Diagnostic Classification for Human Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Based on Machine Learning From a Primate Genetic Model.

CONCLUSIONS: The identified core regions may serve as a basis for building markers for ASD and OCD diagnoses, as well as measures of symptom severity. These findings may inform future development of machine-learning models for psychiatric disorders and may improve the accuracy and speed of clinical assessments. PMID: 32539526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Antidepressants are prescribed for the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, however there is still controversy about whether they should be used in this population. This meta-review aimed to assess the effects of antidepressants for the acute treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (ADs), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), enuresis, major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. Efficacy was measured as response to treatment (either as mean overall change...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest robust but subtle differences across different age groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific intracranial volume and hippocampal differences in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness differences in the frontal cortex in adults, support previous work emphasizing structural brain differences in these disorders. PMID: 32539527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research
The advent and application of high-throughput sequencing is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular neurobiology of diverse psychiatric disorders. Whole-genome sequencing, which targets the coding regions of the genome, and whole-exome sequencing are being applied to study multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Tourette ’s disorder, among others [(1–3); https://schema.broadinstitute.org]. These studies have demonstrated a role for ultrarare, deleterious, frequently de novo variation in each disorder, and h...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Compulsivity, a transdiagnostic symptom, is observed across multiple neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Growing evidence suggests that diagnostic labels such as ASD, OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety do not have distinct etiologies and phenotypes, frequently co-existing [1]. Historically, research studies have recruited “clean” diagnostic samples which limits translational application in real-world clinical populations.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Across the landscape of mental health research and diagnosis, there is a diverse range of questionnaires and interviews available for use by clinicians and researchers to determine patient treatment plans or investigate internal and external etiologies. Although individually, these tools have each been assessed for their validity and reliability, there is little research examining the consistency between them in terms of what symptoms they assess, and how they assess those symptoms. Here, we provide an analysis of 126 different questionnaires and interviews commonly used to diagnose and screen for 10 different disorder typ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Infection by the parasite Toxoplasma, which affects about 33% of world population, is associated with an increased risk of several mental health disorders, the most strongly with schizophrenia. It is unknown whether schizophrenia is associated with this infection the most strongly, or whether this association has just been the most intensively studied for historical reasons. We used the data from 6,367 subjects tested for toxoplasmosis who took part in an internet survey to search for associations of these infections with 24 mental health disorders and evidence of otherwise impaired mental health. The typical symptom assoc...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions. The present review of the orbitofrontal sulcogyral pattern indicated that type I expression might reflect a neurodevelopmental protective marker, and type II and III expressions, as well as fewer numbers of IOS and POS, might reflect neurodevelopmental risk markers. These trait markers may be transdiagnostic among socially disabling diseases. PMID: 32028799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
ch EA Abstract The impact of externalizing comorbidity on treatment outcome was examined in 104 youth ages 7-16 (M = 11.09 years) with autism spectrum disorder and primary anxiety/obsessive compulsive disorder who completed modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety/OCD. Three comorbidity profiles were utilized for group comparisons: participants with oppositional defiant or conduct disorder with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ODD; CD; ADHD; group EXT, n = 25); those without ODD/CD and only ADHD (group ADHD, n = 46); and those without externaliz...
Source: Child Psychiatry and Human Development - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Child Psychiatry Hum Dev Source Type: research
Abstract Olfactory dysfunction is recognized in neurodevelopmental disorders and may serve as an early indicator of global dysfunction. The present meta-analysis measures olfaction effect sizes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Meta-analysis included 320 ADHD, 346 ASD, and 208 OCD individuals as compared to 910 controls. Olfactory performance deficits were small-to-moderate and heterogeneous (d =  - 0.42, 95% CI =  - 0.59 
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The FDRs, including parents, offspring, siblings, and twins, of patients with OCD have a higher risk of OCD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, MDD, ADHD, and ASD. The familial co-aggregation of OCD with OCD and other major psychiatric disorders was existent in a dose-dependent manner. Given the increased risks of psychiatric disorders, medical practitioners should closely monitor the mental health of the FDRs of patients with OCD. PMID: 31907096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
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