Deficits in Bone Architecture and Strength in Children Living With HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy

Background: Reduced bone mineral mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry is reported in children living with HIV (CLWH), but few studies of bone microarchitecture, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, have been conducted. Here, we compare bone architecture and strength in black South African CLWH and uninfected control children by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Setting and Methods: One hundred seventy-two CLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 98 controls in the CHANGES Bone Study in Johannesburg, South Africa received pQCT scans of the radius and tibia. Measurements included trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone strength, estimated by the polar strength strain index (SSI), a validated measure of fracture risk. Results: CLWH (51% boys) and controls (63% boys) were an average of age 10.4 years. Mean ART duration for CLWH was 9.5 years, with 70.9% on an efavirenz-based, 28.5% on a lopinavir/ritonavir-based, and 1 child on an atazanavir/ritonavir-based regimen. Male CLWH had lower trabecular vBMD at the radius than controls after adjustment for age, radial length, and Tanner stage (β = −17.3, standard error = 7.2, P = 0.018). Bone strength by polar SSI was lower in CLWH than controls (778 vs. 972 mm3, P
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: OVX plus STZ induced more serious bone impairment than OVX alone, which involves the IGF-1R/β-catenin signaling axis in the pathogenesis. This may provide a potential target for treatment of postmenopausal diabetic osteoporosis. PMID: 33000666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Climacteric - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Climacteric Source Type: research
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2020; 24: 337-354 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1708823Radiologic imaging is crucial for diagnosing and monitoring rheumatic inflammatory diseases. Particularly the emerging approach of precision medicine has increased the interest in quantitative imaging. Extensive research has shown that ultrasound allows a quantification of direct signs such as bone erosions and synovial thickness. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (CT) contribute to the quantitative assessment of secondary signs such as osteoporosis or lean mass loss. Magnetic resonance ima...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Authors: Ohashi K, Ishikawa T, Hoshii A, Hokari T, Suzuki M, Noguchi H, Hirosawa H, Koyama F, Kobayashi M, Hirosawa S, Sugiyama K, Mitobe Y, Yoshida T Abstract L-carnitine administration was reported to improve sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis. However, the amount of evidence from previous studies is not sufficient. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of levocarnitine (L-carnitine) administration on body composition in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). In the present study, 85 patients with L-carnitine administration and 87 control patients were enrolled and divided them into two groups, the...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Purpose Disruption of the skeletal muscle molecular clock leads to metabolic disease, whereas exercise may be restorative, leading to improvements in metabolic health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-wk exercise intervention on skeletal muscle molecular clock machinery in adults with obesity and prediabetes, and determine whether these changes were related to exercise-induced improvements in metabolic health. Methods Twenty-six adults (age, 66 ± 4.5 yr; body mass index (BMI), 34 ± 3.4 kg·m−2; fasting plasma glucose, 105 ± 15 mg·dL−1) particip...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research
Conditions:   Adynamic Bone Disease;   Chronic Kidney Diseases;   Cardiac Disease;   Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder Interventions:   Drug: Teriparatide;   Diagnostic Test: Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), X-ray, High-Resolution peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (HR-pQCT), 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/CT (18-F NAF PET/CT);   Procedure: Bone biopsy;   Diagnostic Test: Cardiac tests;   Other: Blood samples and physical exami...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Purpose of review Sarcopenia is a progressive generalized decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function. This condition is highly prevalent in critically ill patients and is associated with poor outcomes in the ICU. In this review, we describe the use, evidence, and limitations of the most common validated imaging studies used to assess muscle mass in ICU, and we provide an overview of the benefits of using the sarcopenia index [(serum creatinine/serum cystatin C) × 100]) in the ICU. Recent findings Currently, the determination of muscle mass using anthropometric measurements and serum biomarkers i...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research
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Source: Neurosurgical Focus - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
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Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
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