Scientists identify promising immunotherapy combination for pediatric brain cancer

(Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys have discovered that combining immunotherapy with a drug called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) eradicated a deadly type of pediatric brain tumor in mice. The discovery, published in Nature Neuroscience, is expected to lead to a clinical trial to test the benefits of the treatment in patients. The findings also hold implications for other cancers that do not respond to immunotherapy.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Brain metastases are the most frequent cancer-related neurological complication and are associated with a negative impact in neurocognitive function, quality of life deterioration, and poor prognosis [1].
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research
Conclusions: The infiltration of immune cells in 32 cancer types was quantified, and considerable heterogeneity was observed in the prognostic relevance of these cells in different cancer types. An ICCS model was constructed for LUAD with competent prognostic performance, which can further deepen our understanding of the TME of LUAD and can have implications for immunotherapy.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with brain tumors presenting to the emergency room with acute neurologic complications may warrant urgent investigations and emergent management. As the neuro-hospitalist will likely encounter this complex patient population, an understanding of the acute neurologic issues will have value.Recent FindingsWe discuss updated information and management regarding various acute neurologic complications among neuro-oncology patients and neurologic complications of immunotherapy.SummaryUnderstanding of the acute neurologic complications associated with central nervous system tumors and with common...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Felker J, Broniscer A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an almost universally fatal pediatric brain cancer. There has been no improvement in event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival (OS) despite immense effort through a multitude of clinical trials to find a cure. Recently, there has been a surge in the knowledge of DIPG biology, including the discovery of a recurrent H3F3A mutation in over 80% of these tumors. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the most recent approaches to diagnosis and treatment of DIPG including chemotherapy, biologics, surgical approaches, and immun...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Pediatric cancers, particularly high-risk solid tumors, urgently need effective and specific therapies. Their outlook has not appreciably improved in decades. Immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors offer much promise, but most are only approved for use in adults. Though several hundred clinical trials have tested immune-based approaches in childhood cancers, few have been guided by biomarkers or clinical-grade assays developed to predict patient response and, ultimately, to help select those most likely to benefit. There is extensive evidence in adults to show that immune profiling has substantial predictive ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Glioblastoma (WHO grade IV glioma) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Survival has remained largely static for decades, despite significant efforts to develop new effective therapies. Immunotherapy, and especially immune checkpoint inhibitors and programmed cell death (PD)-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have transformed the landscape of cancer treatment and improved patient survival in a number of different cancer types. With the exception of few select cases (e.g., patients with Lynch syndrome) the neuro-oncology community is still awaiting evidence that PD-1 blockade can lead to meaningful ...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
This study suggests that immunotherapy comprising a branched multipeptide plus PADRE, poly-ICLC, and anti-PD1 could potentially enhance the anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy in a glioblastoma mouse model.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractDiffuse glioma is the deadliest form of brain cancer, and the median survival of grade IV glioma (glioblastoma, GBM) is no more than 2  years even with maximal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which are now the standard of care for GBM. Glioma shares common characteristics with most malignant tumours, such as invasiveness, rapid progression, resistance to various therapies and inevitable recurrence, wh ile it also has its own unique features, such as high aggressiveness and immunotherapy resistance, which can be, respectively, attributed to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) a...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
(University of Zurich) It is not always possible to completely remove malignant brain tumors by surgery so that further treatment is necessary. Researchers from the University of Zurich and the UniversityHospital Zurich have now been able to describe, with unparalleled precision, the composition of the immune cells of various types of brain tumors. This will provide an important foundation for future immunotherapy approaches.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Bacteria were first detected in human tumors more than 100 years ago, but the characterization of the tumor microbiome has remained challenging because of its low biomass. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the tumor microbiome, studying 1526 tumors and their adjacent normal tissues across seven cancer types, including breast, lung, ovary, pancreas, melanoma, bone, and brain tumors. We found that each tumor type has a distinct microbiome composition and that breast cancer has a particularly rich and diverse microbiome. The intratumor bacteria are mostly intracellular and are present in both cancer and immune cells. W...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology r-articles Source Type: news
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