children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world, almost all newly infected children are infected through mother-to-child transmission (2). Effec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Nicola Cellini1,2, Renee E. Shimizu3, Patrick M. Connolly3, Diana M. Armstrong4, Lexus T. Hernandez2, Anthony G. Polakiewicz3, Rolando Estrada3†, Mario Aguilar-Simon3, Michael P. Weisend4†, Sara C. Mednick2 and Stephen B. Simons3* 1Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy 2Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States 3Teledyne Scientific &Imaging, Durham, NC, United States 4Rio Grande Neurosciences, Dayton, OH, United States Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) during sleep has been shown to successfully modula...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: 3 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 623 Author(s): Claudia Hägele, Eva Friedel, Florian Schlagenhauf, Philipp Sterzer, Anne Beck, Felix Bermpohl, Meline Stoy, Dada Held-Poschardt, André Wittmann, Andreas Ströhle, Andreas Heinz Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: Limited activation patterns in ARND suggest problems in information processing along the ventral frontoparietal attention pathway. Poor integrity of the ILF, which connects the functional components of the ventral attention network, in ARND subjects may contribute to the attention deficits characteristic of the disorder.
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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