Pembrolizumab Treatment and Pathologic Therapeutic Evaluation for Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor-producing Bladder Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review
We report a case of the pathologically evaluated antitumor effect of pembrolizumab, a programmed death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, in G-CSF-producing bladder cancer. A 53-year-old male patient underwent 4 courses chemotherapy with a combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin before a radical cystectomy with ileal neobladder. Four months after the surgery, local recurrence was detected in the pelvis and therefore pembrolizumab was used. One week after its administration, the patient showed increased mucus in his urine. A computed tomography scan and cystoscopy revealed a fistula between the ileum and the neobladder. He subsequently underwent partial ileectomy and repair of the neobladder-ileum fistula. Pathology-diagnosed tumor response to pembrolizumab in the metastatic tumor showed predominant infiltration by lymphocytes, unlike that in the primary bladder cancer. The patient has shown complete response and no recurrence at 1 year after the beginning of treatment, and therapy is still continuing. Although many questions still remain regarding the treatment of G-CSF-producing bladder cancer, pathologic evaluation of the present case suggests that treatment with pembrolizumab may be one option for G-CSF-producing bladder cancer that has failed chemotherapy treatment, similar to non-G-CSF-producing bladder cancer.
Conclusions: Most cancers may be insensitive to social development. Internal factors, including aging, may be a key factor for the occurrence of cancer. PMID: 32462031 [PubMed - in process]
ConclusionsScreening for ADL impairments is needed for older cancer survivors as Katz ADL disability differs by cancer type, stage, and age with greater impairment with advanced age and stage.Implications for cancer survivorsInterventions to address ADL limitations should be considered for older cancer survivors.
In conclusion, FOXM1 and FANCD2 can be used as prognostic factors that are associated with high risk of recurrence and with anticancer drug resistance properties in NMIBC patients.
rdo Ribeiro Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles released by all cells and involved in intercellular communication. Importantly, EVs cargo includes nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins constantly transferred between different cell types, contributing to autocrine and paracrine signaling. In recent years, they have been shown to play vital roles, not only in normal biological functions, but also in pathological conditions, such as cancer. In the multistep process of cancer progression, EVs act at different levels, from stimulation of neoplastic transformation, proliferation, promotion of angiogenesis,...
Bladder cancer diagnosis still relies mainly on morphologic/classical pathology, which gives quickly the most important parameters needed, such as stage, grade and the presence of bad prognosticators (lymphovascular invasion, carcinoma in situ, variant histology). During the last 8 years, much progress has been made from a molecular point of view. Much new evidence has allowed us to gain deeper insight into not only the development of bladder cancer but also its complexity, and is leading us to potential new ways of treatment.
Abstract Perioperative chemotherapy has become a standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer and is recommended by national and international guidelines. The treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer evolved by the use of immune-modulating therapies like checkpoint inhibitors. Many clinical trials have been initiated which try to evaluate the role of immune checkpoint inhibition in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. These trials focus not only on monotherapy, but also on the combination of checkpoint inhibitors with classical chemotherapy or with local radiation therapy (radioimmunotherapy). In n...
Maintenance immunotherapy after successful chemotherapy for patients with advanced urothelial cancers is a new standard of care, says author.Medscape Medical News
ConclusionWe found that 1-in-11 cancer survivors developed a SPC. Given the increasing number of cancer survivors and the importance of SPC as a cause of cancer death, there is a need for increased screening for and prevention of SPC.
In conclusion, we identified that PTPN6 may be a novel prognostic biomarker in BC based on the TCGA database. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our observations and mechanisms underlying the prognostic value of PTPN6 in BC also deserve further experimental exploration. PMID: 32454905 [PubMed - in process]
An international, much-anticipated phase III clinical trial that could change standard-of-care treatment for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma will open soon, pending COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The randomized trial will be studying the effectiveness of the immunotherapy drug durvalumab (Imfinzi) when used in combination with chemotherapy drugs pemetrexed (Alimta) and cisplatin for mesothelioma. Opening dates may vary by center because of the COVID-19 pandemic that has slowed or stalled clinical trials everywhere. Durvalumab produces an antibody that helps a patient’s own immune system kill tumor cell...